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author:("Hao, jindong")
1.  The Epidemiology and Injury Patterns of Acetabular Fractures: Are the USA and China Comparable? 
Acetabular fractures are rare injuries in heterogeneous patient groups, making it difficult to develop adequately powered prospective single-center clinical trials in the USA or Europe. Chinese trauma centers treat a high volume of these injuries, and if the patient population and injury patterns are comparable to those in the USA, this might support development of multicenter studies in Level I trauma centers in the two countries.
We determined whether the following parameters were similar between operative acetabular fractures treated at Chinese and US trauma centers: (1) epidemiology of injured patients, (2) mechanism of injuries and fracture types, and (3) hospital stay parameters, including symptomatic postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) rate.
We extracted data from trauma databases for patients admitted with acetabular fractures managed surgically from 2005 to 2012 for one Chinese center and from 2008 to 2012 for one US center. Sex, age, mechanism of injury, fracture classification, Injury Severity Score (ISS), time from injury to surgery, length of hospital stay, and symptomatic DVT rate were analyzed. We included 661 Chinese patients (539 men, 122 women) and 212 US patients (163 men, 49 women).
Mean age at time of injury was different between China and the USA, at 40 years with a unimodal distribution and 44 years with a bimodal distribution (p < 0.001), respectively. Incidence of surgically treated acetabular fractures has been increasing in China but decreasing in the USA. Mean ISSs were comparable. Although the distribution of mechanisms of injury was different (p = 0.004), high-energy injuries (motor vehicle accidents, falls > 10 feet) still accounted for most fractures in both centers. Fracture classifications (per Letournel) were comparable, with posterior wall fractures most common. Mean time from injury to surgery and mean hospital stay were longer in China than in the USA (9 versus 3 days [p < 0.001] and 26 versus 11 days [p < 0.001], respectively). Symptomatic DVT rates were comparable.
Although we identified differences between the two centers, we also noted important similarities. Multicenter clinical studies involving these locations should be performed with caution and focus on similar end points, taking into account the populations’ baseline differences. Because of the potential for such differences, this kind of validation study should be performed before embarking on resource-intensive multicenter trials.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC4182390  PMID: 24442842
2.  Osteoporosis and the orthopaedic surgeon: basic concepts for successful co-management of patients’ bone health 
International Orthopaedics  2014;38(8):1731-1738.
Osteoporosis has been recognised as a public health concern for at least three decades but it has been relatively recent that the push has been for orthopaedic surgeons to take a more active role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Most often these patients are encountered after they have suffered a fracture making secondary prevention the area where orthopaedists may exert the greatest influence on patient care. The purpose of this article is to provide a succinct framework for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with decreased BMD. Patients are deemed to have decreased BMD if they have suffered a fragility fracture, a fracture caused by a low-energy traumatic event. These patients are often encountered in the emergency department and admitted for further treatment of their fractures or recommended for follow-up in the clinic. Regardless of treatment course these are opportunities for the orthopaedic surgeon to intervene in the osteoporotic disease process and positively affect a patient’s bone health. This article compiles the available literature on osteoporosis and presents it succinctly with the incorporation of both a diagnosis algorithm and treatment profile table. With the use of these two tools, orthopaedic surgeons everywhere should be able to take a more active role in their patients’ bone health.
PMCID: PMC4115108  PMID: 24652422
Osteoporosis; Orthopaedic surgeon; Early management; Screening; Fragility fracture
3.  Interactive Effects of Age and Estrogen on Cortical Neurons: Implications for Cognitive Aging 
Neuroscience  2011;191:148-158.
In the past few decades it has become clear that estrogen signaling plays a much larger role in modulating the cognitive centers of the brain than previously thought possible. We have developed a nonhuman primate (NHP) model to investigate the relationships between estradiol (E) and cognitive aging. Our studies of cyclical E treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) young and aged rhesus monkeys have revealed compelling cognitive and synaptic effects of E in the context of aging. Delayed response (DR), a task that is particularly dependent on integrity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) area 46 revealed the following: 1) that young OVX rhesus monkeys perform equally well whether treated with E or vehicle (V), and 2) that aged OVX animals given E perform as well as young adults with or without E, whereas OVX V-treated aged animals display significant DR impairment. We have analyzed the structure of layer III pyramidal cells in area 46 in these same monkeys. We found both age and treatment effects on these neurons that are consistent with behavioral data. Briefly, reconstructions of pyramidal neurons in area 46 from these monkeys showed that cyclical E increased the density of small, thin spines in both young and aged monkeys. However, this effect of E was against a background of age-related loss of small, thin spines, leaving aged V-treated monkeys with a particularly low density of these highly plastic spines and vulnerable to cognitive decline. Our current interpretation is that E not only plays a critically important role in maintaining spine number, but also enables synaptic plasticity through a cyclical increase in small highly plastic spines that may be stabilized in the context of learning. Interestingly, recent studies demonstrate that chronic E is less effective at inducing spinogenesis than cyclical E. We have begun to link certain molecular attributes of excitatory synapses in area 46 to E effects and cognitive performance in these monkeys. Given the importance of synaptic estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in rat hippocampus, we focused our initial studies on synaptic ER-α in area 46. Three key findings have emerged from these studies: 1) synaptic ER-α is present in axospinous synapses in area 46; 2) it is stable across treatment and age groups (which is not the case in rat hippocampus); and 3) the abundance and distribution of synaptic ER-α is a key correlate of individual variation in cognitive performance in certain age and treatment groups. These findings have important implications for the design of hormone treatment strategies for both surgically and naturally menopausal women.
PMCID: PMC3166405  PMID: 21664255
Prefrontal cortex; estrogen; aging; primate; cognition; hormone replacement therapy

Results 1-3 (3)