Functional interactions between limbic regions that process emotions and frontal networks that guide response functions provide a substrate for emotional cues to influence behavior. Stimulation of postsynaptic α2 adrenoceptors enhances the function of prefrontal regions in these networks. However, the impact of this stimulation on the emotional biasing of behavior has not been established.
This study tested the effect of the postsynaptic α2 adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on the emotional biasing of response execution and inhibition in prefrontal cortex.
Fifteen healthy young adults were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task following counterbalanced administration of single doses of oral guanfacine (1 mg) and placebo in a double-blind, crossover design.
Lower perceptual sensitivity and less response bias for sad faces resulted in fewer correct responses compared to happy and neutral faces, but had no effect on correct inhibitions. Guanfacine increased the sensitivity and bias selectively for sad faces, resulting in response accuracy comparable to happy and neutral faces, and reversed the valence-dependent variation in response-related activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting in enhanced activation for response execution cued by sad faces relative to happy and neutral faces, in line with other frontoparietal regions.
These results provide evidence that guanfacine stimulation of postsynaptic α2 adrenoceptors moderates DLPFC activation associated with the emotional biasing of response execution processes. The findings have implications for the α2 adrenoceptor agonist treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Guanfacine; Response execution; Response inhibition; Emotion; fMRI; Go/No-go task; Prefrontal cortex
Few studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and breast cancer with consideration to estrogen/progesterone/human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor status (ER/PR/HER2) in the breast tissue among Chinese pre- and post-menopausal women.
Four thousand two hundred and eleven breast cancer patients were selected randomly from seven geographic regions of China from 1999 to 2008. Demographic data, risk factors, pathologic features, and biological receptor status of cases were collected from the medical charts. Chi-square test, fisher exact test, rank-correlation analysis, and multivariate logistic regression model were adopted to explore whether BMI differed according to biological receptor status in pre- and post-menopausal women.
Three thousand two hundred and eighty one eligible cases with BMI data were included. No statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics were found between the cases with BMI data and those without. In the rank-correlation analysis, the rates of PR+ and HER2+ were positively correlated with increasing BMI among post-menopausal women (rs BMI, PR+ = 0.867, P = 0.001; rs BMI, HER2+ = 0.636, P = 0.048), but the ER+ rates did not vary by increasing BMI. Controlling for confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression models with BMI<24 kg/m2 as the reference group were performed and found that BMI≥24 kg/m2 was only positively correlated with PR+ status among post-menopausal breast cancer cases (adjusted OR = 1.420, 95% CI: 1.116–1.808, Wald = 8.116, P = 0.004).
Post-menopausal women with high BMI (≥24 kg/m2) have a higher proportion of PR+ breast cancer. In addition to effects mediated via the estrogen metabolism pathway, high BMI might increase the risk of breast cancer by other routes, which should be examined further in future etiological mechanism studies.
Sogatella furcifera and Laodelphax striatellus are economically important rice pests in China by acting as vectors of several rice viruses, sucking the phloem sap and blocking the phloem vessels. Ecdysteroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulates insect development and reproduction. A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP302A1 (22-hydroxylase), encoded by the Halloween gene disembodied (dib), plays a critical role in ecdysteroidogenesis. The objective of this study is to test whether dib genes are potential targets for RNA interference-based management of S. furcifera and L. striatellus. We cloned and characterized Sfdib and Lsdib. The open reading frame regions of dib genes were generated and used for designing and constructing dsRNA fragments. Experiments were conducted using oral delivery of dsdib to investigate the effectiveness of RNAi in S. furcifera and L. striatellus nymphs. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis demonstrated that continuous ingestion of dsdib at the concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.50 mg/ml diminished Sfdib expression levels by 35.9%, 45.1% and 66.2%, and ecdysone receptor (SfEcR) gene mRNA levels by 34.0%, 36.2% and 58.5% respectively in S. furcifera, and decreased Lsdib expression level by 18.8%, 35.8% and 56.7%, and LsEcR mRNA levels by 25.2%, 46.8% and 68.8% respectively in L. striatellus. The reduction in dib and EcR transcript abundance resulted in observable phenotypes. The development of nymphs was impaired and the survival was negatively affected. Our data will enable the development of new insect control strategies and functional analysis of vital genes in S. furcifera and L. striatellus nymphs.
Structural neuroimaging studies in autism report atypical volume in deep brain structures which are related to symptomatology. Little is known about metabolic changes in these regions, and how they vary with age and sex, and/or relate to clinical behaviors. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy we measured N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine, myoinositol and glutamate in the caudate, putamen, and thalamus of 20 children with autism and 16 typically developing controls (7–18 years). Relative to controls, individuals with autism had elevated glutamate/creatine in the putamen. In addition, both groups showed age-related increases in glutamate in this region. Boys, relative to girls had increased choline/creatine in the thalamus. Lastly, there were correlations between glutamate, choline, and myoinositol in all three regions, and behavioral scores in the ASD group. These findings suggest changes in deep gray matter neurochemistry, which are sensitive to diagnosis, age and sex, and are associated with behavioral differences.
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Autism spectrum disorders; Deep gray matter; Caudate nucleus; Putamen; Thalamus and social cognition
The characteristics of established risk factors for breast cancer may vary among countries. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising effective prevention strategies for breast cancer.
Information on exposures to risk factors was collected from the medical charts of 4211 women with breast cancer diagnosed during 1999–2008. The distributions of these exposures among regions, and by menopausal status and birth period, were compared with the χ2 test. Crude associations between the selected factors and breast cancer were estimated using the cases in the present study and a representative control population, which was selected from qualified published studies.
As compared with cases from less developed regions, those from more developed regions were significantly more likely to be nulliparous, had fewer childbirths (P < 0.05), and were less likely to have breastfed (P = 0.08). As compared with premenopausal cases, postmenopausal cases were more likely to be overweight and to have breastfed and had more childbirths (P < 0.05). The number of live births and rate of breastfeeding decreased in relation to birth period (P for trends <0.001). Overweight, late menopause, and family history of breast cancer were significantly associated with breast cancer among Chinese women.
Breast cancer incidence was associated with nulliparity and history of breastfeeding. Population attributable risks should be assessed, especially for more developed areas and young women. The effects of body mass index, age at menopause, and family history of breast cancer should be given priority during assessment of breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
breast cancer; risk factors; nationwide; multicenter
Both cognitive and affective processes require mental resources. However, it remains unclear whether these 2 processes work in parallel or in an integrated fashion. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated their interaction using an empathy-for-pain paradigm, with simultaneous manipulation of cognitive demand of the tasks and emotional valence of the stimuli. Eighteen healthy adult participants viewed photographs showing other people's hands and feet in painful or nonpainful situations while performing tasks of low (body part judgment) and high (laterality judgment) cognitive demand. Behavioral data showed increased reaction times and error rates for painful compared with nonpainful stimuli under laterality judgment relative to body part judgment, indicating an interaction between cognitive demand and stimulus valence. Imaging analyses showed activity in bilateral anterior insula (AI) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI), but not posterior insula, for main effects of cognitive demand and stimulus valence. Importantly, cognitive demand and stimulus valence showed a significant interaction in AI, SI, and regions of the frontoparietal network. These results suggest that cognitive and emotional processes at least partially share common brain networks and that AI might serve as a key node in a brain network subserving cognition–emotion integration.
cognition; emotion; empathy; fMRI; insula
Despite great progress in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the last-decade, intrahepatic recurrence is still the most frequent serious adverse event after all the treatments including microwave ablation. This study aimed to predict early recurrence of HCC after microwave ablation using serum proteomic signature.
After curative microwave ablation of HCC, 86 patients were followed-up for 1 year. Serum samples were collected before microwave ablation. The mass spectra of proteins were generated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). Serum samples from 50 patients were randomly selected as a training set and for biomarkers discovery and model development. The remaining serum samples were categorized for validation of the algorithm.
According to preablation serum protein profiling obtained from the 50 HCC samples in the training set, nine significant differentially-expressed proteins were detected in the serum samples between recurrent and non-recurrent patients. Decision classification tree combined with three candidate proteins with m/z values of 7787, 6858 and 6646 was produced using Biomarker Patterns Software with sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 88.9% in the training set. When the SELDI marker pattern was tested with the blinded testing set, it yielded a sensitivity of 80.0%, a specificity of 88.5% and a positive predictive value of 86.1%.
Differentially-expressed protein peaks in preablation serum screened by SELDI are associated with prognosis of HCC. The decision classification tree is a potential tool in predicting early intrahepatic recurrence in HCC patients after microwave ablation.
We hypothesized that higher serum levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) are associated with lower functional capacity in patients with peripheral arterial disease ([PAD] n = 481, mean age 67, 68% men). Functional capacity was quantified as distance walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the distance walked: >144 yards (group I, n = 254); 60 to 144 yards (group 2, n = 80); <60 yards or did not walk (group 3, n = 147). The association between NT-pro-BNP levels and the ordinal 3-level walking distance was assessed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression analyses that adjusted for several possible confounding variables. Higher levels of NT-pro-BNP were associated with a lower ordinal walking category independent of possible confounders (odds ratio [OR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.77; P < .001). In conclusion, higher levels of NT-pro-BNP are independently associated with lower functional capacity in patients with PAD and may be a marker of hemodynamic stress in these patients.
N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; natriuretic peptides; functional capacity; peripheral arterial disease
Prospective epidemiologic data on the association between vitamin D and mortality are limited, particularly in Asian populations. Among subjects in Linxian, China, the authors aimed to test whether baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a prospective cohort were associated with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality rates over 24 years of follow-up (1986–2010). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 1,101 subjects using an immunoassay. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox regression models that were adjusted for age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and hypertension. The 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile concentrations of 25(OH)D were 19.6, 31.9, and 48.4 nmol/L, respectively. During follow-up, 793 subjects died, including 279 who died of cerebrovascular accident, 217 who died of cancer, and 200 cardiovascular disease deaths. All-cause mortality was not associated with 25(OH)D concentrations using continuous models (for every 15 nmol/L, hazard ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.05) or quartile models (fourth vs. first quartiles, hazard ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.30; P for trend = 0.731). The authors also found no association with the cause-specific mortality outcomes. Results were similar for men and women. This study showed that prediagnostic serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality rates in this Chinese population who had low levels of vitamin D.
cancer; cardiovascular diseases; China; mortality; vitamin D
To construct and validate billing code algorithms for identifying patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
We extracted all encounters and line item details including PAD-related billing codes at Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota, between July 1, 1997 and June 30, 2008; 22 712 patients evaluated in the vascular laboratory were divided into training and validation sets. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to create an integer code score from the training dataset, and this was tested in the validation set. We applied a model-based code algorithm to patients evaluated in the vascular laboratory and compared this with a simpler algorithm (presence of at least one of the ICD-9 PAD codes 440.20–440.29). We also applied both algorithms to a community-based sample (n=4420), followed by a manual review.
The logistic regression model performed well in both training and validation datasets (c statistic=0.91). In patients evaluated in the vascular laboratory, the model-based code algorithm provided better negative predictive value. The simpler algorithm was reasonably accurate for identification of PAD status, with lesser sensitivity and greater specificity. In the community-based sample, the sensitivity (38.7% vs 68.0%) of the simpler algorithm was much lower, whereas the specificity (92.0% vs 87.6%) was higher than the model-based algorithm.
A model-based billing code algorithm had reasonable accuracy in identifying PAD cases from the community, and in patients referred to the non-invasive vascular laboratory. The simpler algorithm had reasonable accuracy for identification of PAD in patients referred to the vascular laboratory but was significantly less sensitive in a community-based sample.
peripheral artery disease; billing codes; electronic medical record; informatics
We conducted a genome-wide association study of gastric cancer (GC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese subjects in which we genotyped 551,152 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We report a combined analysis of 2,240 GC cases, 2,115 ESCC cases, and 3,302 controls drawn from five studies. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and study, multiple variants at 10q23 had genome-wide significance for GC and ESCC independently. A notable signal was rs2274223, a nonsynonymous SNP located in PLCE1, for GC (P=8.40×1010; per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and ESCC (P=3.85×10−9; OR = 1.34). The association with GC differed by anatomic subsite. For tumors located in the cardia the association was stronger (P=4.19 × 10−15; OR= 1.57) and for those located in the noncardia stomach it was absent (P=0.44; OR=1.05). Our findings at 10q23 could provide insight into the high incidence rates of both cancers in China.
Empathy refers to the ability to perceive and share another person’s affective state. Much neuroimaging evidence suggests that observing others’ suffering and pain elicits activations of the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices associated with subjective empathetic responses in the observer. However, these observations do not provide causal evidence for the respective roles of anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices in empathetic pain. Therefore, whether these regions are ‘necessary’ for empathetic pain remains unknown. Herein, we examined the perception of others’ pain in patients with anterior insular cortex or anterior cingulate cortex lesions whose locations matched with the anterior insular cortex or anterior cingulate cortex clusters identified by a meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of empathetic pain perception. Patients with focal anterior insular cortex lesions displayed decreased discrimination accuracy and prolonged reaction time when processing others’ pain explicitly and lacked a typical interference effect of empathetic pain on the performance of a pain-irrelevant task. In contrast, these deficits were not observed in patients with anterior cingulate cortex lesions. These findings reveal that only discrete anterior insular cortex lesions, but not anterior cingulate cortex lesions, result in deficits in explicit and implicit pain perception, supporting a critical role of anterior insular cortex in empathetic pain processing. Our findings have implications for a wide range of neuropsychiatric illnesses characterized by prominent deficits in higher-level social functioning.
anterior cingulate cortex; anterior insular cortex; empathy; meta-analysis; necessity
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, and is frequently dysregulated in esophageal and gastric cancers. Few studies have comprehensively examined the association between germline genetic variants in the EGFR pathway and risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. Based on a genome-wide association study in a Han Chinese population, we examined 3443 SNPs in 127 genes in the EGFR pathway for 1942 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs), 1758 gastric cancers (GCs), and 2111 controls. SNP-level analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. We applied the resampling-based adaptive rank truncated product approach to determine the gene- and pathway-level associations. The EGFR pathway was significantly associated with GC risk (P = 2.16×10−3). Gene-level analyses found 10 genes to be associated with GC, including FYN, MAPK8, MAP2K4, GNAI3, MAP2K1, TLN1, PRLR, PLCG2, RPS6KB2, and PIK3R3 (P<0.05). For ESCC, we did not observe a significant pathway-level association (P = 0.72), but gene-level analyses suggested associations between GNAI3, CHRNE, PAK4, WASL, and ITCH, and ESCC (P<0.05). Our data suggest an association between specific genes in the EGFR signaling pathway and risk of GC and ESCC. Further studies are warranted to validate these associations and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
Pain is a subjective sensory and emotional experience, and it has been reported that many different brain regions are regulated by pain, and that pain can impact attention. Acupuncture is an important treatment component of Chinese traditional medicine, and has been used for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of conditions. Although several studies have shown that acupuncture improves consciousness, the precise impact of both acupuncture and painful stimulation on attention is unclear. Are all of the attention networks modulated, or do these stimuli act on a specific network? Is the effect of painful stimulation similar to that of acupuncture? We administered the attention network test to 30 participants (15 males) to investigate the relative efficiencies of three independent attention networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) under three conditions: baseline, after painful stimulation, and after acupuncture. The degree of pain experienced was assessed on a horizontally oriented visual analogue scale. The results showed that painful stimulation and acupuncture had similar effects on the orienting and executive control networks; however, there was a significantly different effect between the three conditions on the alerting network. In conclusion, (1) painful stimulation can selectively impact attention; (2) acupuncture can also selectively impact attention; i.e., both have selective influences on the alerting and executive control networks, but not on the orienting network; (3) the effects of acupuncture and painful stimulation are not identical. The mechanisms by which painful stimulation and acupuncture influence attention warrant further research.
Painful stimulation; Acupuncture; Attention networks; Alerting network; Orienting network; Executive control network
Several brain regions show structural and functional abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the developmental trajectory of abnormalities in these structures and how they may relate to social and communicative impairments are still unclear. We assessed the effects of age on cortical thickness in individuals with ASD, between the ages of 7 and 39 years in comparison to typically developing controls. Additionally, we examined differences in cortical thickness in relation to symptomatology in the ASD group, and their association with age. Analyses were conducted using a general linear model, controlling for sex. Social and communication scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) were correlated with the thickness of regions implicated in those functions. Controls showed widespread cortical thinning relative to the ASD group. Within regions-of-interest, increased thickness in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex was associated with poorer social scores. Additionally, a significant interaction between age and social impairment was found in the orbitofrontal cortex, with more impaired younger children having decreased thickness in this region. These results suggest that differential neurodevelopmental trajectories are present in individuals with ASD and some differences are associated with diagnostic behaviours.
Autism spectrum disorders; Structural MRI; Cortical thickness; Social impairment; Developmental changes
Genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed nominally significant P-values in two previously published genome-wide scans that included a total of 2961 ESCC cases and 3400 controls. The meta-analysis revealed five SNPs at 2q33 with P< 5 × 10−8, and the strongest signal was rs13016963, with a combined odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.29 (1.19–1.40) and P= 7.63 × 10−10. An imputation analysis of 4304 SNPs at 2q33 suggested a single association signal, and the strongest imputed SNP associations were similar to those from the genotyped SNPs. We conducted an ancestral recombination graph analysis with 53 SNPs to identify one or more haplotypes that harbor the variants directly responsible for the detected association signal. This showed that the five SNPs exist in a single haplotype along with 45 imputed SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium, and the strongest candidate was rs10201587, one of the genotyped SNPs. Our meta-analysis found genome-wide significant SNPs at 2q33 that map to the CASP8/ALS2CR12/TRAK2 gene region. Variants in CASP8 have been extensively studied across a spectrum of cancers with mixed results. The locus we identified appears to be distinct from the widely studied rs3834129 and rs1045485 SNPs in CASP8. Future studies of esophageal and other cancers should focus on comprehensive sequencing of this 2q33 locus and functional analysis of rs13016963 and rs10201587 and other strongly correlated variants.
It has been confirmed that alternatively activated macrophages (M2) participate in tissue remodeling and fibrosis occurrence, but the effect of M2 on peritoneal fibrosis related to peritoneal dialysis (PD) hasn’t been elucidated. This study was therefore conducted to assess the association between M2 and peritoneal fibrosis related to PD. In this study, peritoneal fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Lactate-4.25% dialysate (100 mL/kg) to C57BL/6J mice for 28 days, and liposome-encapsulated clodronate (LC, the specific scavenger of macrophages) was used to treat the peritoneal fibrosis mice model by i.p. injection at day 18 and day 21. All animals were sacrificed at day 29. Parietal peritonea were stained with Masson’s trichrome, and the expression of type I collagen (Col-I), fibronectin, mannose receptor (CD206), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), chitinase 3-like 3 (Ym-1) and arginase-1 (Arg-1) was determined by Western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR. Our results revealed that peritoneal thickness, Col-I, fibronectin, CD206, TGF-β, Ym-1 and Arg-1 were upregulated in the peritoneal fibrosis mice model, and all of these indexes were downregulated in those treated with LC. Additionally, there was no difference in the level of CCR7 between the model and treatment group. Our study indicated that peritoneal M2 played an important role in the process of peritoneal fibrosis related to PD and might be a potential target for intervention therapy of peritoneal fibrosis.
peritoneal dialysis; peritoneal fibrosis related to PD; alternatively activated macrophages; liposome-encapsulated clodronate
fMRI; motivation-reward; behavioral inhibition; risk for substance abuse; ADHD
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin that contaminates corn in certain climates, has been demonstrated to cause hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in animal models. Whether a relationship between FB1 and HCC exists in humans is not known. To examine the hypothesis, we conducted case-control studies nested within two large cohorts in China; the Haimen City Cohort and the General Population Study of the Nutritional Intervention Trials cohort in Linxian. In the Haimen City Cohort, nail FB1 levels were determined in 271 HCC cases and 280 controls. In the General Population Nutritional Intervention Trial, nail FB1 levels were determined in 72 HCC cases and 147 controls. In each population, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) from logistic regression models estimated the association between measurable FB1 and HCC, adjusting for hepatitis B virus infection and other factors. A meta-analysis that included both populations was also conducted. The analysis revealed no statistically significant association between FB1 and HCC in either Haimen City (OR=1.10, 95%CI=0.64–1.89) or in Linxian (OR=1.47, 95%CI=0.70–3.07). Similarly, the pooled meta-analysis showed no statistically significant association between FB1 exposure and HCC (OR=1.22, 95%CI=0.79–1.89). These findings, although somewhat preliminary, do not support an associated between FB1 and HCC.
fumonisin; hepatocellular carcinoma; cohort study; China; epidemiology
This study aims to analyze the clinical-pathological characteristics of multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MMBC) in Chinese women.
Sixty-seven cases with MMBC were randomly collected and reviewed at seven hospitals in representative districts of China during 1999 to 2008.
The incidence of MMBC in breast cancer in China was 1.75%. Compared to those with unifocal breast cancer, women with MMBC were more likely to have larger tumor size, lymph node metastasis (59.70% vs. 45.62%) and stage III to IV (46.26% vs. 21.10%). The peak age at onset of MMBC was 40 to 49 years old and has been gradually increasing during 1999 to 2008. Most of the MMBC women were treated with surgery and adjuvant therapy.
In China, the incidence of MMBC in breast cancer is significantly lower than that in Western countries. Compared to unifocal breast cancer, MMBC is biologically more aggressive. Most MMBC women underwent mastectomy, instead of breast conservation surgery.
Breast; Carcinoma; Clinical pathology
Although possible sources and functions of the resting state networks (RSN) of the brain have been proposed, most evidence relies on circular logic and reverse inference. We propose that autonomic arousal provides an objective index of psychophysiological states during rest that may also function as a driving source of the activity and connectivity of RSN. Recording blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal using functional magnetic resonance imaging and skin conductance simultaneously during rest in human subjects, we found that the spontaneous fluctuations of BOLD signals in key nodes of RSN are associated with changes in non-specific skin conductance response, a sensitive psychophysiological index of autonomic arousal. Our findings provide evidence of an important role for the autonomic nervous system to the spontaneous activity of the brain during ‘rest’.
resting-state functional connectivity MRI; autonomic arousal; skin conductance response; interoception; consciousness
Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; often considered a prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease, AD) is most recognized by its implications for decline in memory function, research suggests that deficits in attention are present early in aMCI and may be predictive of progression to AD. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in the brain during the attention network test between 8 individuals with aMCI and 8 neurologically healthy, demographically matched controls. While there were no significant behavioral differences between groups for the alerting and orienting functions, patients with aMCI showed more activity in neural regions typically associated with the networks subserving these functions (e.g., temporoparietal junction and posterior parietal regions, respectively). More importantly, there were both behavioral (i.e., greater conflict effect) and corresponding neural deficits in executive control (e.g., less activation in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices). Although based on a small number of patients, our findings suggest that deficits of attention, especially the executive control of attention, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits of aMCI.
In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls drawn from 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones from DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of size >2 Mb were observed in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%) with abnormal cell proportions between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, the frequency increased with age; 0.23% under 50 and 1.91% between 75 and 79 (p=4.8×10−8). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid-tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals, OR=1.25, p=0.016), with a stronger association for cases who had DNA collected prior to diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.45, p=0.0005). Detectable clonal mosaicism was common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least one year prior to diagnosis of leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR=35.4, p=3.8×10−11). These findings underscore the importance of the role and time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and other late-onset diseases.
Iodine concentrates in gastric tissue and may act as an antioxidant for the stomach. We previously showed that self-reported goiter was associated with significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and non-significantly increased risks of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a prospective case-cohort study in a high-risk population in China. Negatively correlated with iodine levels, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a more sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency than goiter. This study aimed to determine whether baseline serum Tg was also associated with development of GNCA, GCA, and ESCC in the same cohort, the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. Sera from approximately 200 subjects of each case type and 400 non-cases were tested for serum Tg concentration using appropriate assays. Tg was modeled as sex- and assay-specific quartiles in Cox regression models adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, pepsinogens I/II ratio, family history, and commune of residence. In the final combined analysis, participants in the highest quartile of serum Tg, compared to those in the lowest quartile, had adjusted Hazard Ratios of 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.50–1.52), 1.14 (0.63–2.05), and 0.78 (0.47–1.31) for GNCA, GCA, and ESCC, respectively. Using serum Tg, a sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency, we found no association between serum Tg concentrations and risk of these upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers in the study population. Our results do not support the hypothesis that iodine deficiency, as assessed by serum Tg, is associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers.
iodine deficiency; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; thyroglobulin; China
Existing evidence suggests that reward and attentional networks function in concert and that activation in one system influences the other in a reciprocal fashion; however, the nature of these influences remains poorly understood. We therefore developed a three-component task to assess the interaction effects of reward anticipation and conflict resolution on the behavioral performance and the activation of brain reward and attentional systems. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers aged 21–45 years were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the task. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with cue (reward vs. non-reward) and target (congruent vs. incongruent) as within-subjects factors was used to test for main and interaction effects. Neural responses to anticipation, conflict, and reward outcomes were tested. Behaviorally there were main effects of both reward cue and target congruency on reaction time. Neuroimaging results showed that reward anticipation and expected reward outcomes activated components of the attentional networks, including the inferior parietal and occipital cortices, whereas surprising non-rewards activated the frontoinsular cortex bilaterally and deactivated the ventral striatum. In turn, conflict activated a broad network associated with cognitive control and motor functions. Interaction effects showed decreased activity in the thalamus, anterior cingulated gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus bilaterally when difficult conflict trials (e.g., incongruent targets) were preceded by reward cues; in contrast, the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex showed greater activation during congruent targets preceded by reward cues. These results suggest that reward anticipation is associated with lower activation in attentional networks, possibly due to increased processing efficiency, whereas more difficult, conflict trials are associated with lower activity in regions of the reward system, possibly because such trials are experienced as less rewarding.
Attention; brain reward system; fMRI; motivation; neuroimaging; neuroscience