The organic cation transporter (OCT) 3 is widely expressed in various organs in humans, and involved in the disposition of many exogenous and endogenous compounds. Several lines of evidence have suggested that OCT3 expressed in the brain plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmission. Relative to wild-type (WT) animals, Oct3 knockout (KO) mice have displayed altered behavioral and neurochemical responses to psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine. In the present study, both in vitro and in vivo approaches were utilized to explore potential mechanisms underlying the disparate neuropharmacological effects observed following AMPH exposure in Oct3 KO mice. In vitro uptake studies conducted in OCT3 transfected cells indicated that dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH) is not a substrate of OCT3. However, OCT3 was determined to be a high-capacity and low-affinity transporter for the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT). Inhibition studies demonstrated that d-AMPH exerts relatively weak inhibitory effects on the OCT3-mediated uptake of DA, NE, 5-HT, and the model OCT3 substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide. The IC50 values were determined to be 41.5 ± 7.5 and 24.1 ± 7.0 μM for inhibiting DA and 5-HT uptake, respectively, while 50% inhibition of NE and 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide uptake was not achieved by even the highest concentration of d-AMPH applied (100 μM). Furthermore, the disposition of d-AMPH in various tissues including the brain, liver, heart, kidney, muscle, intestine, spleen, testis, uterus, and plasma were determined in both male and female Oct3 KO and WT mice. No significant difference was observed between either genotypes or sex in all tested organs and tissues. Our findings suggest that OCT3 is not a prominent factor influencing the disposition of d-AMPH. Additionally, based upon the inhibitory potency observed in vitro, d-AMPH is unlikely to inhibit the uptake of monoamines mediated by OCT3 in the brain. Differentiated neuropharmacological effects of AMPHs noted between Oct3 KO and WT mice appear to be due to the absence of Oct3 mediated uptake of neurotransmitters in the KO mice.
amphetamine; inhibitor; monoamine neurotransmitters; organic cation transporter 3; substrate
To investigate reversal effects of pantoprazole (PPZ) on multidrug resistance (MDR) in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell SGC7901 was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37°C. Adriamycin (ADR)-resistant cells were cultured with addition of 0.8 μg/ml of ADR maintaining MDR phenotype. ADR was used to calculate ADR releasing index; CCK-8 Assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor drugs; BCECF-AM pH-sensitive fluorescent probe was used to measure intracellular pH (pHi) value of cells, whereas pH value of medium was considered as extracellular pH (pHe) value; Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining analyses were employed to determine protein expressions and intracellular distributions of vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases), mTOR, HIF-1α, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP1); SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells were inoculated in athymic nude mice. Thereafter, effects of ADR with or without PPZ pretreatment were compared by determining the tumor size and weight, apoptotic cells in tumor tissues were detected by TUNEL assay. At concentrations greater than 20 μg/ml, PPZ pretreatment reduced ADR releasing index and significantly enhanced intracellular ADR concentration of SGC7901 (P <0.01). Similarly, PPZ pretreatment significantly decreased ADR releasing index of SGC7901/ADR dose-dependently (P <0.01). PPZ pretreatment also decreased cell viabilities of SGG7901 and SGC7901/ADR dose-dependently. After 24-h PPZ pretreatment, administration of chemotherapeutic agents demonstrated maximal cytotoxic effects on SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells (P < 0.05). The resistance index in PPZ pretreatment group was significantly lower than that in non-PPZ pretreatment group (3.71 vs. 14.80). PPZ at concentration >10 μg/ml significantly decreased pHi in SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells and diminished or reversed transmembrane pH gradient (P < 0.05). PPZ pretreatment also significantly inhibited protein expressions of V-ATPases, mTOR, HIF-1α, P-gp, and MRP1, and alter intracellular expressions in parent and ADR-resistant cells (P < 0.05). In vivo experiments further confirmed that PPZ pretreatment could enhance anti-tumor effects of ADR on xenografted tumor of nude mice and also improve the apoptotic index in xenografted tumor tissues. PPZ pretreatment enhances the cytotoxic effects of anti-tumor drugs on SGC7901 and reverse MDR of SGC7901/ADR by downregulating the V-ATPases/mTOR/HIF-1α/P-gp and MRP1 signaling pathway.
MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE; TRANSMEMBRANE pH GRADIENT; ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER SUPERFAMILY; VACUOLAR H+-ATPases; PANTOPRAZOLE SODIUM
During epithelial patterning in metazoans cells are polarized in the plane of a tissue, a process referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP). Interactions between a few molecules produce distinct phenotypes in diverse tissues in animals from flies to humans and make PCP tightly associated with tissue and organ growth control. An interesting question is whether these phenotypes share common traits. Previous computational models revealed how PCP signalling determines cell polarization in some specific contexts. We have developed a computational model, examined PCP signalling in varied molecular contexts, and revealed how details of molecular interactions and differences in molecular contexts affect the direction, speed, and propagation of cell polarization. The main finding is that damped propagation of cell polarization can generate rich variances in phenotypes of domineering non-autonomy and error correction in different contexts. These results impressively demonstrate how simple molecular interactions cause distinct, yet inherently analogous, developmental patterning.
In humans, concomitant dl-methylphenidate (dl-MPH) and ethanol results in the carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1) mediated biotransformation of MPH to the transesterification metabolite dl-ethylphenidate (dl-EPH). The separate enantiomers of MPH and EPH are found at low ng/ml to pg/ml plasma concentrations. Substantial pharmacological differences exist between d- and l-isomers of MPH and EPH, both in terms of pharmacological potencies and receptor selectivity, as well as in pharmacokinetic properties. Accordingly, a sensitive, accurate and precise enantiospecific analytical method is required in order to fully explore pharmacokinetic – pharmacodynamic correlations regarding the MPH – ethanol interaction. The present study describes a novel liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneously analysis of d- and l-MPH as well as d- and l-EPH concentration from human plasma. This assay provides baseline resolution of the individual MPH and EPH isomers utilizing a vancomycin-based chiral column. The lower limit of quantification was 0.025 ng/ml for each isomer when extracting 0.5 ml plasma aliquots. Calibration curves were linear over the range from 0.025 ng/ml to 25 ng/ml for all analytes (r2 > 0.995). Assay accuracy and precision were excellent and stability studies and assessment of potential matrix effects contributed to the validation of the method. Application of the method to human plasma samples collected after the administration of dl-MPH with or without ethanol was included, and the implications of this pharmacokinetic drug interaction were discussed.
methylphenidate; ethylphenidate; ethanol; enantiomer; LC-MS/MS; drug interaction
Two conjugates (1 and 2) of camptothecin (CPT) and 4β-anilino-4′-O-demethylepipodophyllotoxin were previously shown to exert antitumor activity through inhibition of topoisomerase I (topo I). In this current study, two novel conjugates (1E and 2E) with an open E-ring in the CPT moiety were first synthesized and evaluated for biological activity in comparison with their intact E-ring congeners. This novel class of CPT derivatives exhibits its antitumor effect against CPT-sensitive and -resistant cells, in part, by inhibiting topo I-linked DNA (TLD) religation. An intact E-ring was not essential for the inhibition of TLD religation, although conjugates with an open E-ring were less potent than the closed ring analogs. This lower religation potency resulted in decreased formation of protein-linked DNA breaks (PLDBs), and hence, less cell growth inhibition. In addition to their impact on topo I, conjugates 1E, 2, and 2E exhibited a minor inhibitory effect on topo II-induced DNA cleavage. The novel structures of 1E and 2E may present scaffolds for further development of dual function topo I and II inhibitors with improved pharmacological profiles and physicochemical properties.
Topoisomerase; cytotoxicity; camptothecin (CPT); etoposide (VP-16); epipodophyllotoxin; conjugates
Threonine is the only amino acid critically required for the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We found that threonine (Thr) and S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) metabolism are coupled in pluripotent stem cells, resulting in regulation of histone methylation. Isotope labeling of mESCs revealed that Thr provides a substantial fraction of both the cellular glycine (Gly) and the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) needed for SAM synthesis. Depletion of Thr from the culture medium or threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh) from mESCs decreased accumulation of SAM and decreased tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4me3), leading to slowed growth, and increased differentiation. Thus abundance of SAM appears to influence H3K4me3, providing a possible mechanism by which modulation of a metabolic pathway might influence stem cell fate.
At present, there is an increasing focus on stents that have a biodegradable polymer coating, rather than a permanent polymer coating. This is due to the fact that following the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES) with a permanent polymer coating, the continued existence of the coating may result in a foreign body reaction and delayed re-endothelialization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a non-polymeric paclitaxel-eluting microporous (YINYI™) stent in real-life percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 686 YINYI™ stents were implanted in 404 patients with CAD in a PCI procedure and outpatient follow-ups were performed 1, 6, 12 and 15 months subsequent to the PCI, respectively. The observation endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), including cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), restenosis, target lesion revascularization, stent thrombosis and recurrence of angina pectoris. The average follow-up time was 15 months. The results revealed that the cumulative incidences of MACEs were as follows: mortality, 0.99%; non-fatal MI, 0.74%; restenosis, 4.0%; and target lesion revascularization, 2.7%. The results at the short- and long-term clinical follow-ups indicated that YINYI™ stents are effective and safe for use in PCI for patients with CAD.
coronary artery disease; percutaneous coronary intervention; YINYI™ stent; non-polymeric paclitaxel-eluting microporous stent; follow-up
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections are associated with a high prevalence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and occasionally cause lethal complications. Most infections are self-limiting. However, resulting complications, including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis, and neurological pulmonary edema or hemorrhage, are responsible for the lethal symptoms of EV71 infection, the pathogenesis of which remain to be clarified.
In the present study, 2-week-old Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were infected with a mouse-adapted EV71 strain. These infected mice demonstrated progressive paralysis and died within 12 days post infection (d.p.i.). EV71, which mainly replicates in skeletal muscle tissues, caused severe necrotizing myositis. Lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues were not observed.
Necrotizing myositis of respiratory-related muscles caused severe restrictive hypoventilation and subsequent hypoxia, which could explain the fatality of EV71-infected mice. This finding suggests that, in addition to CNS injury, necrotic myositis may also be responsible for the paralysis and death observed in EV71-infected mice.
Enterovirus 71; Skeletal muscle; Necrotizing myositis; Restrictive hypoventilation
The Hippo pathway controls growth by mediating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dysregulation of Hippo signaling causes abnormal proliferation in both healthy and cancerous cells. The Hippo pathway receives inputs from multiple developmental pathways and interacts with many tissue-specific transcription factors, but how genes in the pathway have evolved remains inadequately revealed.
To explore the origin and evolution of Hippo pathway, we have extensively examined 16 Hippo pathway genes, including upstream regulators and downstream targets, in 24 organisms covering major metazoan phyla. From simple to complex organisms, these genes are varied in the length and number of exons but encode conserved domains with similar higher-order organization. The core of the pathway is more conserved than its upstream regulators and downstream targets. Several components, despite existing in the most basal metazoan sponges, cannot be convincingly identified in other species. Potential recombination breakpoints were identified in some genes. Coevolutionary analysis reveals that most functional domains in Hippo genes have coevolved with interacting functional domains in other genes.
The two essential upstream regulators cadherins fat and dachsous may have originated in the unicellular organism Monosiga brevicollis and evolved more significantly than the core of the pathway. Genes having varied numbers of exons in different species, recombination events, and the gain and loss of some genes indicate alternative splicing and species-specific evolution. Coevolution signals explain some species-specific loss of functional domains. These results significantly unveil the structure and evolution of the Hippo pathway in distant phyla and provide valuable clues for further examination of Hippo signaling.
NADH-cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in fatty acid metabolism, and Ncb5or−/− mice fed standard chow (SC) are insulin-sensitive but weigh less than wild type (WT) littermates. Ncb5or−/− mice develop hyperglycemia at about age 7 weeks due to β-cell dysfunction and loss associated with saturated fatty acid accumulation and manifestations of ER and oxidative stress. Here we report that when Ncb5or−/− mice born to heterozygous mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet continue to ingest HF, they weigh as much as SC-fed WT at age 5 weeks. By age 7 weeks, diabetes mellitus develops in all HF-fed vs. 68% of SC-fed Ncb5or−/− mice. Islet β-cell content in age 5-week Ncb5or−/− mice fed HF for 7 days is lower (53%) than for those fed SC (63%), and both are lower than for WT (75%, SC, vs. 69%, HF). Islet transcript levels for markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α) and ER stress (ATF6α) are higher in Ncb5or−/− than WT mice but not significantly affected by diet. Consuming a HF diet exacerbates Ncb5or−/− β-cell accumulation of intracellular saturated fatty acids and increases the frequency of ER distention from 11% (SC) to 47% (HF), thus accelerates β-cell injury in Ncb5or−/− mice.
diabetes; beta-cells; lipotoxicity; high-fat diet; ER stress
Human carboxylesterase 1(hCES1), encoded by the CES1 gene, is the predominant hepatic hydrolase responsible for the metabolism of many therapeutic agents, toxins, and endogenous substances. Genetic variants of CES1 can affect hCES1 function and expression and ultimately influence clinical outcomes of hCES1 substrate drugs. CES1 gene consists of three isoforms including the functional CES1A1 and CES1A2 genes and nonfunctional pseudogene CES1A3. Natural variants of these isoforms exert differing impacts on hCES1 function. However, the existing CES1 genotyping methods are incapable of discriminating between these variants due to the high similarity among these three genes. We report the development of a novel long-range PCR-based, discriminative genotyping assay with the capacity of specifically detecting the variants among CES1A1, CES1A2, and CES1A3 genes. The comparison of the genotyping results between this novel assay and those previously reported methods highlighted the necessity of applying the discriminative genotyping assay in pharmacogentic studies involving CES1 gene.
CES1A1; CES1A2; CES1A3; genotyping; long-range PCR
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) provides alternatives. Bizhongxiao decoction (BZX) is a TCM complex, which has been used clinically for many years to treat RA. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF-1 levels in rats with RA, and to elucidate its mechanism of action.
Ninety healthy normal female SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal (control), model, BZX decoction, and the three dismantled formulae (I: heat-clearing and detoxication, II: dissipating dampness, and III: blood circulation promotion). Apart from the normal (control) group, the rats in each group were injected subcutaneously with bovine type II collagen and complete Freund adjuvant to establish a collagen-induced arthritis model, so that inhibition of foot swelling in the rats by BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae could be observed. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF in synovial joints at various time points.
Twenty-one days after the model was established, the levels of TNF and IL-1 were significantly higher in the model group, BZX decoction group and dismantled formula groups I, II and III than in the normal controls (P < 0.05). The levels of these cytokines were significantly higher in the model group than the BZX decoction or the three dismantled formula groups (P <0.01). At longer times, the TNF and IL-1 levels in model group rose gradually; those in the BZX decoction and dismantled formula groups were gradually reduced. The cytokine levels in the BZX decoction group were lower than in the three dismantled formula groups and continued to decline.
BZX decoction and the three dismantled formulae examined down-regulated the inflammatory factors IL-1 and TNF in collagen-induced arthritis rat models, but BZX exerted the strongest effect.
Bizhongxiao decoction; Rheumatoid arthritis; Interleukin-1; Tumor necrosis factor
NADH-cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated redox enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism, and phenotypic abnormalities of Ncb5or−/− mice include diabetes and lipoatrophy. These mice are lean and insulin-sensitive but become hyperglycemic at age 7 weeks as a result of β-cell dysfunction and loss. Here we examine early cellular and molecular events associated with manifestations of β-cell defects in Ncb5or−/− mice. We observe lower islet β-cell content in pancreata at age 4 weeks and prominent ER distention in β-cells by age 5 weeks. Ultrastructural changes progress rapidly in severity from age 5 to 6 weeks, and their frequency rises from 10% of β-cells at 5 weeks to 33% at 6 weeks. These changes correlate temporally with the onset of diabetes. ER stress responses and lipid load in Ncb5or−/− β-cells were assessed with isolated islets from mice at age 5 weeks. Expression levels of the stress marker protein Grp78/BiP and of phosphorylated eIF2α protein were found to be reduced, although their transcript levels did not decline. This pattern stands in contrast to the canonical unfolded protein response. Ncb5or−/− β-cells also accumulated higher intracellular levels of palmitate and other free fatty acids and exhibited greater reactive oxygen species production than wild-type cells. An alloxan-susceptible genetic background was found to confer accelerated onset of diabetes in Ncb5or−/− mice. These findings provide the first direct evidence that manifestations of diabetes in lean Ncb5or−/− mice involve saturated free fatty acid overload of β-cells and ER and oxidative stress responses.
oxidative stress; ER stress; free fatty acids; diabetes; beta-cells
Mortality and morbidity from HIV have dramatically decreased in both high- and low-income countries. However, some patients may not benefit from combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) because of inadequate access to HIV care, including attrition after care initiation.
The study population included all HIV-infected patients receiving cART through the Chinese National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010 (n = 106,542). We evaluated retention in HIV care and used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to identify independent factors predictive of attrition. The cumulative probability of attrition from cART initiation was 9% at 12 months, 13% at 18 months, 16% at 24 months and 24% at 60 months. A number of factors were associated with attrition, including younger age, male gender, and being single or divorced. Patients with higher CD4 cell counts at cART initiation were more likely to drop out of HIV care. The proportion of patients remaining in HIV care increased in more recent calendar years and among patients who initiated modern cART regimens.
Retention in HIV care is essential for optimizing individual and public health outcomes. Attrition, even the degree observed in our study, can lead to premature morbidity and mortality, and possibly affect further transmission of HIV and HIV resistant drug variants. Effective strategies to promote retention in HIV care programs are needed. In China these strategies may include focusing particularly on younger male patients and those with higher CD4 cell counts at therapy initiation.
The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by blocking let-7 biogenesis. In studies of the Lin28/let-7 pathway, we discovered unexpected roles in regulating metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both Lin28a and LIN28B promoted an insulin-sensitized state that resisted high fat diet-induced diabetes, whereas muscle-specific loss of Lin28a and overexpression of let-7 resulted in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. These phenomena occurred in part through let-7-mediated repression of multiple components of the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway, including IGF1R, INSR, and IRS2. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abrogated the enhanced glucose uptake and insulin-sensitivity conferred by Lin28a in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that let-7 targets were enriched for genes that contain SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose in human genome-wide association studies. These data establish the Lin28/let-7 pathway as a central regulator of mammalian glucose metabolism.
Dietary restriction (DR) has recognized health benefits that may extend to brain. We examined how DR affects bioenergetics-relevant enzymes and signaling pathways in the brains of C57BL/6 mice. Five month-old male mice were placed in ad libitum (AL) or one of two repeated fasting and refeeding (RFR) groups, an alternate day (intermittent fed; IF) or alternate day plus antioxidants (blueberry, pomegranate, and green tea extracts) (IF+AO) fed group. During the 24 hour fast blood glucose levels initially fell but stabilized within 6 hours of starting the fast, thus avoiding frank hypoglycemia. DR in general appeared to enhance insulin sensitivity. After six weeks brain AKT and GSK3β phosphorylation were lower in the RFR mice, suggesting RFR reduced brain insulin signaling pathway activity. Pathways that mediate mitochondrial biogenesis were not activated; AMPK phosphorylation, SIRT1 phosphorylation, PGC1a levels, and COX4 levels did not change. ATP levels also did not decline, which suggests the RFR protocols did not directly impact brain bioenergetics. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect the brain parameters we evaluated. Our data indicate in young adult male C57BL/6 mice, RFR primarily affects brain energy metabolism by reducing brain insulin signaling, which potentially results indirectly as a consequence of reduced peripheral insulin production.
antioxidants; brain; caloric restriction; dietary restriction; insulin; mitochondrial biogenesis
We previously reported that the biological activity of analogues of desmosdumotin B (1) was dramatically changed depending on the B-ring system. A naphthalene B-ring analogue 3 exerted potent in vitro activity against a diverse panel of human tumor cell lines with GI50 values of 0.8–2.1 μM. In contrast, 1-analogues with a phenyl B-ring showed unique selective activity against P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing multidrug resistance cell line. We have now prepared and evaluated 1-analogues with bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic B-ring systems as in vitro inhibitors of human cancer cell line proliferation. Among all synthesized derivatives, 21 with a benzo[b]thiophenyl B-ring was highly active, with GI50 values of 0.06–0.16 μM, and this activity was not influenced by overexpression of P-gp. Furthermore, 21 inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro with an IC 50 value of 2.0 μM and colchicine binding by 78% as well as cellular microtubule polymerization and spindle formation.
6,6,8-Triethyldesmosdumotin B (2) was discovered as a MDR–selective flavonoid with significant in vitro anticancer activity against a multi-drug resistant (MDR) cell line (KB-VIN) but without activity against the parent cells (KB). Additional 2-analogues were synthesized and evaluated to determine the effect of B-ring modifications on MDR-selectivity. Analogues with a B-ring Me (3) or Et (4) group had substantially increased MDR–selectivity. Three new disubstituted analogues, 35, 37 and 49, also had high collateral sensitivity (CS) indices of 273, 250 and 100, respectively. Furthermore, 2–4 also displayed MDR-selectivity in an MDR hepatoma-cell system. While 2–4 showed either no or very weak inhibition of cellular P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, they either activated or inhibited the actions of the first generation P-gp inhibitors verapamil or cyclosporin, respectively.
In a continued study, 23 3′R,4′R-di-O-(−)-camphanoyl-2′,2′-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP) derivatives (5–27) were synthesized, and screened for anti-HIV activity against both a non-drug-resistant NL4-3 strain and multiple reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-resistant (RTMDR-1) strain, using 2-EDCP (4) and 2-MDCP (35) as controls. New DCP analogs 5, 9, 14, and 22 exhibited potent anti-HIV activity against HIVNL4-3 with EC50 and therapeutic index (TI) values ranging from 0.036 μM to 0.14 μM and from 110 to 420, respectively. Compounds 5 and 9 also exhibited good activity against RTMDR-1 (EC50 0.049 and 0.054 μM; TI 310 and 200, respectively), and were two-fold more potent than the leads 4 and 35 (EC50 0.11 and 0.19 μM; TI 60 and 58, respectively). Evaluation of water solubility showed that 5 and 22 were 5–10 times more water soluble than 4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling results were first performed on this compound type, and the models should aid in design of future anti-HIV DCP analogs and potential clinical drug candidates.
3′R,4′R-Di-O-(−)-camphanoyl-2′,2′-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP) derivatives; HIV-1; Reverse transcriptase (RT); Structure-activity relationship (SAR)
Loss of kidney function underlies many renal diseases1. Mammals can partly repair their nephrons (the functional units of the kidney), but cannot form new ones2,3. By contrast, fish add nephrons throughout their lifespan and regenerate nephrons de novo after injury4,5, providing a model for understanding how mammalian renal regeneration may be therapeutically activated. Here we trace the source of new nephrons in the adult zebrafish to small cellular aggregates containing nephron progenitors. Transplantation of single aggregates comprising 10–30 cells is sufficient to engraft adults and generate multiple nephrons. Serial transplantation experiments to test self-renewal revealed that nephron progenitors are long-lived and possess significant replicative potential, consistent with stem-cell activity. Transplantation of mixed nephron progenitors tagged with either green or red fluorescent proteins yielded some mosaic nephrons, indicating that multiple nephron progenitors contribute to a single nephron. Consistent with this, live imaging of nephron formation in transparent larvae showed that nephrogenic aggregates form by the coalescence of multiple cells and then differentiate into nephrons. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the zebrafish kidney probably contains self-renewing nephron stem/progenitor cells. The identification of these cells paves the way to isolating or engineering the equivalent cells in mammals and developing novel renal regenerative therapies.
With a US Food and Drug Administration-labeled indication to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the nonstimulant guanfacine has become the preferred α2-agonist for ADHD treatment. However, significant interindividual variability has been observed in response to guanfacine. Consequently, hypotheses of a contributing interaction with the ubiquitously expressed drug transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), have arisen. We performed an in vitro study to determine if guanfacine is indeed a substrate of P-gp.
Intracellular accumulation of guanfacine was compared between P-gp expressing LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells and P-gp-negative LLC-PK1 cells to evaluate the potential interaction between P-gp and guanfacine. Cellular retention of guanfacine was analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic-ultraviolet method. Rhodamine6G, a known P-gp substrate, was included in the study as a positive control.
At guanfacine concentrations of 50 μM and 5 μM, intracellular accumulation of guanfacine in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells was, 35.9% ± 4.8% and 49.0% ± 28.3% respectively, of that in LLC-PK1 cells. In comparison, the concentration of rhodamine6G, the positive P-gp substrate, in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells was only 5% of that in LLC-PK1 cells.
The results of the intracellular accumulation study suggest that guanfacine is, at best, a weak P-gp substrate. Therefore, it is unlikely that P-gp, or any genetic variants thereof, are a determining factor in the interindividual variability of response observed with guanfacine therapy.
guanfacine; P-glycoprotein; substrate; intracellular uptake
Adverse effects of drugs (AEDs) continue to be a major cause of drug withdrawals both in development and post-marketing. While liver-related AEDs are a major concern for drug safety, there are few in silico models for predicting human liver toxicity for drug candidates. We have applied the Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach to model liver AEDs. In this study, we aimed to construct a QSAR model capable of binary classification (active vs. inactive) of drugs for liver AEDs based on chemical structure. To build QSAR models, we have employed an FDA spontaneous reporting database of human liver AEDs (elevations in activity of serum liver enzymes), which contains data on approximately 500 approved drugs. Approximately 200 compounds with wide clinical data coverage, structural similarity and balanced (40/60) active/inactive ratio were selected for modeling and divided into multiple training/test and external validation sets. QSAR models were developed using the k nearest neighbor method and validated using external datasets. Models with high sensitivity (>73%) and specificity (>94%) for prediction of liver AEDs in external validation sets were developed. To test applicability of the models, three chemical databases (World Drug Index, Prestwick Chemical Library, and Biowisdom Liver Intelligence Module) were screened in silico and the validity of predictions was determined, where possible, by comparing model-based classification with assertions in publicly available literature. Validated QSAR models of liver AEDs based on the data from the FDA spontaneous reporting system can be employed as sensitive and specific predictors of AEDs in pre-clinical screening of drug candidates for potential hepatotoxicity in humans.
An increasing number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified recently. Different from all the others that function in cis to regulate local gene expression, the newly identified HOTAIR is located between HoxC11 and HoxC12 in the human genome and regulates HoxD expression in multiple tissues. Like the well-characterised lncRNA Xist, HOTAIR binds to polycomb proteins to methylate histones at multiple HoxD loci, but unlike Xist, many details of its structure and function, as well as the trans regulation, remain unclear. Moreover, HOTAIR is involved in the aberrant regulation of gene expression in cancer.
To identify conserved domains in HOTAIR and study the phylogenetic distribution of this lncRNA, we searched the genomes of 10 mammalian and 3 non-mammalian vertebrates for matches to its 6 exons and the two conserved domains within the 1800 bp exon6 using Infernal. There was just one high-scoring hit for each mammal, but many low-scoring hits were found in both mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. These hits and their flanking genes in four placental mammals and platypus were examined to determine whether HOTAIR contained elements shared by other lncRNAs. Several of the hits were within unknown transcripts or ncRNAs, many were within introns of, or antisense to, protein-coding genes, and conservation of the flanking genes was observed only between human and chimpanzee. Phylogenetic analysis revealed discrete evolutionary dynamics for orthologous sequences of HOTAIR exons. Exon1 at the 5' end and a domain in exon6 near the 3' end, which contain domains that bind to multiple proteins, have evolved faster in primates than in other mammals. Structures were predicted for exon1, two domains of exon6 and the full HOTAIR sequence. The sequence and structure of two fragments, in exon1 and the domain B of exon6 respectively, were identified to robustly occur in predicted structures of exon1, domain B of exon6 and the full HOTAIR in mammals.
HOTAIR exists in mammals, has poorly conserved sequences and considerably conserved structures, and has evolved faster than nearby HoxC genes. Exons of HOTAIR show distinct evolutionary features, and a 239 bp domain in the 1804 bp exon6 is especially conserved. These features, together with the absence of some exons and sequences in mouse, rat and kangaroo, suggest ab initio generation of HOTAIR in marsupials. Structure prediction identifies two fragments in the 5' end exon1 and the 3' end domain B of exon6, with sequence and structure invariably occurring in various predicted structures of exon1, the domain B of exon6 and the full HOTAIR.
Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked the human LIN28B locus to height and timing of menarche [1-5]. LIN28B and its homolog LIN28 (hereafter, LIN28A) are functionally redundant RNA-binding proteins that block let-7 microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis [6-9]. lin-28 and let-7 were discovered in C. elegans as heterochronic regulators of larval and vulval development, but recently have been implicated in cancer, stem cell aging, and pluripotency [10-13]. The let-7 targets Myc, Kras, Igf2bp1 and Hmga2 are known regulators of mammalian body size and metabolism [14-18]. To explore the Lin28/let-7 pathway in vivo, we engineered transgenic mice to express Lin28a and observed increased body size, crown-rump length, and a delayed onset of puberty. While investigating metabolic and endocrine mechanisms of overgrowth, we observed increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in these transgenic mice. We report a mouse that models the human phenotypes associated with genetic variation in the Lin28/let-7 pathway.
Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assays are increasingly being used to inform chemical hazard identification. Hundreds of chemicals have been tested in dozens of cell lines across extensive concentration ranges by the National Toxicology Program in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center.
Our goal was to test a hypothesis that dose–response data points of the qHTS assays can serve as biological descriptors of assayed chemicals and, when combined with conventional chemical descriptors, improve the accuracy of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models applied to prediction of in vivo toxicity end points.
We obtained cell viability qHTS concentration–response data for 1,408 substances assayed in 13 cell lines from PubChem; for a subset of these compounds, rodent acute toxicity half-maximal lethal dose (LD50) data were also available. We used the k nearest neighbor classification and random forest QSAR methods to model LD50 data using chemical descriptors either alone (conventional models) or combined with biological descriptors derived from the concentration–response qHTS data (hybrid models). Critical to our approach was the use of a novel noise-filtering algorithm to treat qHTS data.
Both the external classification accuracy and coverage (i.e., fraction of compounds in the external set that fall within the applicability domain) of the hybrid QSAR models were superior to conventional models.
Concentration–response qHTS data may serve as informative biological descriptors of molecules that, when combined with conventional chemical descriptors, may considerably improve the accuracy and utility of computational approaches for predicting in vivo animal toxicity end points.
acute toxicity; animal testing; computational toxicology; quantitative high-throughput screening; QSAR