There is increasing recognition of the existence of intratumoral heterogeneity of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), which affects interpretation of HER2 positivity in clinical practice and may have implications for patient prognosis and treatment. We determined the frequency and prognostic impact of heterogeneous HER2 gene amplification and polysomy 17 in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
Patients and Methods
HER2 amplification (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) was examined in surgical EAC specimens (n = 675). HER2 heterogeneity was defined according to consensus guidelines as gene amplification (HER2/CEP17 ratio ≥ 2.0) in more than 5% but less than 50% of cancer cells. No patient received neoadjuvant or HER2-targeted therapy. Cox models were used to assess disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS).
Overall, 117 EACs (17%) demonstrated HER2 amplification, of which 20 (17%) showed HER2 heterogeneity. All HER2-heterogeneous tumors were amplified. Among HER2-amplified tumors, heterogeneous tumors had significantly higher frequency of poor histologic grade and polysomy 17. In multivariable models that included number of metastatic lymph nodes, grade, tumor stage, and polysomy 17, only HER2 heterogeneity and node number were prognostic among HER2-amplified tumors, with heterogeneity showing worse DSS (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.79; P = .025) and OS (P = .026). Among HER2-nonamplified EACs, polysomy 17 was independently associated with worse DSS (P = .012) and OS (P = .023).
Among HER2-amplified EACs, 17% show HER2 heterogeneity, which independently predicts for worse cancer-specific death. Among HER2-nonamplified EACs, polysomy 17 is independently associated with worse survival. These novel findings demonstrate aggressive subgroups in HER2-amplified and -nonamplified EACs that have important implications for HER2 analysis and determination of benefit from HER2-targeted therapy.
To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. The presence of 12 loci of KIR was detected individually. HLA-A, -B, and -C loci were genotyped with high resolution by a routine sequence-based typing method. The effect of each KIR locus, HLA ligand, and HLA-KIR combination was examined individually by Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis. Multivariate Cox hazard regression model was also applied. We identified C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 as an independent risk factor for earlier onset age of HCC (median onset age was 44 for C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 positive patients compared to 50 for negative patients, P = 0.04 for KM analysis; HR = 1.70, P = 0.004 for multivariate Cox model). We conclude that KIR and HLA genetic background can influence the onset age of HCC in male patients with HBV infection. This study may be useful to improve the current HCC surveillance program in HBV-infected patients. Our findings also suggest an important role of natural killer cells (or other KIR-expressing cells) in the progress of HBV-related HCC development.
Various E-ring hydroxylated antofine and cryptopleurine analogs were designed, synthesized, and tested against five human cancer cell lines. Interesting structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were found among these new compounds. The most potent compound 13b was further tested against a series of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, in which it showed impressive antiproliferative activity. Mechanistic studies revealed that 13b is able to down-regulate HSP90 and β-catenin in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a potential use for treating Hedgehog pathway-driven tumorigenesis.
Two conjugates (1 and 2) of camptothecin (CPT) and 4β-anilino-4′-O-demethylepipodophyllotoxin were previously shown to exert antitumor activity through inhibition of topoisomerase I (topo I). In this current study, two novel conjugates (1E and 2E) with an open E-ring in the CPT moiety were first synthesized and evaluated for biological activity in comparison with their intact E-ring congeners. This novel class of CPT derivatives exhibits its antitumor effect against CPT-sensitive and -resistant cells, in part, by inhibiting topo I-linked DNA (TLD) religation. An intact E-ring was not essential for the inhibition of TLD religation, although conjugates with an open E-ring were less potent than the closed ring analogs. This lower religation potency resulted in decreased formation of protein-linked DNA breaks (PLDBs), and hence, less cell growth inhibition. In addition to their impact on topo I, conjugates 1E, 2, and 2E exhibited a minor inhibitory effect on topo II-induced DNA cleavage. The novel structures of 1E and 2E may present scaffolds for further development of dual function topo I and II inhibitors with improved pharmacological profiles and physicochemical properties.
Topoisomerase; cytotoxicity; camptothecin (CPT); etoposide (VP-16); epipodophyllotoxin; conjugates
In our continuing study of curcumin analogs as potential anti-prostate cancer drug candidates, 15 new curcumin analogs were designed, synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human prostate cancer cell lines, androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3. Twelve analogs (5-12, 15, 16, 19, and 20) are conjugates of curcumin (1) or methyl curcumin (2) with a flutamide- or bicalutamide-like moiety. Two compounds (22 and 23) are C4-mono- and difluoro-substituted analogs of dimethyl curcumin (DMC, 21). Among the newly synthesized conjugates compound 15, a conjugate of 2 with a partial bicalutamide moiety, was more potent than bicalutamide alone and essentially equipotent with 1 and 2 against both prostate tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 41.8 μM (for LNCaP) and 39.1 μM (for PC-3). A cell morphology study revealed that the cytotoxicity of curcumin analogs or curcumin-antiandrogen conjugates detected from both prostate cancer cell lines might be due to the suppression of pseudopodia formation. A molecular intrinsic fluorescence experiment showed that 1 accumulated mainly in the nuclei, while conjugate 6 was distributed in the cytosol. At the tested conditions, antiandrogens suppressed pseudopodia formation in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. The evidence suggests that distinguishable target proteins are involved, resulting in the different outcomes toward pseudopodia suppression.
Synthesis; Curcumin analogs; Conjugates; Cytotoxicity; Anti-prostate cancer; Morphology
Background & Aims
Increased waist circumference and visceral fat are associated with increased risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). This association might be mediated by mechanical and endocrine mechanisms. We investigated the distribution of fat in subjects with BE and its association with esophageal inflammation and dysplasia.
We collected data from 50 BE cases and 50 controls (matched for age and sex, identified from a radiology trauma database) seen at the Mayo Clinic in 2009. Abdominal (subcutaneous and visceral) and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) fat area was measured using computed tomography with standard techniques. Esophageal inflammation (based on a histological score) and dysplasia grade were assessed from esophageal biopsies of BE cases by a gastrointestinal pathologist. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association of body fat depot area with BE status, esophageal inflammation and dysplasia.
All BE subjects had controlled reflux symptoms without esophagitis, based on endoscopy. GEJ fat area (odds ratio [OR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–27.7; P=.02), visceral fat area (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.0–22.8; P=.04) and abdominal circumference (OR=9.1; 95% CI, 1.4–57.2; P=0.02) were associated with BE, independent of BMI. Subcutaneous fat area was not associated with BE. Visceral and GEJ fat were significantly greater in BE subjects with esophageal inflammation (compared to those without, P=.02) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) (compared to those without, P=.01), independent of BMI.
GEJ and visceral fat are associated with BE, and with increased esophageal inflammation and HGD in BE subjects, independent of BMI. Visceral fat might therefore promote esophageal metaplasia and dysplasia.
Barrett's Esophagus; Central Obesity; Inflammation; Dysplasia; CT imaging; risk factor; esophageal carcinoma; obesity
Limited data exist regarding the outcomes of adjuvant therapy in younger patients with stage II and III colon cancer. We examined disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), recurrence-free interval (RFI), and grade 3+ adverse events (AEs) in younger patients in the 33,574 patient Adjuvant Colon Cancer Endpoints Group data set.
Patients and Methods
Individual patient data from 24 randomized phase III clinical trials were obtained for survival outcomes, which included 10 clinical trials for AE outcomes. Two age-based cutoff points were used to define younger patients: age younger than 40 years and younger than 50 years. Adjuvant therapy benefit analyses were limited to the nine clinical trials in which the investigational chemotherapeutic arm demonstrated benefit.
One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight patients (5.2%) were younger than 40 years, 5,817 patients (17.3%) were younger than 50 years, and only 299 patients (0.9%) were younger than 30 years. No meaningful differences in sex or stage were noted in younger versus older patients. Younger and older patients did not differ in RFI (age, < 40 years: hazard ratio [HR], 1.0; P = .62 and age < 50 years: HR, 1.02; P = .35). Younger patients (both cutoff points), had longer OS and DFS than older patients. In trials demonstrating adjuvant therapy benefit, similar DFS benefit was observed by age. Younger patients experienced less leukopenia and stomatitis, but more frequent nausea/vomiting.
Among patients on clinical trials, younger and older patients with stage II and III colon cancer had similar RFI and adjuvant therapy benefit. Younger patients have longer OS and DFS, which is likely primarily because of fewer competing causes of death. Adjuvant therapy is beneficial for colon cancer in patients younger than 50 years who meet typical clinical trial eligibility criteria.
In this study, 19 dicamphanoyl-dihydropyranochromone (DCP) and dicamphanoyl-dihydropyranoxanthone (DCX) derivatives, previously discovered as novel anti-HIV agents, were evaluated for their potential to reverse multi-drug resistance (MDR) in a cancer cell line over-expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Seven compounds fully reversed resistance to vincristine (VCR) at 4 μM, a 20-fold enhancement compared to the first generation chemosensitizer, verapamil (4 μM). The mechanism of action of DCPs and DCXs was also resolved, since the most active compounds (3, 4, and 7) significantly increased intracellular drug accumulation due, in part, to inhibiting the P-gp mediated drug efflux from cells. We conclude that DCPs (3 and 4) and DCXs (7, 11, and 17) can exhibit polypharmacologic behavior by acting as dual inhibitors of HIV replication and chemoresistance mediated by P-gp. As such, they may be useful in combination therapy to overcome P-gp-associated drug resistance for AIDS treatment.
pyranochromone derivatives; chemoresistance; P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors; anti-HIV agents; dual function inhibitors
Symptoms and complications of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) differ by metastatic sites. There is a paucity of prospective survival data for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis colorectal cancer (pcCRC). We characterized outcomes of patients with pcCRC enrolled onto two prospective randomized trials of chemotherapy and contrasted that with other manifestations of mCRC (non-pcCRC).
A total of 2,095 patients enrolled onto two prospective randomized trials were evaluated for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the adjusted associations.
The characteristics of the pcCRC group (n = 364) were similar to those of the non-pcCRC patients in median age (63 v 61 years, P = .23), sex (57% males v 61%, P = .23), and performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 94% v 96%, P = .06), but differed in frequency of liver (63% v 82%, P < .001) and lung metastases (27% v 34%, P = .01). Median OS (12.7 v 17.6 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.5; P < .001) and PFS (5.8 v 7.2 months, HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.3; P = .001) were shorter for pcCRC versus non-pcCRC. The unfavorable prognostic influence of pcCRC remained after adjusting for age, PS, liver metastases, and other factors (OS: HR = 1.3, P < .001; PFS: HR = 1.1, P = .02). Infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin was superior to irinotecan, leucovorin, and fluorouracil as a first-line treatment among pcCRC (HR for OS = 0.62, P = .005) and non-pcCRC patients (HR = 0.66, P < .001).
pcCRC is associated with a significantly shorter OS and PFS as compared with other manifestations of mCRC. Future trials for mCRC should consider stratifying on the basis of pcCRC status.
We examined the frequency, tumor characteristics, and prognostic impact of HER2 protein expression and gene amplification in patients with curatively resected esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
HER2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in surgical EAC specimens (n=713). Gene amplification was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a large subset (n=344). Most tumors were T3–4 (66%) or node-positive (72%); 95% were located in the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction. No patient received neoadjuvant therapy. Cox models were used.
Overall, 17% of EACs were HER2-positive (ie, IHC3+ or IHC2+ with amplification), with strong agreement between HER2 amplification (HER2/CEP17 ratio ≥2) and expression (κ=.83). HER2-positivity was significantly associated with lower tumor grade, less invasiveness, fewer malignant nodes, and the presence of adjacent Barrett’s esophagus (BE). EACs with BE had higher odds of HER2-positivity compared to EACs without BE, independent of pathologic features (odds ratio 1.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8], p=.014). Among all cases, HER2-positivity was significantly associated with disease-specific survival (DSS) in a manner that differed by the presence or absence of BE (p for interaction=.0047). In EACs with BE, HER2-positivity was significantly associated with improved DSS (hazard ratio 0.54 [95% CI 0.35–0.84], p=.0065) and overall survival (p=.0022) independent of pathologic features, but was not prognostic among EACs without BE.
HER2-positivity was demonstrated in 17% of resected EACs and associated with reduced tumor aggressiveness. EACs with BE had nearly twice the odds of being HER2-positive and, within this subgroup, HER2-positivity was independently associated with improved survival.
esophageal adenocarcinoma; Barrett’s esophagus; HER2; ErbB2; prognosis
In this study, 1R,2R-dicamphanoyl-3,3-dimethydihydropyrano[2,3-c]xanthen-7(1H)-one (DCX) derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel anti-HIV agents against both wild-type and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 (RTMDR-1) strains. Twenty-four DCX analogs (6-29) were synthesized and evaluated against the non-drug-resistant HIV-1 NL4-3 strain, and selected analogs were also screened for their ability to inhibit the RTMDR-1 strain. Compared with the control 2-ethyl-3′,4′-di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-2′,2′-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (2-EDCP, 2), one of the best anti-HIV coumarin derivatives in our prior study, three DCX compounds (7, 12, and 22) showed better activity against both HIV strains with an EC50 range of 0.062 – 0.081 μM, and five additional compounds (8, 11, 16, 18, and 21) exhibited comparable anti-HIV potency. Six DCX analogs (7, 11-12, 18, and 21-22) also showed enhanced selectivity index (SI) values in comparison to the control. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) information suggested that the extended conjugated system of the pyranoxanthone skeleton facilitates the interaction of the small DCX molecule within the viral binding pocket, consequently leading to enhanced anti-HIV activity and selectivity. Compared to DCP compounds, DCX analogs are a more promising new class of anti-HIV agents.
1R,2R-dicamphanoyl-3,3-dimethydihydropyrano[2,3-c]xanthen-7(1H)-one (DCX); Anti-HIV activity; Structure-activity relationship (SAR)
Tylophorine analogs exhibit a broad range of pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-autoimmune, and anti-virus effects. Structure-activity relationship study of different structure tylophorine analogs can provide further understanding of their biological activity. Modifications on the E ring of the quinolizidine moiety of cryptopleurine analogs changed the potency and the selective inhibitory effect on NF-κB, AP-1, and CRE signaling pathways. Functional cryptopleurine analogs showed potent inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in both HepG2 and HEK-293 cell lines. The E ring structure analogs also differed in suppression of protein translation, and expression of cyclin D1. Our results showed that DCB-3503 or Rac-cryptopleurine could be a scaffold for modification to yield compounds with different mechanisms of action.
Given that smoking affects body mass index (BMI) and survival, stratification by smoking status may be required to determine the true prognostic impact of BMI. Although obesity increases risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), the prognostic influence of obesity and its potential modification by smoking status is unknown in this disease.
Patients and Methods
All patients (N = 778) underwent potentially curative esophagectomy. BMI was calculated using measured height and weight at surgery and categorized as obese (≥ 30 kg/m2), overweight (25 to 29.9 kg/m2), or normal (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2). Cigarette smoking was categorized as never or ever. The association of BMI with disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) was determined by Cox regression.
Excess BMI was significantly associated with DSS in a manner that differed substantially by smoking status (P for interaction = .023). Among never smokers, obesity was significantly associated with adverse DSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.31 to 3.43; P = .002), DFS (HR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.18; P = .002), and OS (HR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.14; P = .004), as compared with normal weight, after adjusting for covariates. By contrast, among ever smokers, obesity was not prognostic, and overweight status was significantly associated with favorable survival in univariate, but not multivariate, analysis.
Obesity among never smokers was independently associated with two-fold worsening of DSS, DFS, and OS after surgery for EAC, after adjusting for known prognostic factors. These data, in one of the largest reported resected EAC cohorts, are the first to show an adverse prognostic impact of obesity in EAC.
To determine whether higher intensity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) surveillance was associated with earlier detection of biochemical recurrence (BCR) or survival.
Patients and Methods
We identified a population-based cohort of 832 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between January 1, 1995, and July 31, 2006. These men were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy or external beam radiation therapy (RT), or primary androgen deprivation therapy or chose watchful waiting. To test the associations of intensity in PSA surveillance with study outcomes, we used a 2-year landmark analysis to assess whether the number of PSA tests during the first 2 years after treatment was associated with earlier detection of BCR, prostate cancer–related mortality, and all-cause mortality. We used landmark analysis to assess the association of PSA intensity, adjusting for clinicopathologic covariate, with outcome.
Median follow-up time for the entire cohort was 6.7 years. Higher Gleason score was the only clinicopathologic variable associated with higher PSA frequency in multivariable analysis for both the RP and RT groups (P value of .001 and .05, respectively). After adjustment for other covariates, the frequency of PSA tests during the first 2 years after RP did not increase the ability to detect BCR (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.19) or all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.30) in the landmark analysis.
Higher intensity of PSA surveillance during the 2 years after RP or RT did not improve earlier detection of BCR or survival. Evidence-based guidelines for PSA surveillance after primary treatment are needed.
ACM, all-cause mortality; ADT, androgen deprivation therapy; BCR, biochemical recurrence; HR, hazard ratio; PCSM, prostate cancer–specific mortality; PSA, prostatic-specific antigen; RP, radical prostatectomy; RT, radiation therapy; WW, watchful waiting
During meiotic recombination, induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into crossovers (COs) and non-COs (NCO); the former are required for proper chromosome segregation and fertility. DNA synthesis is essential in current models of meiotic recombination pathways and includes only leading strand DNA synthesis, but few genes crucial for DNA synthesis have been tested genetically for their functions in meiosis. Furthermore, lagging strand synthesis has been assumed to be unnecessary. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana DNA REPLICATION FACTOR C1 (RFC1) important for lagging strand synthesis is necessary for fertility, meiotic bivalent formation, and homolog segregation. Loss of meiotic RFC1 function caused abnormal meiotic chromosome association and other cytological defects; genetic analyses with other meiotic mutations indicate that RFC1 acts in the MSH4-dependent interference-sensitive pathway for CO formation. In a rfc1 mutant, residual pollen viability is MUS81-dependent and COs exhibit essentially no interference, indicating that these COs form via the MUS81-dependent interference-insensitive pathway. We hypothesize that lagging strand DNA synthesis is important for the formation of double Holliday junctions, but not alternative recombination intermediates. That RFC1 is found in divergent eukaryotes suggests a previously unrecognized and highly conserved role for DNA synthesis in discriminating between recombination pathways.
Meiotic recombination is important for pairing and sustained association of homologous chromosomes (homologs), thereby ensuring proper homolog segregation and normal fertility. DNA synthesis is thought to be required for meiotic recombination, but few genes coding for DNA synthesis factors have been studied for possible meiotic functions because their essential roles in the mitotic cell cycle make it difficult to study their meiotic functions due to the lethality of corresponding null mutations. Current models for meiotic recombination only include leading strand DNA synthesis. We found that the Arabidopsis gene encoding the DNA REPLICATION FACTOR C1 (RFC1) important for lagging strand synthesis promotes meiotic recombination via a specific pathway for crossovers (COs) that involves the formation of double Holliday Junction (dHJ) intermediates. Therefore, lagging strand DNA synthesis is likely important for meiotic recombination. Because DNA synthesis is a highly conserved process and meiotic recombination is highly similar among budding yeast, mammals, and flowering plants, the proposed function of lagging strand synthesis for meiotic recombination might be a general feature of meiosis.
Glycyrrhetic acid (GA) exerts synergistic anti-asthmatic effects via a β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR)-mediated pathway. Cholesterol is an important component of the structure and function of lipid rafts, which play critical roles in the β2AR-Gs-adenylate cyclase (AC)-mediated signaling pathway. Owing to the structural similarities between GA and cholesterol, we investigated the possibility that GA enhances β2AR signaling by altering cholesterol distribution. Azide-terminal GA (ATGA) was synthesized and applied to human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing fusion β2AR, and the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was utilized. GA was determined to be localized predominantly on membrane and decreased their cholesterol contents. Thus, the fluidity of the hydrophobic region increased but not the polar surface of the cell membrane. The conformations of membrane proteins were also changed. GA further changed the localization of Gαs from lipid rafts to non-raft regions, resulting the binding of β2AR and Gαs, as well as in reduced β2AR internalization. Co-localization of β2AR, Gαs, and AC increased isoproterenol-induced cAMP production and cholesterol reloading attenuated this effect. A speculation wherein GA enhances beta-adrenergic activity by increasing the functional linkage between the subcomponents of the membrane β2AR-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway was proposed. The enhanced efficacy of β2AR agonists by this novel mechanism could prevent tachyphylaxis.
β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical G-protein coupled receptor that stimulates the classic cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Recent studies indicate that the cAMP-PKA activities are spatiotemporally regulated in part due to dynamic association of β2AR with phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), a group of cAMP degradation enzymes. Here, we demonstrate that in cardiomyocytes, palmitoylation of β2AR, the covalent acylation of cysteine residue 341, plays a critical role in shaping subcellular cAMP-PKA activities in cardiomyocytes via regulating β2AR association with arrestin/PDE4D. Replacing cysteine 341 on β2AR with alanine (C341A) leads to an impaired binding to β arrestin 2. Surprisingly, the C341A mutant is able to internalize via an arrestin-independent pathway at saturated concentration of agonist stimulation; the internalization becomes caveolae-dependent and requires dynamin GTPase. However, the impaired binding to β arrestin 2 also leads to an impaired recruitment of PDE4D to the C341A mutant. Thus, the mutant C341A β2AR is transported alone from the plasma membrane to the endosome without recruiting PDE4D. This alteration leads to an enhanced cytoplasmic cAMP signal for PKA activation under β2AR stimulation. Functionally, Mutation of the C341 residue or inhibition of palmitoylation modification of β2AR enhances the receptor-induced PKA activities in the cytoplasm and increases in myocyte contraction rate. Our data reveal a novel function of palmitoylation in shaping subcellular cAMP-PKA signaling in cardiomyocytes via modulating the recruitment of β arrestin 2-PDE4D complexes to the agonist-stimulated β2AR.
In the centrosymmetric title compound, [CdNi2(C17H16N2O2)2(HCOO)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, The NiII cation is chelated by a 2,2′-[propane-1,3-diylbis(nitrilomethanylylidene)]diphenolate (salpn) anion, and further coordinated by a formate anion and a water molecule in a distorted NiN2O4 octahedral geometry. The CdII cation, located on an inversion center, is coordinated by four deprotonated hydroxy groups from two salpn anions and two carboxylate O atoms from formate anions in a distorted octahedral geometry. Both formate and salpn anions bridge the Cd and Ni cations, forming a trinuclear complex. Within the salpn anion, the benzene rings are twisted to each other at a dihedral angle of 61.46 (18)°. Intermolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure. The lattice water molecule is disorder over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.75:0.25.
We investigated the putative surrogate endpoints (PSEs) of best response (BR), complete response (CR), confirmed response (CoR), and progression-free survival (PFS) for associations with Overall Survival (OS), and as possible surrogate endpoints for OS.
Individual patient (pt) data from 870 untreated ES-SCLC pts participating in 6 single-arm (274 pts) and 3 randomized trials (596 pts) were pooled. Patient-level associations between PSEs and OS were assessed by Cox models using landmark analyses. Trial-level surrogacy of PSEs assessed by the association of treatment effects on OS and individual PSEs. Trial-level surrogacy measures included: R2 from weighted least squares regression model (WLS R2), Spearman's correlation coefficient, and R2 from bivariate survival model (Copula R2).
Median OS and PFS were 9.6 (95% CI: 9.1-10.0) and 5.5 (95% CI: 5.2-5.9) months, respectively; BR, CR, and CoR rates were 44%, 22%, and 34%, respectively. Patient-level associations showed that PFS status at 4 months was a strong predictor of subsequent survival (HR=0.42 (95% CI: 0.35-0.51); concordance index=0.63; p<0.01), with 6-month PFS being the strongest (HR=0.41 (95% CI: 0.35-0.49); concordance index=0.66; p<0.01). At the trial-level, PFS showed the highest level of surrogacy for OS (WLS R2=0.79; Copula R2=0.80), explaining 79% of the variance in OS. Tumor response endpoints showed lower surrogacy levels (WLS R2≤0.48).
PFS was strongly associated with OS at both the patient and trial-level. PFS also shows promise as a potential surrogate for OS, but further validation is needed using data from a larger number of randomized phase III trials.
extensive-stage small cell lung cancer; surrogate endpoints; pooled analysis; progression-free survival; tumor response
Heart failure (HF) care constitutes an increasing economic burden on the healthcare system, and has become a key focus in the healthcare debate. However, there are limited data on the lifetime healthcare costs for individuals with HF after initial diagnosis.
Methods and Results
Olmsted County residents with incident HF from 1987–2006 were identified. Direct medical costs incurred from the time of HF diagnosis until death or last follow-up were obtained using population-based administrative data through 2007. Costs were inflated to 2008 U.S. dollars using the general Consumer Price Index (CPI). Inpatient, outpatient, and total costs were estimated using a two-part model with adjustment for right censoring of data. Predictors of total costs were examined using a similar model. A total of 1054 incident HF patients were identified (mean age 76.8 years, 46.1% male). After a mean follow-up of 4.6 years, 765 (72.6%) patients had died. The estimated total lifetime costs were $109,541 (95% CI $100,335–118,946) per person, with the majority accumulated during hospitalizations (mean $83,980 per person). After adjustment for age, year of diagnosis, and comorbidity, diabetes mellitus and preserved ejection fraction (≥50%) were associated with 24.8% (p=0.003) and 23.6% (p=0.041) higher lifetime costs, respectively. Higher costs were observed at initial HF diagnosis and in the months immediately before death in those surviving >12 months after diagnosis.
HF imposes a significant economic burden, primarily related to hospitalizations. Variations in cost over a lifetime can help identify strategies for efficient management of patients, particularly at the end of life.
community; cost; heart failure; epidemiology; health services research
In this study, various 3′R,4′R-disubstituted-2′,2′-dimethydihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DSP) derivatives were discovered as potent chemosensitizers in the treatment of multidrug resistant cancer cells. Twenty-four DSP analogs (5–28) were synthesized and evaluated against a multi-drug resistant (MDR) cell line (KB-Vin) with and without vincristine (VCR). All DSP analogs exhibited low intrinsic cytotoxicity. However, in combination treatment, most DSPs reversed resistance to VCR and lowered the GI50 value of VCR by 12–349-fold. At a concentration of 1μg/mL, three compounds, 11, 14 and 21, fully reversed resistance to VCR in KB-Vin cancer cells, a twofold increase compared to verapamil, a first generation chemosensitizer. Detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) conclusions were established based on 3′ and 4′ substitutions. Moreover, a preliminary mechanism study indicated that the chemosensitizing activity of DSP analogs results from inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expressed in MDR cancer cells.1
Natural killer (NK) cells activation has been reported to contribute to inflammation and liver injury during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection both in transgenic mice and in patients. However, the role of NK cells in the process of HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development has not been addressed. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in regulating NK cell activation through recognition of specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I allotypes.
To investigate whether KIR and HLA genes could influence the risk of HBV-associated HCC development, 144 HBV-infected patients with HCC and 189 well-matched HBV infectors with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis as non-HCC controls were enrolled in this study. The presence of 12 loci of KIR was detected individually. HLA-A, -B, -C loci were genotyped with high-resolution. HLA-C group 1 homozygote (OR = 2.02; p = 0.005), HLA-Bw4-80I (OR = 2.67; p = 2.0E-04) and combination of full-length form and 22 bp-deleted form of KIR2DS4 (KIR2DS4/1D) (OR = 1.89; p = 0.017) were found associated with HCC incidence. When the combined effects of these three genetic factors were evaluated, more risk factors were observed correlating with higher odds ratios for HCC incidence (P trend = 7.4E-05). Because all the risk factors we found have been reported to result in high NK cell functional potential by previous studies, our observations suggest that NK cell activation may contribute to HBV-associated HCC development.
In conclusion, this study has identified significant associations that suggest an important role for NK cells in HCC incidence in HBV-infected patients. Our study is useful for HCC surveillance and has implications for novel personalized therapy strategy development aiming at HCC prevention in HBV-infected patients.
In a continued study, 23 3′R,4′R-di-O-(−)-camphanoyl-2′,2′-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP) derivatives (5–27) were synthesized, and screened for anti-HIV activity against both a non-drug-resistant NL4-3 strain and multiple reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-resistant (RTMDR-1) strain, using 2-EDCP (4) and 2-MDCP (35) as controls. New DCP analogs 5, 9, 14, and 22 exhibited potent anti-HIV activity against HIVNL4-3 with EC50 and therapeutic index (TI) values ranging from 0.036 μM to 0.14 μM and from 110 to 420, respectively. Compounds 5 and 9 also exhibited good activity against RTMDR-1 (EC50 0.049 and 0.054 μM; TI 310 and 200, respectively), and were two-fold more potent than the leads 4 and 35 (EC50 0.11 and 0.19 μM; TI 60 and 58, respectively). Evaluation of water solubility showed that 5 and 22 were 5–10 times more water soluble than 4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling results were first performed on this compound type, and the models should aid in design of future anti-HIV DCP analogs and potential clinical drug candidates.
3′R,4′R-Di-O-(−)-camphanoyl-2′,2′-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP) derivatives; HIV-1; Reverse transcriptase (RT); Structure-activity relationship (SAR)
A novel and efficient microwave-assisted one-pot reaction was developed to synthesize angular 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromone containing compounds, which is the first and key step in the synthesis of potent DCK and DCP anti-HIV agents. The newly developed microwave synthesis conditions dramatically shortened the reaction time from 2 days to 4 hours with improved yields.
Microwave reaction; Angular 2; 2-dimethyl-2H-chromone; One-pot reaction; Anti-HIV
As a part of our continuing study of colchicinoids as therapeutically useful antitumor drugs, thiocolchicine derivatives, including their phosphate and other water soluble salts, were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin polymerization and for in vitro cytotoxicity. Three compounds, 7, 10, and 11, showed potent inhibition of tubulin assembly (IC50 = 0.88 – 1.1 μM). In addition, compound 7, a water soluble succinic acid salt of N-deacetylthiocolchicine (4), showed potent cytotoxicity against a panel of tumor cell lines, suggesting it might be a potential lead to be developed as a therapeutic antitumor agent. Compound 8, a water soluble succinic acid salt of N,N-dimethyl-N-deacetylthiocolchicine (5), showed selective activities against HCT-8 and SK-BR-3 cells. N,N-Diethyl-N-deacetylthiocolchicine (6) seemed not to be a substrate for the P-gp efflux pump, based on the similar ED50 values obtained against P-gp over-expressing KBvin (0.0146 μg/mL) cells and the parent KB (0.0200 μg/mL) cell line.
N-Alkylthiocolchinoids; Antitumor agents; Tubulin polymerization