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1.  Genome Based Cell Population Heterogeneity Promotes Tumorigenicity: The Evolutionary Mechanism of Cancer 
Journal of cellular physiology  2009;219(2):288-300.
Cancer progression represents an evolutionary process where overall genome level changes reflect system instability and serve as a driving force for evolving new systems. To illustrate this principle it must be demonstrated that karyotypic heterogeneity (population diversity) directly contributes to tumorigenicity. Five well characterized in vitro tumor progression models representing various types of cancers were selected for such an analysis. The tumorigenicity of each model has been linked to different molecular pathways, and there is no common molecular mechanism shared among them. According to our hypothesis that genome level heterogeneity is a key to cancer evolution, we expect to reveal that the common link of tumorigenicity between these diverse models is elevated genome diversity. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) was used to compare the degree of karyotypic heterogeneity displayed in various sublines of these five models. The cell population diversity was determined by scoring type and frequencies of clonal and non-clonal chromosome aberrations (CCAs and NCCAs). The tumorigenicity of these models has been separately analyzed. As expected, the highest level of NCCAs was detected coupled with the strongest tumorigenicity among all models analyzed. The karyotypic heterogeneity of both benign hyperplastic lesions and premalignant dysplastic tissues were further analyzed to support this conclusion. This common link between elevated NCCAs and increased tumorigenicity suggests an evolutionary causative relationship between system instability, population diversity, and cancer evolution. This study reconciles the difference between evolutionary and molecular mechanisms of cancer and suggests that NCCAs can serve as a biomarker to monitor the probability of cancer progression.
PMCID: PMC2778062  PMID: 19115235
2.  Human papillomavirus, cervical cancer and women’s knowledge 
Condensed abstract: In the wake of embarking an HPV vaccination program on the public, a significant proportion of women are not well informed about cervical cancer risk factors.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for cervical cancer.
We implemented a retrospective case-series study to discern HPV knowledge accuracy among women diagnosed with and treated for cervical cancer. Cases (n= 1,174), identified from the Pathology database, were diagnosed and treated for cervical cancer at the same institution. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and by reviewing medical records.
A total of 328 (27.9%) women returned the completed forms. Only 19% of the respondents had identified HPV as the primary risk factor for cervical cancer. Environmental pollutants, radiation exposure, poor dietary habits, excessive physical activity and family history of cervical cancer were listed as risk factors among many others. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine variables that were best associated with HPV knowledge accuracy. Age and education were the two variables that were statistically associated with the outcome. Younger and more educated women who participated in this study were more likely to know about the association between HPV infection and the risk of cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer risk factor knowledge, especially knowledge about HPV is low, even among women with the history of cervical cancer. Younger and more educated women are more likely to have HPV and cervical cancer knowledge accuracy. The importance of personal health practices and the focus on health education should be equally emphasized to achieve successful cancer prevention through vaccination.
PMCID: PMC2481234  PMID: 18406069
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade III; Cervical Cancer Risk Factors; Cervical Cancer; Human Papilloma Virus
3.  Evidence for association between the HLA-DQA locus and abdominal aortic aneurysms in the Belgian population: a case control study 
BMC Medical Genetics  2006;7:67.
Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity likely contribute to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of autoimmunity in the etiology of AAAs using a genetic association study approach with HLA polymorphisms.
HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DRB3-5 alleles were determined in 387 AAA cases (180 Belgian and 207 Canadian) and 426 controls (269 Belgian and 157 Canadian) by a PCR and single-strand oligonucleotide probe hybridization assay.
We observed a potential association with the HLA-DQA1 locus among Belgian males (empirical p = 0.027, asymptotic p = 0.071). Specifically, there was a significant difference in the HLA-DQA1*0102 allele frequencies between AAA cases (67/322 alleles, 20.8%) and controls (44/356 alleles, 12.4%) in Belgian males (empirical p = 0.019, asymptotic p = 0.003). In haplotype analyses, marginally significant association was found between AAA and haplotype HLA-DQA1-DRB1 (p = 0.049 with global score statistics and p = 0.002 with haplotype-specific score statistics).
This study showed potential evidence that the HLA-DQA1 locus harbors a genetic risk factor for AAAs suggesting that autoimmunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of AAAs.
PMCID: PMC1559600  PMID: 16879749
4.  Sequential Molecular and Cellular Events during Neoplastic Progression: A Mouse Syngeneic Ovarian Cancer Model1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2005;7(10):944-956.
Studies performed to identify early events of ovarian cancer and to establish molecular markers to support early detection and development of chemopreventive regimens have been hindered by a lack of adequate cell models. Taking advantage of the spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells in culture, we isolated and characterized distinct transitional stages of ovarian cancer as the cells progressed from a premalignant nontumorigenic phenotype to a highly aggressive malignant phenotype. Transitional stages were concurrent with progressive increases in proliferation, anchorage-independent growth capacity, in vivo tumor formation, and aneuploidy. During neoplastic progression, our ovarian cancer model underwent distinct remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion complexes, concomitant with downregulation and/or aberrant subcellular localization of two tumor-suppressor proteins E-cadherin and connexin-43. In addition, we demonstrate that epigenetic silencing of E-cadherin through promoter methylation is associated with neoplastic progression of our ovarian cancer model. These results establish critical interactions between cellular cytoskeletal remodeling and epigenetic silencing events in the progression of ovarian cancer. Thus, our MOSE model provides an excellent tool to identify both cellular and molecular changes in the early and late stages of ovarian cancer, to evaluate their regulation, and to determine their significance in an immunocompetent in vivo environment.
PMCID: PMC1502030  PMID: 16242077
E-cadherin; epigenetic silencing; promoter methylation; ovarian cancer; animal model
5.  Low False-Negative Rate of PCR Analysis for Detecting Human Papillomavirus-Related Cervical Lesions 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(9):2708-2713.
Although PCR analysis is a sensitive test for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the cervix, the proportion of cases of cervical dysplasia missed, or the false-negative rate, has been unknown. We determined the accuracy of PCR analysis for HPV DNA as a predictor of HPV-related cervical lesions in a cross-sectional study of sexually active women, aged 18 to 50 years, from the University of Michigan Family Medicine HPV study. Of 133 eligible participants, 41 underwent colposcopy because of a positive result for HPV of the cervix by the PCR method and 92 underwent screening colposcopy with biopsy prior to knowing the HPV PCR results. Twenty-four of those screened were subsequently found to also be HPV DNA positive. In those found to be HPV positive, histological studies revealed the presence of condyloma or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 16 women (24.6%) and changes suggestive of condyloma in 5 (7.6%). No HPV-negative woman had an abnormal biopsy or cytology report (P = 0.000001). The false-negative rate (1 − sensitivity) for HPV PCR analysis for detection of the presence of a cervical HPV-related lesion was 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 0.047), and the specificity was 60.7%. In summary, PCR analysis for HPV DNA had a very low false-negative rate for predicting HPV-related lesions of the cervix in a community-based population. This supports the validity of using the absence of HPV at the cervix, as determined by PCR testing, as an inclusion criterion for patients in control groups in studies dealing with low-grade cervical lesions.
PMCID: PMC105188  PMID: 9705418
6.  Regional expression of HOXA4 along the aorta and its potential role in human abdominal aortic aneurysms 
BMC Physiology  2011;11:9.
The infrarenal abdominal aorta exhibits increased disease susceptibility relative to other aortic regions. Allograft studies exchanging thoracic and abdominal segments showed that regional susceptibility is maintained regardless of location, suggesting substantial roles for embryological origin, tissue composition and site-specific gene expression.
We analyzed gene expression with microarrays in baboon aortas, and found that members of the HOX gene family exhibited spatial expression differences. HOXA4 was chosen for further study, since it had decreased expression in the abdominal compared to the thoracic aorta. Western blot analysis from 24 human aortas demonstrated significantly higher HOXA4 protein levels in thoracic compared to abdominal tissues (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining for HOXA4 showed nuclear and perinuclear staining in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in aorta. The HOXA4 transcript levels were significantly decreased in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) compared to age-matched non-aneurysmal controls (P < 0.00004). Cultured human aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells stimulated with INF-γ (an important inflammatory cytokine in AAA pathogenesis) showed decreased levels of HOXA4 protein (P < 0.0007).
Our results demonstrated spatial variation in expression of HOXA4 in human aortas that persisted into adulthood and that downregulation of HOXA4 expression was associated with AAAs, an important aortic disease of the ageing population.
PMCID: PMC3125234  PMID: 21627813

Results 1-6 (6)