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1.  Metformin in non-Diabetic Patients Presenting with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Rationale and Design of the Glycometabolic Intervention as Adjunct to Primary Percutaneous Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS)-III Trial 
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy  2012;26(5):417-426.
Background
Left ventricular dysfunction and the development of heart failure is a frequent and serious complication of myocardial infarction. Recent animal experimental studies suggested that metformin treatment reduces myocardial injury and preserves cardiac function in non-diabetic rats after experimental myocardial infarction. We will study the efficacy of metformin with the aim to preserve left ventricular ejection fraction in non-diabetic patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Methods
The Glycometabolic Intervention as adjunct to Primary percutaneous intervention in ST elevation myocardial infarction (GIPS)-III trial is a prospective, single center, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Three-hundred-and-fifty patients, without diabetes, requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI will be randomized to metformin 500 mg twice daily or placebo treatment and will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after 4 months. Major exclusion criteria were prior myocardial infarction and severe renal dysfunction. The primary efficacy parameter is left ventricular ejection fraction 4 months after randomization. Secondary and tertiary efficacy parameters include major adverse cardiac events, new onset diabetes and glycometabolic parameters, and echocardiographic diastolic function. Safety parameters include renal function deterioration and lactic acidosis.
Conclusions
The GIPS-III trial will evaluate the efficacy of metformin treatment to preserve left ventricular ejection fraction in STEMI patients without diabetes.
doi:10.1007/s10557-012-6413-1
PMCID: PMC3464381  PMID: 22968678
ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Metformin; Left ventricular ejection fraction; Heart failure; Cardiac remodeling
2.  Comparison of the temporal release pattern of copeptin with conventional biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction 
Clinical Research in Cardiology  2011;100(12):1069-1076.
Background
Early detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using cardiac biomarkers of myocardial necrosis remains limited since these biomarkers do not rise within the first hours from onset of AMI. We aimed to compare the temporal release pattern of the C-terminal portion of provasopressin (copeptin) with conventional cardiac biomarkers, including creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and high-sensitivity cTnT (hs-cTnT), in patients with ST-elevation AMI.
Methods
We included 145 patients undergoing successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for a first ST-elevation AMI presenting within 12 h of symptom onset. Blood samples were taken on admission and at four time points within the first 24 h after PCI.
Results
In contrast to all other markers, copeptin levels were already elevated on admission and were higher with a shorter time from symptom onset to reperfusion and lower systolic blood pressure. Copeptin levels peaked immediately after symptom onset at a maximum of 249 pmol/L and normalized within 10 h. In contrast, CK-MB, cTnT, and hs-cTnT peaked after 14 h from symptom onset at a maximum of 275 U/L, 5.75 μg/L, and 4.16 μg/L, respectively, and decreased more gradually.
Conclusions
Copeptin has a distinct release pattern in patients with ST-elevation AMI, peaking within the first hour after symptom onset before conventional cardiac biomarkers and falling to normal ranges within the first day. Further studies are required to determine the exact role of copeptin in AMI suspects presenting within the first hours after symptom onset.
doi:10.1007/s00392-011-0343-y
PMCID: PMC3222827  PMID: 21766239
Copeptin; Acute myocardial infarction; Biomarkers; Temporal release pattern; Troponin
3.  Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes Enhances In-Stent Restenosis after Aortic Stenting in Diabetes-Prone BB Rats 
Type 1 diabetic patients have increased risk of developing in-stent restenosis following endovascular stenting. Underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are not fully understood partly due to the lack of a relevant animal model to study the effect(s) of long-term autoimmune diabetes on development of in-stent restenosis. We here describe the development of in-stent restenosis in long-term (~7 months) spontaneously diabetic and age-matched, thymectomized, nondiabetic Diabetes Prone BioBreeding (BBDP) rats (n = 6-7 in each group). Diabetes was suboptimally treated with insulin and was characterized by significant hyperglycaemia, polyuria, proteinuria, and increased HbA1c levels. Stented abdominal aortas were harvested 28 days after stenting. Computerized morphometric analysis revealed significantly increased neointima formation in long-term diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic controls. In conclusion, long-term autoimmune diabetes in BBDP rats enhances in-stent restenosis. This model can be used to study the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetes-enhanced in-stent restenosis as well as to test new therapeutic modalities.
doi:10.1155/2011/396734
PMCID: PMC3038840  PMID: 21331346

Results 1-3 (3)