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1.  A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of Transcutaneous Glomerular Filtration Rate Measurement Using Fluorescence-Labelled Sinistrin in Dogs and Cats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e111734.
In dogs and cats an assessment of renal function is often needed, however, existing methods including urine and plasma clearances are invasive, cumbersome and time consuming. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a transcutaneous glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement in dogs and cats. Additionally the optimal dose and location for the transcutaneous measurement device were investigated. Renal elimination of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labelled sinistrin (FITC-S) was measured transcutaneously for 4 hours. The procedures were performed in awake, freely moving animals using escalating doses of FITC-S (10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) with a wash-out period of at least 24 h in between. Multiple devices were placed on each animal. The resulting FITC-S disappearance curves were visually assessed to determine the most suitable location and the appropriate dose to reach an adequate transcutaneous peak signal for kinetic analysis. In both species 30 mg/kg were adequate for kinetic calculation. The most suitable place for the device was the lateral thoracic wall in dogs and the ventral abdominal wall in cats, respectively. Transcutaneous FITC-S clearance was then repeated using the optimal dose and location and in parallel with an additional plasma sinistrin clearance. Plasma elimination half-lives [min] were 26, 31 and 35, and corresponding transcutaneous elimination half-lives [min] were 26, 34 and 55, respectively in the dogs. Plasma elimination half-lives [min] were 51, 60 and 61, and corresponding transcutaneous elimination half-lives [min] were 75, 96 and 83, respectively in the cats. In conclusion, transcutaneous FITC-S clearance is a feasible method for the assessment of GFR in awake dogs and cats. It is noninvasive, well tolerated and easy to perform even in a clinical setting with results being readily available. A dose of 30 mg/kg of FITC-S seems adequate for kinetic assessment. Further studies are now needed to establish reference values and evaluate transcutaneous renal clearance in various conditions.
PMCID: PMC4244090  PMID: 25423195
2.  CaM Kinase II mediates maladaptive post-infarct remodeling and pro-inflammatory chemoattractant signaling but not acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury 
EMBO Molecular Medicine  2014;6(10):1231-1245.
CaMKII was suggested to mediate ischemic myocardial injury and adverse cardiac remodeling. Here, we investigated the roles of different CaMKII isoforms and splice variants in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by the use of new genetic CaMKII mouse models. Although CaMKIIδC was upregulated 1 day after I/R injury, cardiac damage 1 day after I/R was neither affected in CaMKIIδ-deficient mice, CaMKIIδ-deficient mice in which the splice variants CaMKIIδB and C were re-expressed, nor in cardiomyocyte-specific CaMKIIδ/γ double knockout mice (DKO). In contrast, 5 weeks after I/R, DKO mice were protected against extensive scar formation and cardiac dysfunction, which was associated with reduced leukocyte infiltration and attenuated expression of members of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand family, in particular CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, MIP-1α). Intriguingly, CaMKII was sufficient and required to induce CCL3 expression in isolated cardiomyocytes, indicating a cardiomyocyte autonomous effect. We propose that CaMKII-dependent chemoattractant signaling explains the effects on post-I/R remodeling. Taken together, we demonstrate that CaMKII is not critically involved in acute I/R-induced damage but in the process of post-infarct remodeling and inflammatory processes.
PMCID: PMC4287929  PMID: 25193973
apoptosis; Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; cardiac remodeling; gene replacement; ischemia/reperfusion injury
3.  Neisseria meningitidis elicits a pro-inflammatory response involving IκBζ in a human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier model 
The human-specific, Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which is constituted by the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus (CP), has been suggested as one of the potential entry sites of Nm into the CSF and can contribute to the inflammatory response during infectious diseases of the brain. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in mediating signal transduction caused by the pathogens.
Using a recently established in vitro model of the human BCSFB based on human malignant CP papilloma (HIBCPP) cells we investigated the cellular response of HIBCPP cells challenged with the meningitis-causing Nm strain, MC58, employing transcriptome and RT-PCR analysis, cytokine bead array, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In comparison, we analyzed the answer to the closely related unencapsulated carrier isolate Nm α14. The presence of TLRs in HIBCPP and their role during signal transduction caused by Nm was studied by RT-PCR and the use of specific agonists and mutant bacteria.
We observed a stronger transcriptional response after infection with strain MC58, in particular with its capsule-deficient mutant MC58siaD−, which correlated with bacterial invasion levels. Expression evaluation and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis pointed to a NFκB-mediated pro-inflammatory immune response involving up-regulation of the transcription factor IκBζ. Infected cells secreted significant levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, including, among others, IL8, CXCL1-3, and the IκBζ target gene product IL6. The expression profile of pattern recognition receptors in HIBCPP cells and the response to specific agonists indicates that TLR2/TLR6, rather than TLR4 or TLR2/TLR1, is involved in the cellular reaction following Nm infection.
Our data show that Nm can initiate a pro-inflammatory response in human CP epithelial cells probably involving TLR2/TLR6 signaling and the transcriptional regulator IκBζ.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12974-014-0163-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4172843  PMID: 25347003
Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier; Cellular immune response; Choroid plexus; Host-pathogen interactions; Microarray; Neisseria meningitidis; Toll-like receptors; Transcriptomics
4.  Inhibition of Comt with tolcapone slows progression of polycystic kidney disease in the more severely affected PKD/Mhm (cy/+) substrain of the Hannover Sprague-Dawley rat 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2013;28(8):2045-2058.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common human inherited diseases. Modifier genes seem to modulate the disease progression and might therefore be promising drug targets. Although a number of modifier loci have been already identified, no modifier gene has been proven to be a real modifier yet.
Gene expression profiling of two substrains of the Han:SPRD rat, namely PKD/Mhm and PKD/US, both harboring the same mutation, was conducted in 36-day-old animals. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt) was identified as a potential modifier gene. A 3-month treatment with tolcapone, a selective inhibitor of Comt, was carried out in PKD/Mhm and PKD/US (cy/+) animals.
Comt is localized within a known modifier locus of PKD (MOP2). The enzyme encoding gene was found upregulated in the more severely affected PKD/Mhm substrain and was hence presumed to be a putative modifier gene of PKD. The treatment with tolcapone markedly attenuated the loss of renal function, inhibited renal enlargement, shifted the size distribution of renal cysts and retarded cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis development in affected (cy/+) male and female PKD/Mhm and PKD/US rats.
Comt has been confirmed to be the first reported modifier gene for PKD and tolcapone offers a promising drug for treating PKD.
PMCID: PMC3983428  PMID: 23543593
catechol-O-methyltransferase; gene expression profiling; modifier; polycystic kidney disease; tolcapone
5.  Systemic Treatment with Erythropoietin Protects the Neurovascular Unit in a Rat Model of Retinal Neurodegeneration 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102013.
Rats expressing a transgenic polycystic kidney disease (PKD) gene develop photoreceptor degeneration and subsequent vasoregression, as well as activation of retinal microglia and macroglia. To target the whole neuroglialvascular unit, neuro- and vasoprotective Erythropoietin (EPO) was intraperitoneally injected into four –week old male heterozygous PKD rats three times a week at a dose of 256 IU/kg body weight. For comparison EPO-like peptide, lacking unwanted side effects of EPO treatment, was given five times a week at a dose of 10 µg/kg body weight. Matched EPO treated Sprague Dawley and water-injected PKD rats were held as controls. After four weeks of treatment the animals were sacrificed and analysis of the neurovascular morphology, glial cell activity and pAkt localization was performed. The number of endothelial cells and pericytes did not change after treatment with EPO or EPO-like peptide. There was a nonsignificant reduction of migrating pericytes by 23% and 49%, respectively. Formation of acellular capillaries was significantly reduced by 49% (p<0.001) or 40% (p<0.05). EPO-treatment protected against thinning of the central retina by 10% (p<0.05), a composite of an increase of the outer nuclear layer by 12% (p<0.01) and in the outer segments of photoreceptors by 26% (p<0.001). Quantification of cell nuclei revealed no difference. Microglial activity, shown by gene expression of CD74, decreased by 67% (p<0.01) after EPO and 36% (n.s.) after EPO-like peptide treatment. In conclusion, EPO safeguards the neuroglialvascular unit in a model of retinal neurodegeneration and secondary vasoregression. This finding strengthens EPO in its protective capability for the whole neuroglialvascular unit.
PMCID: PMC4094460  PMID: 25013951
6.  Progression of GFR reduction determined in conscious Dahl S hypertensive rats 
Hypertension  2013;62(1):85-90.
Sequential changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during development of hypertension in the conscious Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat were determined using a new method for measurement. Utilizing a miniaturized device, disappearance curves of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-sinistrin were measured by transcutaneous excitation and real time detection of the emitted light through the skin. Rats with implanted femoral venous catheters (dye injection and sampling) and carotid catheters (mean arterial pressure (MAP) by telemetry) were studied while maintained on a 0.4% NaCl diet and on days 2,5,7,14 and 21 after switching to 4.0% (HS) diet. A separate group of rats were maintained on 0.4% for 21 days as a time control. MAP rose progressively from the last day of 0.4% (130±2 mmHg) reaching significance by day 5 of HS and averaged 162±7 mmHg by day 21. Urine albumin excretion was significantly elevated (3×) by day 7 of HS in SS rats. GFR became reduced on day 14 of HS falling from 1.53±0.06 ml/min/100g bwgt to 1.27±0.04. By day 21, GFR had fallen 28% to 1.1±0.04 ml/min/100g bwgt (t1/2 28.4±1.1 min.) No significant reductions of creatinine clearance (Ccre) were observed throughout the study in response to HS demonstrating the insensitivity of Ccre measurements even with creatinine measured using mass spectrometry. We conclude that the observed reduction of GFR was a consequence and not a cause of the hypertension and that this non-invasive approach could be used in these conscious SS rats for a longitudinal assessment of renal function.
PMCID: PMC3806646  PMID: 23630946
GFR; Dahl S rat; salt-sensitive hypertension; creatinine clearance
7.  Identification of Novel SHOX Target Genes in the Developing Limb Using a Transgenic Mouse Model 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98543.
Deficiency of the human short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) has been identified in several disorders characterized by reduced height and skeletal anomalies such as Turner syndrome, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia as well as isolated short stature. SHOX acts as a transcription factor during limb development and is expressed in chondrocytes of the growth plates. Although highly conserved in vertebrates, rodents lack a SHOX orthologue. This offers the unique opportunity to analyze the effects of human SHOX expression in transgenic mice. We have generated a mouse expressing the human SHOXa cDNA under the control of a murine Col2a1 promoter and enhancer (Tg(Col2a1-SHOX)). SHOX and marker gene expression as well as skeletal phenotypes were characterized in two transgenic lines. No significant skeletal anomalies were found in transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Quantitative and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that Tg(Col2a1-SHOX), however, affected extracellular matrix gene expression during early limb development, suggesting a role for SHOX in growth plate assembly and extracellular matrix composition during long bone development. For instance, we could show that the connective tissue growth factor gene Ctgf, a gene involved in chondrogenic and angiogenic differentiation, is transcriptionally regulated by SHOX in transgenic mice. This finding was confirmed in human NHDF and U2OS cells and chicken micromass culture, demonstrating the value of the SHOX-transgenic mouse for the characterization of SHOX-dependent genes and pathways in early limb development.
PMCID: PMC4041798  PMID: 24887312
8.  Yes-Associated Protein Upregulates Jagged-1 and Activates the NOTCH Pathway in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Gastroenterology  2013;144(7):1530-1542.e12.
Background & Aims
Cancer cells often lose contact inhibition to undergo anchorage-independent proliferation and become resistant to apoptosis by inactivating the Hippo signaling pathway, resulting in activation of the transcriptional co-activator yes-associated protein (YAP). However, the oncogenic mechanisms of YAP are unclear.
Using cross-species analysis of expression data, the Notch ligand Jagged-1 (Jag-1) was identified as downstream target of YAP in hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We analyzed the functions of YAP in HCC cells via overexpression and RNA silencing experiments. We used transgenic mice that overexpressed a constitutively activated form of YAP (YAPS127A), and measured protein levels in HCC and colorectal and pancreatic tumor samples from patients.
Human HCC cell lines and mouse hepatocytes that overexpress YAPS127A upregulated Jag-1, leading to activation of the Notch pathway and increased proliferation. Induction of Jag-1, activation of Notch, and cell proliferation required binding of YAP to its transcriptional partner TEAD4; TEAD4 binding required Mst1/2, but not WNT-β-catenin signaling. Levels of YAP correlated with Jag-1 expression and Notch signaling in human tumor samples and shorter survival times of patients with HCC or colorectal cancer.
The transcriptional regulator YAP upregulates Jag-1 to activate Notch signaling in HCC cells and mouse hepatocytes. YAP-dependent activity of Jag-1 and Notch correlate in human HCC and colorectal tumor samples with patient survival times, suggesting the use of YAP and Notch inhibitors as therapeutics for gastrointestinal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3665638  PMID: 23419361
transcriptional regulators; liver cancer; colorectal cancer; pancreatic cancer
9.  MicroRNA profiling of rats with ochratoxin A nephrotoxicity 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):333.
Nephrotoxicity is the most prominent one among the various toxicities of ochratoxin A (OTA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have an impact on a wide range of biological processes by regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level or protein systhesis level. The objective of this study is to analyze miRNA profiling in the kidneys of rats gavaged with OTA.
To profile miRNAs in the kidneys of rats with OTA nephrotoxicity, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches were applied to analyze the miRNAs in the kidney of rats following OTA treatment. A total of 409 known miRNAs and 8 novel miRNAs were identified in the kidney and the levels of the novel miRNAs were varied in response to different doses of OTA. Expression of miR-129, miR-130a, miR-130b, miR-141, miR-218b and miR-3588 were uniquely suppressed in mid dose but then elevated in high dose, with opposite expression to their target genes. The expression pattern was closely related with the “MAPK signaling pathway”. Dicer1 and Drosha were significantly suppressed, indicating an impairment of miRNA biogenesis in response to OTA.
The abrogation of miRNA maturation process suggests a new target of OTA toxicity. Moreover, the identification of the differentially expressed miRNAs provides us a molecular insight into the nephrtoxicity of OTA.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-333) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4035064  PMID: 24885635
High throughput sequencing; Ochratoxin A; miRNA biogenesis; miRNA expression; Nephrotoxicity
10.  Forced arm use is superior to voluntary training for motor recovery and brain plasticity after cortical ischemia in rats 
Background and purpose
Both the immobilization of the unaffected arm combined with physical therapy (forced arm use, FAU) and voluntary exercise (VE) as model for enriched environment are promising approaches to enhance recovery after stroke. The genomic mechanisms involved in long-term plasticity changes after different means of rehabilitative training post-stroke are largely unexplored. The present investigation explored the effects of these physical therapies on behavioral recovery and molecular markers of regeneration after experimental ischemia.
42 Wistar rats were randomly treated with either forced arm use (FAU, 1-sleeve plaster cast onto unaffected limb at 8/10 days), voluntary exercise (VE, connection of a freely accessible running wheel to cage), or controls with no access to a running wheel for 10 days starting at 48 hours after photothrombotic stroke of the sensorimotor cortex. Functional outcome was measured using sensorimotor test before ischemia, after ischemia, after the training period of 10 days, at 3 and 4 weeks after ischemia. Global gene expression changes were assessed from the ipsi- and contralateral cortex and the hippocampus.
FAU-treated animals demonstrated significantly improved functional recovery compared to the VE-treated group. Both were superior to cage control. A large number of genes are altered by both training paradigms in the ipsi- and contralateral cortex and the hippocampus. Overall, the extent of changes observed correlated well with the functional recovery obtained. One category of genes overrepresented in the gene set is linked to neuronal plasticity processes, containing marker genes such as the NMDA 2a receptor, PKC ζ, NTRK2, or MAP 1b.
We show that physical training after photothrombotic stroke significantly and permanently improves functional recovery after stroke, and that forced arm training is clearly superior to voluntary running training. The behavioral outcomes seen correlate with patterns and extent of gene expression changes in all brain areas examined. We propose that physical training induces a fundamental change in plasticity-relevant gene expression in several brain regions that enables recovery processes. These results contribute to the debate on optimal rehabilitation strategies, and provide a valuable source of molecular entry points for future pharmacological enhancement of recovery.
PMCID: PMC3937028  PMID: 24528872
11.  Gene expression changes in spinal motoneurons of the SOD1G93A transgenic model for ALS after treatment with G-CSF 
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable fatal motoneuron disease with a lifetime risk of approximately 1:400. It is characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting, and death ensuing 3–5 years after diagnosis. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a drug candidate for ALS, with evidence for efficacy from animal studies and interesting data from pilot clinical trials. To gain insight into the disease mechanisms and mode of action of G-CSF, we performed gene expression profiling on isolated lumbar motoneurons from SOD1G93A mice, the most frequently studied animal model for ALS, with and without G-CSF treatment.
Results: Motoneurons from SOD1G93A mice present a distinct gene expression profile in comparison to controls already at an early disease stage (11 weeks of age), when treatment was initiated. The degree of deregulation increases at a time where motor symptoms are obvious (15 weeks of age). Upon G-CSF treatment, transcriptomic deregulations of SOD1G93A motoneurons were notably restored. Discriminant analysis revealed that SOD1 mice treated with G-CSF has a transcriptom close to presymptomatic SOD1 mice or wild type mice. Some interesting genes modulated by G-CSF treatment relate to neuromuscular function such as CCR4-NOT or Prss12.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that G-CSF is able to re-adjust gene expression in symptomatic SOD1G93A motoneurons. This provides further arguments for G-CSF as a promising drug candidate for ALS.
PMCID: PMC4299451  PMID: 25653590
motoneuron; ALS; G-CSF; neurodegeneration; mouse model; gene expression; laser microdissection
12.  CNVs-microRNAs Interactions Demonstrate Unique Characteristics in the Human Genome. An Interspecies in silico Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81204.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and copy number variations (CNVs) represent two classes of newly discovered genomic elements that were shown to contribute to genome plasticity and evolution. Recent studies demonstrated that miRNAs and CNVs must have co-evolved and interacted in an attempt to maintain the balance of the dosage sensitive genes and at the same time increase the diversity of dosage non-sensitive genes, contributing to species evolution. It has been previously demonstrated that both the number of miRNAs that target genes found in CNV regions as well as the number of miRNA binding sites are significantly higher than those of genes found in non-CNV regions. These findings raise the possibility that miRNAs may have been created under evolutionary pressure, as a mechanism for increasing the tolerance to genome plasticity. In the current study, we aimed in exploring the differences of miRNAs-CNV functional interactions between human and seven others species. By performing in silico whole genome analysis in eight different species (human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, chicken, dog and cow), we demonstrate that miRNAs targeting genes located within CNV regions in humans have special functional characteristics that provide an insight into the differences between humans and other species.
PMCID: PMC3846834  PMID: 24312536
13.  Simultaneous Measurement of Kidney Function by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI and FITC-Sinistrin Clearance in Rats at 3 Tesla: Initial Results 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79992.
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an essential parameter of kidney function which can be measured by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-GFR) and transcutaneous approaches based on fluorescent tracer molecules (optical-GFR). In an initial study comparing both techniques in separate measurements on the same animal, the correlation of the obtained GFR was poor. The goal of this study was to investigate if a simultaneous measurement was feasible and if thereby, the discrepancies in MRI-GFR and optical-GFR could be reduced. For the experiments healthy and unilateral nephrectomised (UNX) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used. The miniaturized fluorescent sensor was fixed on the depilated back of an anesthetized rat. A bolus of 5 mg/100 g b.w. of FITC-sinistrin was intravenously injected. For dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion imaging (DCE-MRI) a 3D time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories (TWIST) sequence was used. By means of a one compartment model the excretion half-life (t1/2) of FITC-sinistrin was calculated and converted into GFR. GFR from DCE-MRI was calculated by fitting pixel-wise a two compartment renal filtration model. Mean cortical GFR and GFR by FITC-sinistrin were compared by Bland-Altman plots and pair-wise t-test. Results show that a simultaneous GFR measurement using both techniques is feasible. Mean optical-GFR was 4.34±2.22 ml/min (healthy SD rats) and 2.34±0.90 ml/min (UNX rats) whereas MRI-GFR was 2.10±0.64 ml/min (SD rats) and 1.17±0.38 ml/min (UNX rats). Differences between healthy and UNX rats were significant (p<0.05) and almost equal percentage difference (46.1% and 44.3%) in mean GFR were assessed with both techniques. Overall mean optical-GFR values were approximately twice as high compared to MRI-GFR values. However, compared to a previous study, our results showed a higher agreement. In conclusion, the possibility to use the transcutaneous method in MRI may have a huge impact in improving and validating MRI methods for GFR assessment in animal models.
PMCID: PMC3832374  PMID: 24260332
14.  In-Silico Algorithms for the Screening of Possible microRNA Binding Sites and Their Interactions 
Current Genomics  2013;14(2):127-136.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a recently discovered class of small, non-coding RNA molecules of 21-25 nucleotides in length that regulate the gene expression by base-pairing with the transcripts of their targets i.e. protein-coding genes, leading to down-regulation or repression of the target genes. However, target gene activation has also been described. miRNAs are involved in diverse regulatory pathways, including control of developmental timing, apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, modulation of immune response to macrophages, and organ development and are associated with many diseases, such as cancer. Computational prediction of miRNA targets is much more challenging in animals than in plants, because animal miRNAs often perform imperfect base-pairing with their target sites, unlike plant miRNAs which almost always bind their targets with near perfect complementarity. In the past years, a large number of target prediction programs and databases on experimentally validated information have been developed for animal miRNAs to fulfil the need of experimental scientists conducting miRNA research. In this review we first succinctly describe the prediction criteria (rules or principles) adapted by prediction algorithms to generate possible miRNA binding site interactions and introduce most relevant algorithms, and databases. We then summarize their applications with the help of some previously published studies. We further provide experimentally validated functional binding sites outside 3’-UTR region of target mRNAs and the resources which offer such predictions. Finally, the issue of experimental validation of miRNA binding sites will be briefly discussed.
PMCID: PMC3637677  PMID: 24082822
microRNAs; miRWalk; Target prediction; Promoter; CDS; UTR; Prediction algorithm; Database.
15.  Neuronal Expression of Glucosylceramide Synthase in Central Nervous System Regulates Body Weight and Energy Homeostasis 
PLoS Biology  2013;11(3):e1001506.
Body weight and energy homeostasis are regulated by leptin receptor interactions with gangliosides, a class of plasma membrane lipids, in forebrain neurons of mice.
Hypothalamic neurons are main regulators of energy homeostasis. Neuronal function essentially depends on plasma membrane-located gangliosides. The present work demonstrates that hypothalamic integration of metabolic signals requires neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS; UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase). As a major mechanism of central nervous system (CNS) metabolic control, we demonstrate that GCS-derived gangliosides interacting with leptin receptors (ObR) in the neuronal membrane modulate leptin-stimulated formation of signaling metabolites in hypothalamic neurons. Furthermore, ganglioside-depleted hypothalamic neurons fail to adapt their activity (c-Fos) in response to alterations in peripheral energy signals. Consequently, mice with inducible forebrain neuron-specific deletion of the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase gene (Ugcg) display obesity, hypothermia, and lower sympathetic activity. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated Ugcg delivery to the arcuate nucleus (Arc) significantly ameliorated obesity, specifying gangliosides as seminal components for hypothalamic regulation of body energy homeostasis.
Author Summary
Obesity is a growing health threat that affects nearly half a billion people worldwide, and its incidence rates in lower income countries are rising dramatically. As obesity is a major risk factor for type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease, significant effort has been put into the exploration of causes, prevention, and potential treatment. Recent research has demonstrated that a region of the brain called the hypothalamus is a major integrator of metabolic and nutrient signals, adapting food intake and energy expenditure to current metabolic needs. Leptin or insulin receptors located in the plasma cell membrane of neurons sense energy signals from the body. They transmit this information inside the cell, which then regulates neuronal function. In this study, we show that leptin receptors interact with gangliosides, a class of plasma membrane lipids. This interaction is a prerequisite for proper receptor activation. Consequently, ganglioside loss in hypothalamic neurons inhibits leptin receptor signal transduction in response to energy metabolites. Furthermore, mice lacking gangliosides in distinct forebrain areas, amongst them the hypothalamus, develop progressive obesity and hypothermia. Our results suggest a previously unknown regulatory mechanism of plasma membrane lipids for hypothalamic control of body weight.
PMCID: PMC3595213  PMID: 23554574
16.  Islet1 is a direct transcriptional target of the homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 and rescues the Shox2-mediated bradycardia 
Basic Research in Cardiology  2013;108(2):339.
The heart’s rhythm is initiated and regulated by a group of specialized cells in the sinoatrial node (SAN), the primary pacemaker of the heart. Abnormalities in the development of the SAN can result in irregular heart rates (arrhythmias). Although several of the critical genes important for SAN formation have been identified, our understanding of the transcriptional network controlling SAN development remains at a relatively early stage. The homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 is involved in the specification and patterning of the SAN. While the Shox2 knockout in mice results in embryonic lethality due to severe cardiac defects including improper SAN development, Shox2 knockdown in zebrafish causes a reduced heart rate (bradycardia). In order to gain deeper insight into molecular pathways involving Shox2, we compared gene expression levels in right atria of wildtype and Shox2−/− hearts using microarray experiments and identified the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) as one of its putative target genes. The downregulation of Isl1 expression in Shox2−/− hearts was confirmed and the affected region narrowed down to the SAN by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Using luciferase reporter assays and EMSA studies, we identified two specific SHOX2 binding sites within intron 2 of the ISL1 locus. We also provide functional evidence for Isl1 as a transcriptional target of Shox2 by rescuing the Shox2-mediated bradycardia phenotype with Isl1 using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings demonstrate a novel epistatic relationship between Shox2 and Isl1 in the heart with important developmental consequences for SAN formation and heart beat.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-013-0339-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3597335  PMID: 23455426
Arrhythmia; Gene regulation; Islet1; Shox2; Sinoatrial node; Transcription factors
17.  TSC22D4 is a molecular output of hepatic wasting metabolism 
EMBO Molecular Medicine  2013;5(2):294-308.
In mammals, proper storage and distribution of lipids in and between tissues is essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that tumour growth triggers hepatic metabolic dysfunction as part of the cancer cachectic phenotype, particularly by reduced hepatic very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion and hypobetalipoproteinemia. As a molecular cachexia output pathway, hepatic levels of the transcription factor transforming growth factor beta 1-stimulated clone (TSC) 22 D4 were increased in cancer cachexia. Mimicking high cachectic levels of TSC22D4 in healthy livers led to the inhibition of hepatic VLDL release and lipogenic genes, and diminished systemic VLDL levels under both normal and high fat dietary conditions. Liver-specific ablation of TSC22D4 triggered hypertriglyceridemia through the induction of hepatic VLDL secretion. Furthermore, hepatic TSC22D4 expression levels were correlated with the degree of body weight loss and VLDL hypo-secretion in cancer cachexia, and TSC22D4 deficiency rescued tumour cell-induced metabolic dysfunction in hepatocytes. Therefore, hepatic TSC22D4 activity may represent a molecular rationale for peripheral energy deprivation in subjects with metabolic wasting diseases, including cancer cachexia.
PMCID: PMC3569644  PMID: 23307490
cancer cachexia; lipid metabolism; liver; transcription; TSC22D4
18.  Parallel Analysis of mRNA and microRNA Microarray Profiles to Explore Functional Regulatory Patterns in Polycystic Kidney Disease: Using PKD/Mhm Rat Model 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53780.
Autosomal polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a frequent monogenic renal disease, characterised by fluid-filled cysts that are thought to result from multiple deregulated pathways such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of many genes associated with such biological processes and human pathologies. To explore the possible regulatory role of miRNAs in PKD, the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) rat, served as a model to study human ADPKD. A parallel microarray-based approach was conducted to profile the expression changes of mRNAs and miRNAs in PKD/Mhm rats. 1,573 up- and 1,760 down-regulated genes were differentially expressed in PKD/Mhm. These genes are associated with 17 pathways (such as focal adhesion, cell cycle, ECM-receptor interaction, DNA replication and metabolic pathways) and 47 (e.g., cell proliferation, Wnt and Tgfβ signaling) Gene Ontologies. Furthermore, we found the similar expression patterns of deregulated genes between PKD/Mhm (cy/+) rat and human ADPKD, PKD1L3/L3, PKD1−/−, Hnf1α-deficient, and Glis2lacZ/lacZ models. Additionally, several differentially regulated genes were noted to be target hubs for miRNAs. We also obtained 8 significantly up-regulated miRNAs (rno-miR-199a-5p, −214, −146b, −21, −34a, −132, −31 and −503) in diseased kidneys of PKD/Mhm rats. Additionally, the binding site overrepresentation and pathway enrichment analyses were accomplished on the putative targets of these 8 miRNAs. 7 out of these 8 miRNAs and their possible interactions have not been previously described in ADPKD. We have shown a strong overlap of functional patterns (pathways) between deregulated miRNAs and mRNAs in the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) rat model. Our findings suggest that several miRNAs may be associated in regulating pathways in ADPKD. We further describe novel miRNAs and their possible targets in ADPKD, which will open new avenues to understand the pathogenesis of human ADPKD. Furthermore they could serve as a useful resource for anti-fibrotic therapeutics.
PMCID: PMC3542345  PMID: 23326503
19.  Fetal Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Differentiating towards Chondrocytes Acquire a Gene Expression Profile Resembling Human Growth Plate Cartilage 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e44561.
We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs) differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP). Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether chondrocytes derived from hfMSCs are a suitable model for studying the development and maturation of the GP. hfMSCs efficiently formed hyaline cartilage in a pellet culture in the presence of TGFβ3 and BMP6. Microarray and principal component analysis were applied to study gene expression profiles during chondrogenic differentiation. A set of 232 genes was found to correlate with in vitro cartilage formation. Several identified genes are known to be involved in cartilage formation and validate the robustness of the differentiating hfMSC model. KEGG pathway analysis using the 232 genes revealed 9 significant signaling pathways correlated with cartilage formation. To determine the progression of growth plate cartilage formation, we compared the gene expression profile of differentiating hfMSCs with previously established expression profiles of epiphyseal GP cartilage. As differentiation towards chondrocytes proceeds, hfMSCs gradually obtain a gene expression profile resembling epiphyseal GP cartilage. We visualized the differences in gene expression profiles as protein interaction clusters and identified many protein clusters that are activated during the early chondrogenic differentiation of hfMSCs showing the potential of this system to study GP development.
PMCID: PMC3489884  PMID: 23144774
20.  Evaluation of the Metabolic Response to Cyclopamine Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts Using a Clinical PET-CT System1 
Translational Oncology  2012;5(5):335-343.
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the effects of anti-hedgehog signaling on the 18F-FDG uptake of pancreatic cancer xenografts (PCXs) using a clinically implemented positron emission tomography (PET)-computer tomography (CT) scanner with high-resolution reconstruction. METHODS: PCXs from two pancreatic cancer cell lines were developed subcutaneously in nude mice and injected intraperitoneally with a low dose of cyclopamine for 1 week. 18F-FDG PET-CT was performed using a new-generation clinical PET-CT scanner with minor modifications of the scanning protocol to adapt for small-animal imaging. The data set was reconstructed and quantified using a three-dimensional workstation. RESULTS: MiaPaCa-2 cells, which respond to cyclopamine, showed decreased 18F-FDG uptake without a change in tumor size. For hip tumors, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was reduced by -24.5 ± 9.2%, the average SUV (SUVavg) by -33.5 ± 7.0%, and the minimum SUV (SUVmin) by -54.4 ± 11.5% (P < .05). For shoulder tumors, SUVmax was reduced by -14.7 ± 7.5%, SUVavg by -12.6 ± 6.3, and SUVmin by -30.3 ± 16.7% (P < .05). Capan-1 cells, which do not respond to cyclopamine, did not show significant SUV changes. CONCLUSIONS: The new generations of clinically implemented PET-CT scanners with high-resolution reconstruction detect a minimal response of PCX to low-dose short-term cyclopamine therapy without changes in tumor size and offer potential for preclinical translational imaging.
PMCID: PMC3468925  PMID: 23066442
21.  Decreased Levels of Active SMAD2 Correlate with Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e35684.
TGF-β plays a dual role in the progression of human cancer. During the early stages of carcinogenesis, TGF-β functions as a tumor suppressor. During the late stages of tumor development, however, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and metastasis. A shift in Smad2/3 phosphorylation from the carboxy terminus to linker sites is a key event determining biological function of TGF-β in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of differential Smad2/3 phosphorylation in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Immunohistochemical staining with anti-P-Smad2/3C and P-Smad2/3L antibodies was performed on 130 paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinoma specimens. The relationship between P-Smad2/3C and P-Smad2/3L immunohistochemical score and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients was analyzed. Real time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of Smad2 and Smad3 in cancer and surrounding non-tumor tissue.
Principal Findings
No significant P-Smad2L and/or P-Smad3L positive staining was detected in the majority of specimens (positive staining in 18/130 samples). Positive P-Smad2/3L staining was not associated with a decrease in carboxyterminal phosphorylation staining. Loss of P-Smad2C remarkably correlated with depth of tumor infiltration and poor differentiation of cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer. No correlation was detectable between P-Smad3C and clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, co-staining analysis revealed that P-Smad3C co-localised with α-SMA and collagen I in gastric cancer cells, indicating a potential link between P-Smad3C and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of cancer. Real time PCR demonstrated reduced mRNA expression of Smad2 in gastric cancer when compared with surrounding non-tumor tissue in 15/16 patients.
Loss of P-Smad2C tightly correlated with cancer invasion and poor differentiation in gastric cancer. Contrary to colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma, canonical carboxy-terminal phosphorylation, but not linker phosphorylation, of Smad2 is critical for gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC3334357  PMID: 22539990
22.  A miR-1207-5p Binding Site Polymorphism Abolishes Regulation of HBEGF and Is Associated with Disease Severity in CFHR5 Nephropathy 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e31021.
Heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HBEGF) is expressed in podocytes and was shown to play a role in glomerular physiology. MicroRNA binding sites on the 3′UTR of HBEGF were predicted using miRWalk algorithm and followed by DNA sequencing in 103 patients diagnosed with mild or severe glomerulopathy. A single nucleotide polymorphism, miRSNP C1936T (rs13385), was identified at the 3′UTR of HBEGF that corresponds to the second base of the hsa-miR-1207-5p seed region. When AB8/13 undifferentiated podocytes were transfected with miRNA mimics of hsa-miR-1207-5p, the HBEGF protein levels were reduced by about 50%. A DNA fragment containing the miRSNP allele-1936C was cloned into the pMIR-Report Luciferase vector and co-transfected with miRNA mimics of hsa-miR-1207-5p into AB8/13 podocytes. In agreement with western blot data, this resulted in reduced luciferase expression demonstrating the ability of hsa-miR-1207-5p to directly regulate HBEGF expression. On the contrary, in the presence of the miRSNP 1936T allele, this regulation was abolished. Collectively, these results demonstrate that variant 1936T of this miRSNP prevents hsa-miR-1207-5p from down-regulating HBEGF in podocytes. We hypothesized that this variant has a functional role as a genetic modifier. To this end, we showed that in a cohort of 78 patients diagnosed with CFHR5 nephropathy (also known as C3-glomerulopathy), inheritance of miRSNP 1936T allele was significantly increased in the group demonstrating progression to chronic renal failure on long follow-up. No similar association was detected in a cohort of patients with thin basement membrane nephropathy. This is the first report associating a miRSNP as genetic modifier to a monogenic renal disorder.
PMCID: PMC3271095  PMID: 22319602
23.  Division of labor by dual feedback regulators controls JAK2/STAT5 signaling over broad ligand range 
Quantitative analysis of time-resolved data in primary erythroid progenitor cells reveals that a dual negative transcriptional feedback mechanism underlies the ability of STAT5 to respond to the broad spectrum of physiologically relevant Epo concentrations.
A mathematical dual feedback model of the Epo-induced JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway was calibrated with extensive time-resolved quantitative data sets from immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and qRT–PCR experiments in primary erythroid progenitor cells.We show that the amount of nuclear phosphorylated STAT5 integrated for 60 min post Epo stimulation directly correlates with the fraction of surviving cells 24 h later.CIS and SOCS3 were identified as the most relevant transcriptional feedback regulators of JAK2/STAT5 signaling in primary erythroid progenitor cells. Applying the model, we revealed that CIS-mediated inhibitory effects are most important at low ligand concentrations, whereas SOCS3 inhibition is more effective at high ligand doses.The distinct modes of inhibition of CIS and SOCS3 at various Epo concentrations provide a strategy for achieving control of JAK2/STAT5 signaling over the entire range of physiological Epo concentrations.
Cells interpret information encoded by extracellular stimuli through the activation of intracellular signaling networks and translate this information into cellular decisions. A prime example for a system that is exposed to extremely variable ligand concentrations is the erythroid lineage. The key regulator Erythropoietin (Epo) facilitates continuous renewal of erythrocytes at low basal levels but also secures compensation in case of, e.g., blood loss through an up to 1000-fold increase in hormone concentration. The Epo receptor (EpoR) is expressed on erythroid progenitor cells at the colony forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) stage. Stimulation of these cells with Epo leads to rapid but transient activation of receptor and JAK2 phosphorylation followed by phosphorylation of the latent transcription factor STAT5. Although STAT5 is known to be an essential regulator of survival and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells, a quantitative link between the dynamic properties of STAT5 signaling and survival decisions remained unknown. STAT5-mediated responses in CFU-E cells are modulated by multiple attenuation mechanisms that operate on different time scales. Fast-acting mechanisms such as depletion of Epo by rapid receptor turnover and recruitment of the phosphatase SHP-1 control the initial signal amplitude at the receptor level. Transcriptional feedback regulators such as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family members CIS and SOCS3 operate at a slower time scale. Despite the ample knowledge of the individual components involved, only little is known about the specific contributions of these regulators in controlling dynamic properties of STAT5 in response to a broad range of input signals. Therefore, dynamic pathway modeling is required to understand the complex regulatory network of feedback regulators.
To address these questions, we established a dual negative feedback model of JAK2/STAT5 signaling in primary erythroid progenitor cells isolated from mouse fetal livers. We provide a large data set of JAK2/STAT5 signaling dynamics employing quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative RT–PCR measured under different perturbation conditions to calibrate our model (Figure 3). The structure of our model was constructed to comprise the minimal number of parameters necessary to explain the data. Thereby, we aimed at a model with fully identifiable parameters that are essential to obtain high predictive power. Parameter identifiability was analyzed by the profile likelihood approach. Applying this method, we could establish a dual negative feedback model of JAK2-STAT5 signaling with structurally and in most cases practically identifiable parameters.
A major bottle-neck in combining signal transduction events with cellular phenotypes is the discrepancy in the time scale and stimuli concentrations that are applied in the different experiments. The sensitivity of biochemical assays to determine phosphorylation events within minutes or hours after stimulation is usually lower than the threshold of sensitivity in assays to determine the physiological response after one or more days. Facilitated by the model, we were able to compute the integrated response of JAK2/STAT5 signaling components for experimentally unaddressable Epo concentrations. Our results demonstrate that the integrated response of pSTAT5 in the nucleus accurately correlates with the experimentally determined survival of CFU-E cells. This provides a quantitative link of the dependency of primary CFU-E cells on pSTAT5 activation dynamics. By correlation analysis, we could identify the early signaling phase (⩽1 h) of STAT5 to be the most predictive for the fraction of surviving cells, which was determined ∼24 h later. Thus, we hypothesize that as a general principle in apoptotic decisions, ligand concentrations translated into kinetic-encoded information of early signaling events downstream of receptors can be predictive for survival decisions 24 h later.
After the first hour of stimulation, it is important to constrain signaling to a residual steady-state level. Constitutive phosphorylation of the JAK2/STAT5 pathway has a crucial role in the onset of polycythemia vera (PV), a disease associated with Epo-independent erythroid differentiation. The two identified transcriptional feedback proteins, CIS and SOCS3, are responsible for adjusting the phosphorylation level of STAT5 after 1 h of stimulation. Since the Epo input signal can vary over a broad range of ligand concentrations, we asked how CIS and SOCS3 can facilitate control of STAT5 long-term phosphorylation levels over the entire physiological relevant hormone concentrations. By using model simulations, we revealed that the two feedbacks are most effective at different Epo concentration ranges. Predicted by our mathematical model, the major role of CIS in modulating STAT5 phosphorylation levels is at low, basal Epo concentrations, whereas SOCS3 is essential to control the STAT5 phosphorylation levels at high Epo doses (Figure 6). As a potential molecular mechanism of this dose-dependent inhibitory effect, we could identify the quantity of pJAK2 relative to pEpoR that increases with higher Epo concentrations. Since SOCS3 can inhibit JAK2 directly via its KIR domain to attenuate downstream STAT5 activation, SOCS3 becomes more effective with the relative increase of JAK2 activation. Hence, CIS and SOCS3 act in a concerted manner to ensure tight regulation of STAT5 responses over the broad physiological range of Epo concentrations.
In summary, our mathematical approach provided new insights into the specific function of feedback regulation in STAT5-mediated life or death decisions of primary erythroid cells. We dissected the roles of the transcriptionally induced proteins CIS and SOCS3 that operate as dual feedback with divided function thereby facilitating the control of STAT5 activation levels over the entire range of physiological Epo concentrations. The detailed understanding of the molecular processes and control distribution of Epo-induced JAK/STAT signaling can be further applied to gain insights into alterations promoting malignant hematopoietic diseases.
Cellular signal transduction is governed by multiple feedback mechanisms to elicit robust cellular decisions. The specific contributions of individual feedback regulators, however, remain unclear. Based on extensive time-resolved data sets in primary erythroid progenitor cells, we established a dynamic pathway model to dissect the roles of the two transcriptional negative feedback regulators of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, CIS and SOCS3, in JAK2/STAT5 signaling. Facilitated by the model, we calculated the STAT5 response for experimentally unobservable Epo concentrations and provide a quantitative link between cell survival and the integrated response of STAT5 in the nucleus. Model predictions show that the two feedbacks CIS and SOCS3 are most effective at different ligand concentration ranges due to their distinct inhibitory mechanisms. This divided function of dual feedback regulation enables control of STAT5 responses for Epo concentrations that can vary 1000-fold in vivo. Our modeling approach reveals dose-dependent feedback control as key property to regulate STAT5-mediated survival decisions over a broad range of ligand concentrations.
PMCID: PMC3159971  PMID: 21772264
apoptosis; erythropoietin; mathematical modeling; negative feedback; SOCS
24.  Comparative transcriptome profiling of amyloid precursor protein family members in the adult cortex 
BMC Genomics  2011;12:160.
The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the related β-amyloid precursor-like proteins (APLPs) undergo complex proteolytic processing giving rise to several fragments. Whereas it is well established that Aβ accumulation is a central trigger for Alzheimer's disease, the physiological role of APP family members and their diverse proteolytic products is still largely unknown. The secreted APPsα ectodomain has been shown to be involved in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. The γ-secretase-generated APP intracellular domain (AICD) functions as a transcriptional regulator in heterologous reporter assays although its role for endogenous gene regulation has remained controversial.
To gain further insight into the molecular changes associated with knockout phenotypes and to elucidate the physiological functions of APP family members including their proposed role as transcriptional regulators, we performed DNA microarray transcriptome profiling of prefrontal cortex of adult wild-type (WT), APP knockout (APP-/-), APLP2 knockout (APLP2-/-) and APPsα knockin mice (APPα/α) expressing solely the secreted APPsα ectodomain. Biological pathways affected by the lack of APP family members included neurogenesis, transcription, and kinase activity. Comparative analysis of transcriptome changes between mutant and wild-type mice, followed by qPCR validation, identified co-regulated gene sets. Interestingly, these included heat shock proteins and plasticity-related genes that were both down-regulated in knockout cortices. In contrast, we failed to detect significant differences in expression of previously proposed AICD target genes including Bace1, Kai1, Gsk3b, p53, Tip60, and Vglut2. Only Egfr was slightly up-regulated in APLP2-/- mice. Comparison of APP-/- and APPα/α with wild-type mice revealed a high proportion of co-regulated genes indicating an important role of the C-terminus for cellular signaling. Finally, comparison of APLP2-/- on different genetic backgrounds revealed that background-related transcriptome changes may dominate over changes due to the knockout of a single gene.
Shared transcriptome profiles corroborated closely related physiological functions of APP family members in the adult central nervous system. As expression of proposed AICD target genes was not altered in adult cortex, this may indicate that these genes are not affected by lack of APP under resting conditions or only in a small subset of cells.
PMCID: PMC3080314  PMID: 21435241
25.  Gene Expression Profiling of Vasoregression in the Retina—Involvement of Microglial Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e16865.
Vasoregression is a hallmark of vascular eye diseases but the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. We have recently characterized a rat ciliopathy model which develops primary photoreceptor degeneration and secondary vasoregression. To improve the understanding of secondary vasoregression in retinal neurodegeneration, we used microarray techniques to compare gene expression profiles in this new model before and after retinal vasoregression. Differential gene expression was validated by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Of the 157 genes regulated more than twofold, the MHC class II invariant chain CD74 yielded the strongest upregulation, and was allocated to activated microglial cells close to the vessels undergoing vasoregression. Pathway clustering identified genes of the immune system including inflammatory signaling, and components of the complement cascade upregulated during vasoregression. Together, our data suggest that microglial cells involved in retinal immune response participate in the initiation of vasoregression in the retina.
PMCID: PMC3040753  PMID: 21379381

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