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1.  Convergent approaches toward the study of multisensory perception 
Classical analytical approaches for examining multisensory processing in individual neurons have relied heavily on changes in mean firing rate to assess the presence and magnitude of multisensory interaction. However, neurophysiological studies within individual sensory systems have illustrated that important sensory and perceptual information is encoded in forms that go beyond these traditional spike-based measures. Here we review analytical tools as they are used within individual sensory systems (auditory, somatosensory, and visual) to advance our understanding of how sensory cues are effectively integrated across modalities (e.g., audiovisual cues facilitating speech processing). Specifically, we discuss how methods used to assess response variability (Fano factor, or FF), local field potentials (LFPs), current source density (CSD), oscillatory coherence, spike synchrony, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) represent particularly promising tools for understanding the neural encoding of multisensory stimulus features. The utility of each approach and how it might optimally be applied toward understanding multisensory processing is placed within the context of exciting new data that is just beginning to be generated. Finally, we address how underlying encoding mechanisms might shape—and be tested alongside with—the known behavioral and perceptual benefits that accompany multisensory processing.
PMCID: PMC3820972  PMID: 24265607
electrophysiology; multisensory; oscillations; receiver operating characteristics; spike synchrony
2.  Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) 
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.
PMCID: PMC3831171  PMID: 24302898
naked mole-rat; somatosensory; tactile exploration; grasping; dentition; incisor; cerebellum; electrophysiology
3.  Cellular Scaling Rules of Insectivore Brains 
Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overlap somewhat with those for rodents and primates such that the insectivore cortex shares scaling rules with rodents (increasing faster in size than in numbers of neurons), but the insectivore cerebellum shares scaling rules with primates (increasing isometrically). Brain structures pooled as “remaining areas” appear to scale similarly across all three mammalian orders with respect to numbers of neurons, and the numbers of non-neurons appear to scale similarly across all brain structures for all three orders. Therefore, common scaling rules exist, to different extents, between insectivore, rodent, and primate brain regions, and it is hypothesized that insectivores represent the common aspects of each order. The olfactory bulbs of insectivores, however, offer a noteworthy exception in that neuronal density increases linearly with increasing structure mass. This implies that the average neuronal cell size decreases with increasing olfactory bulb mass in order to accommodate greater neuronal density, and represents the first documentation of a brain structure gaining neurons at a greater rate than mass. This might allow insectivore brains to concentrate more neurons within the olfactory bulbs without a prohibitively large and metabolically costly increase in structure mass.
PMCID: PMC2713736  PMID: 19636383
allometry; brain size; comparative neuroanatomy; glia; neurons; evolution; olfactory bulb
4.  Organization of somatosensory cortex in the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), a predatory rodent 
Northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster) are among the most highly carnivorous rodents in North America. Because predatory mammals may have specialization of senses used to detect prey, we investigated the organization of sensory areas within grasshopper mouse neocortex and quantified the number of myelinated axons in grasshopper mouse trigeminal, cochlear, and optic nerves. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings combined with analysis of flattened sections of neocortex processed for cytochrome oxidase were used to determine the topography of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the location and size of both the visual and auditory cortex in adult animals. These findings were then related to the distinctive chemoarchitecture of layer IV visible in flattened cortical sections of juvenile grasshopper mice labeled with the serotonin transporter (SERT) antibody, revealing a striking correspondence between electrophysiological maps and cortical anatomy.
PMCID: PMC3064439  PMID: 21120928
S1; trigeminal; somatosensory; visual; forepaw; evolution; predator

Results 1-4 (4)