PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-3 (3)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  ZnT3 mRNA levels are reduced in Alzheimer's disease post-mortem brain 
Background
ZnT3 is a membrane Zn2+ transporter that is responsible for concentrating Zn2+ into neuronal presynaptic vesicles. Zn2+ homeostasis in the brain is relevant to Alzheimer's disease (AD) because Zn2+ released during neurotransmission may bind to Aβ peptides, accelerating the assembly of Aβ into oligomers which have been shown to impair synaptic function.
Results
We quantified ZnT3 mRNA levels in Braak-staged human post mortem (pm) brain tissue from medial temporal gyrus, superior occipital gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and cerebellum from individuals with AD (n = 28), and matched controls (n = 5) using quantitative real-time PCR. ZnT3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in all four cortical regions examined in the AD patients, to 45-60% of control levels. This reduction was already apparent at Braak stage 4 in most cortical regions examined. Quantification of neuronal and glial-specific markers in the same samples (neuron-specific enolase, NSE; and glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) indicated that loss of cortical ZnT3 expression was more pronounced, and occurred prior to, significant loss of NSE expression in the tissue. Significant increases in cortical GFAP expression were apparent as the disease progressed. No gene expression changes were observed in the cerebellum, which is relatively spared of AD neuropathology.
Conclusions
This first study to quantify ZnT3 mRNA levels in human pm brain tissue from individuals with AD and controls has revealed a significant loss of ZnT3 expression in cortical regions, suggesting that neuronal cells in particular show reduced expression of ZnT3 mRNA in the disease. This suggests that altered neuronal Zn2+ handling may be an early event in AD pathogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-4-53
PMCID: PMC2806356  PMID: 20030848
2.  Protein Aggregation in the Brain: The Molecular Basis for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases 
Molecular Medicine  2008;14(7-8):451-464.
Developing effective treatments for neurodegenerative diseases is one of the greatest medical challenges of the 21st century. Although many of these clinical entities have been recognized for more than a hundred years, it is only during the past twenty years that the molecular events that precipitate disease have begun to be understood. Protein aggregation is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, and it is assumed that the aggregation process plays a central role in pathogenesis. In this process, one molecule (monomer) of a soluble protein interacts with other monomers of the same protein to form dimers, oligomers, and polymers. Conformation changes in three-dimensional structure of the protein, especially the formation of β-strands, often accompany the process. Eventually, as the size of the aggregates increases, they may precipitate as insoluble amyloid fibrils, in which the structure is stabilized by the β-strands interacting within a β-sheet. In this review, we discuss this theme as it relates to the two most common neurodegenerative conditions—Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
doi:10.2119/2007-00100.Irvine
PMCID: PMC2274891  PMID: 18368143
3.  Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue 
Background
Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR) is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference genes are generally used to normalize RT qPCR data. Given that expression of some commonly used reference genes is altered in certain conditions, this study aimed to establish which reference genes were stably expressed in post mortem brain tissue from individuals with AD, PD or DLB.
Results
The present study investigated the expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes, (ubiquitin C [UBC], tyrosine-3-monooxygenase [YWHAZ], RNA polymerase II polypeptide [RP II], hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], TATA box binding protein [TBP], β-2-microglobulin [B2M], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A, [SDHA]) in cerebellum and medial temporal gyrus of 6 AD, 6 PD, 6 DLB subjects, along with 5 matched controls using RT qPCR (TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays). Gene expression stability was analysed using geNorm to rank the candidate genes in order of decreasing stability in each disease group. The optimal number of genes recommended for accurate data normalization in each disease state was determined by pairwise variation analysis.
Conclusion
This study identified validated sets of mRNAs which would be appropriate for the normalization of RT qPCR data when studying gene expression in brain tissue of AD, PD, DLB and control subjects.
doi:10.1186/1471-2199-9-46
PMCID: PMC2396658  PMID: 18460208

Results 1-3 (3)