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1.  A Pilot Study of Community-Friendly Manual Guided Drug Counseling 
To facilitate effectiveness testing and dissemination of treatments to community based setting, therapist training manuals that are more “community friendly” are needed. The aim of the current project was to create revised versions of individual drug counseling (IDC) and group drug counseling (GDC) treatment manuals for cocaine dependence and to conduct a preliminary study of their effectiveness. After changing the format and context of existing drug counseling manuals to have greater ease of use in the community, draft manuals were given to 23 community-based counselors for their feedback. Final versions were then used in a pilot randomized clinical trial involving 41 cocaine dependent patients who received 3 months of either IDC + GDC or GDC alone treatment. Counselors implemented the new treatment manuals with acceptable levels of adherence and competence. Outcome results indicated that substantial change in drug use was evident, but the amount of abstinence obtained was limited.
PMCID: PMC2744318  PMID: 19038525
Cocaine dependence; drug counseling; randomized trial
2.  Additional Treatment Services in a Cocaine Treatment Study: Level of Services Obtained and Impact on Outcome 
The objective of this study was to examine the level of additional treatment services obtained by patients enrolled in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study, a multi-center efficacy trial of four treatments for cocaine dependence, and to determine whether these services impact treatment outcome. Cocaine-dependent patients (N = 487) were recruited at five sites and randomly assigned to six months of one of four psychosocial treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at follow-ups at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months post-randomization. On average, patients received little or no additional treatment services during active treatment (first 6 months), but the rate of obtaining most services increased during the follow-up phase (month 7 to 18). In general, the treatment groups did not differ in the rates of obtaining non-protocol services. For all treatment groups, patients with greater psychiatric severity received more medical and psychiatric services during active treatment and follow-up. Use of treatment services was unrelated to drug use outcomes during active treatment. However, during the follow-up period, increased use of psychiatric medication, 12-step attendance, and 12-step participation was related to less drug use. The results suggest that during uncontrolled follow-up phases, additional non-protocol services may potentially confound the interpretation of treatment group comparisons in drug use outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2794690  PMID: 18463998
substance abuse; treatment services; treatment outcome; cocaine dependence
3.  Supportive-Expressive Psychodynamic Therapy for Cocaine Dependence: A Closer Look 
Using data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study, this article focuses on the outcomes of patients who received supportive-expressive (SE) psychodynamically-oriented psychotherapy (plus group drug counseling; GDC). Short-term SE for cocaine dependent individuals, while not the most efficacious treatment examined in the study (individual drug counseling [IDC] plus GDC was), produced large improvements in cocaine use. In addition, there was evidence that SE was superior to IDC on change in family/social problems at the 12 month follow-up assessment, particularly for those patients with relatively more severe difficulties in this domain at baseline. For patients who achieved abstinence early in treatment, SE produced comparable drug use outcomes to IDC, with mean drug use scores numerically lower for SE at all of the follow-up assessments (9, 12, 15, and 18 months). SE patients who achieved initial abstinence decreased cocaine use from a mean 10.1 days per month at baseline to a mean of 1.3 days at 12 months.
PMCID: PMC2786223  PMID: 19960117
4.  Changes in Positive Quality of Life over the Course of Psychotherapy 
Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.)  2008;45(4):419-430.
The objective of this study was to examine patients’ reports of positive quality of life over the course of multiple forms of psychotherapy and disorders. Data from five studies using a common assessment battery were pooled to evaluate the magnitude of change in positive quality of life and explore the relation of change in positive quality of life to change in symptoms, and how these relations vary by disorder. Positive quality of life was measured at intake, termination, and during two post-treatment visits 6 and 12 months following termination. Results revealed that positive quality of life improves moderately over the course of psychotherapy and sustains the improvement through follow-up. Levels of positive quality of life and the degree of change in positive quality of life varied considerably by disorder. There also were moderate sized correlations between changes in positive quality of life and changes in symptomatic response and interpersonal functioning from intake to termination. Implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2786220  PMID: 19960115
positive quality of life; symptom reduction; cognitive therapy; supportive-expressive therapy
5.  Development and Initial Validation of a Multi-Domain Self-Report Measure of Work Functioning 
The need for a self-report measure of work functioning that is flexible to involvement in work across three domains (employment, school, and home) led to the development of the Work History Inventory (WHI). The WHI was administered to 185 patients who participated in psychotherapy studies and to 110 community control respondents who were not in treatment. The WHI Total score and subscales (Performance and Interpersonal) demonstrated adequate to good reliability. WHI scores correlated moderately with symptom measures and strongly with another work functioning measure. Changes across treatment indicated that the WHI Total and Performance scores increased significantly across psychotherapy. The WHI appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring treatment related changes in work functioning.
PMCID: PMC2782633  PMID: 18852620
work functioning; work performance; interpersonal; psychotherapy; self-report measure
6.  Dopamine Transporter Levels in Cocaine Dependent Subjects 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2008;98(1-2):70-76.
Cocaine use is a significant problem in the US and it is well established that cocaine binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the brain. This study was designed to determine if the DAT levels measured by 99mTc TRODAT SPECT brain scans are altered in cocaine dependent subjects and to explore clinical correlates of such alterations. SPECT brain scans were acquired on 21 cocaine dependent subjects and 21 healthy matched controls. There were significantly higher DAT levels in cocaine dependent subjects compared to controls for the anterior putamen (p = 0.003; Cohen’s d effect size = 0.98), posterior putamen (p < 0.001; effect size = 1.32), and caudate (p = 0.003; effect size = 0.97). DAT levels in these regions were 10%, 17%, and 8% higher in the cocaine dependent subjects compared to controls. DAT levels were unrelated to craving, severity of cocaine use, or duration of cocaine use, but DAT levels in the caudate and anterior putamen were significantly (p < 0.05) negatively correlated with days since last use of cocaine.
PMCID: PMC2564619  PMID: 18565692
Dopamine transporter; Cocaine dependence; SPECT

Results 1-6 (6)