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author:("mxafi, aliena")
1.  mRNA overexpression of BAALC: A novel prognostic factor for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
Biomedical Reports  2015;3(3):371-374.
BAALC is a novel molecular marker in leukemia that is highly expressed in patients with acute leukemia. Increased expression levels of BAALC are known as poor prognostic factors in adult acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the BAALC gene expression levels in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its association with MDR1. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the mRNA expression levels of BAALC and MRD1 were measured in bone marrow samples of 28 new diagnosed childhood ALL patients and 13 children without cancer. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured one year after the initiation of the chemotherapy using the RT-qPCR method. The high level expression of BAALC had a significant association with the pre-B-ALL subtype, leukocytosis and positive MRD after one year of treatment in leukemic patients. In addition, a positive correlation between BAALC and MDR1 mRNA expression was shown in this group. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the increase of BAALC expression as a poor prognostic factor for childhood ALL is shown for the first time. Additionally, the correlation between BAALC and MDR1 in mRNA expression levels can aid for an improved understanding of the mechanism through which BAALC may function in ALL and multidrug resistance.
PMCID: PMC4467268  PMID: 26137238
BAALC gene; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; multidrug resistance; ABCB1 gene
2.  mRNA expression profile of multidrug-resistant genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, a prognostic value for ABCA3 and ABCA2 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2013;15(1):35-41.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important cause of treatment failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The ABC family of membrane transporters is proposed, albeit with controversy, to be involved in this process. The present study aims to investigate the mRNA expression profile of several genes of this family, including ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, MRP3/ABCC3, ABCG2/BCRP, and the intracellular transporter MVP/LRP, in childhood ALL, and to evaluate their association with response to therapy. Some genes in the present research are being studied for the first time in Iran. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated 27 children with ALL at diagnosis and 15 children with normal bone marrow. The status of response to therapy was assessed one year after the onset of therapy through investigating the IgH/TCRγ gene rearrangements. Our findings indicate a considerable and direct relationship between mRNA expression levels of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive minimal residual disease (MRD) measured after one year of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of these genes higher than the cutoff point will raise the risk of MRD by 15-, 6.25-, 12-, and 9-fold, respectively. No relationship was found between of MVP/LRP, MRP3 and ABCG2 genes expression and ALL prognoses. Considering the direct and significant relationship between the increased expression of ABCA2, ABCA3, MDR1, and MRP1 genes and positive risk of MRD in children with ALL, evaluating the expression profile of these genes on diagnosis may identify high risk individuals and help plan a more efficient treatment strategy.
PMCID: PMC3938522  PMID: 24145140
acute lymphoblastic leukemia; minimal residual disease; multidrug resistance; ABC transporter
4.  A Study on Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Red Blood Cell Indices in New Entering Students of the University of Isfahan 
Obesity and increased blood pressure are identified as risk factors for cardiac and pulmonary disorders. On the other hand, iron deficiency (another preventable disease) is common in adolescence and considered as associated with health impairment. The present study evaluates body mass index (BMI) and its association with blood pressure and hematological indices in freshman students entering the University of Isfahan in 2009.
All the 1675 students who entered the University of Isfahan in September 2009 were examined. Height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) indices of these students were measured. The prevalence of high blood pressure, its association with BMI and the relation between BMI and anemia, iron deficiency and educational achievement were assessed.
All participants, including 514 males and 1161 females, went under clinical observations. The average age was 20.7 ± 3.8. year Among the students, 18.2% of males and 20% of females were underweight. High systolic blood pressure was more common in the students with BMI > 25 kg/m2 (p < 0.001). Anemia was seen in 8.7% of females. In males, however, a relation between anemia frequency and BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was more distinct (p = 0.002). There was no association between anemia and students’ average test scores.
High incidence of abnormal BMI in the study population, and its association with systolic blood pressure indicate the importance of nutritional guidelines and counseling programs for freshman students. On the other hand, high incidence of anemia in this population ascertains the necessity of anemia screening programs before academic studies.
PMCID: PMC3237273  PMID: 22174970
Body mass index; Systolic blood pressure; Iron deficiency anemia
5.  The metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Isfahan, Iran 
To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Isfahan, Iran.
During a 4-year period (2003 to 2007), 55 children (33 male and 22 female) diagnosed with ALL at Unit of Hematology/ Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified version of Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) crite-ria. Insulin resistance was defined based on the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR).
The mean age of participates was 10.4 years (range 6-19 years) and the mean interval since completion of chemotherapy was 35 months. Twenty percent (11/55) of survivors (10 male, 1 female) met criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Obesity was observed in one forth of patients and nearly 3/4 of obese patients had metabolic syndrome. High serum insulin levels were found in 16% of participants and in 63% of obese survivors. The mean insulin levels in survivors with metabolic syndrome was three-times more than those without (28.3 mu/l vs. 9.57 mu/l, p = 0.004). Insulin resistance was detected in 72.7% of survivors with metabolic syndrome and it was positively correlated with serum triglycerides (0.543, p ≤ 0.001), systolic and diastolic BP (0.348, p = 0.01 and 0.368, p = 006 respectively), insulin levels (0.914, p < 0.001) and blood sugar (0.398, p = 003).
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Iran is higher than developed countries. Nearly all of the obese patients had metabolic syndrome. Weight control and regular physical exercise are recommended to the survivors.
PMCID: PMC3129086  PMID: 21772869
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; metabolic syndrome; obesity; children

Results 1-5 (5)