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1.  Malignancy Risk Assessment in Patients with Thyroid Nodules Using Classification and Regression Trees 
Journal of Thyroid Research  2013;2013:983953.
Purpose. We sought to investigate the utility of classification and regression trees (CART) classifier to differentiate benign from malignant nodules in patients referred for thyroid surgery. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of 271 patients referred to the Sadoughi Hospital during 2006–2011 were collected. In a two-step approach, a CART classifier was employed to differentiate patients with a high versus low risk of thyroid malignancy. The first step served as the screening procedure and was tailored to produce as few false negatives as possible. The second step identified those with the lowest risk of malignancy, chosen from a high risk population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the optimal tree were calculated. Results. In the first step, age, sex, and nodule size contributed to the optimal tree. Ultrasonographic features were employed in the second step with hypoechogenicity and/or microcalcifications yielding the highest discriminatory ability. The combined tree produced a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% (95% CI: 29.9–98.9) and 94.1% (95% CI: 78.9–99.0), respectively. NPV and PPV were 66.7% (41.1–85.6) and 97.0% (82.5–99.8), respectively. Conclusion. CART classifier reliably identifies patients with a low risk of malignancy who can avoid unnecessary surgery.
doi:10.1155/2013/983953
PMCID: PMC3786504  PMID: 24102036
2.  Radiation-induced hypopituitarism in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
Background:
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy among children for whom radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used for treatment. When hypothalamus-pituitary axis is exposed to radiotherapy, children's hormone level and quality of life are influenced. The aim of this study is to determine late effects of radiotherapy on hormonal level in these patients.
Materials and Methods:
In this study 27 children with ALL, who have been referred to Shahid Ramezanzadeh Radiation Oncology Center in Yazd-Iran and received 18-24 Gy whole brain radiation with Cobalt 60 or 9 MV linear accelerator, were assessed. These patient's basic weight, height and hormonal levels were measured before radiotherapy and also after different periods of time.
Results:
GHD (growth hormone deficiency) after clonidine stimulation test was observed in 44% (n=12) and that in 50% of them (n=6), less than 1 year, had been passed from their radiation therapy. None of these patients demonstrated hormone deficiency in other axes.
Conclusions:
This study showed that even application of a 18-24 Gy radiation dose might influence growth hormone levels; therefore, we recommend reduction of radiotherapy dose in such patients whenever possible.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.113396
PMCID: PMC3715991  PMID: 23878479
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; hypopituitarism; radiation
3.  Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism 
Objective
Hypothyroidism may be an exacerbating factor for primary headaches and migraine is one of the most common primary headaches in childhood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism on children with migraine headache.
Materials & Methods
In a quasi-experimental study, the severity and monthly frequency of headache of 25 migraineur children with subclinical hypothyroidism who were referred to the pediatric neurology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,Yazd, Iran between January 2010 and February 2011 and were treated with levothyroxine for two months were evaluated.
Results
Thirteen girls (52%) and 12 boys (48%) with the mean age of 10.2 ± 2.76 years were evaluated. In children with hypothyroidism, the monthly frequency of headache (mean ± SD: 17.64 ± 9.49 times vs. 1.2 ± 1.1 times) and the severity of headache (mean± SD: 6.24±1.8 scores vs. 1.33 ± 0.87 scores) were significantly decreased by treatment.
Conclusion
Based on the results of this study, treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism was effective in reducing migraine headaches. Therefore, it is logical to check thyroid function tests in migraineur children.
PMCID: PMC3943024  PMID: 24665276
Headache; Migraine; Children; Hypothyroidism; Subclinical Hypothyroidism
4.  The Role of Maternal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Blocking Antibodies in the Etiology of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Isfahan, Iran 
Background:
Considering the role of maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor blocking antibody (TRAb) in the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), this study aimed to determine TRAb among patients with CH in Isfahan, Iran.
Methods:
In this case–control study, patients with CH and their mothers were compared with a group of healthy neonates and their mothers. Venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of TRAb using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method among mothers and their neonates. TSH of mothers was also determined.
Results:
The case group consisted of 65 patients with CH and their mothers; controls were 148 healthy neonates and their mothers. The prevalence of positive TRAb in patients with CH and their mothers was higher than in the control group (81.5% vs. 1.3% in mothers and 80% vs. 0% in neonates, respectively, P<0.05). The relationship between the TRAb and occurrence of CH was significant (P<0.05), whereas the corresponding figure was not significant for TRAb and the level of maternal and neonatal TSH in case and control groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion:
It seems that autoimmunity has an important role in the etiology of CH. Further studies are necessary to determine other autoantibodies in CH patients.
PMCID: PMC3278878  PMID: 22347610
Congenital hypothyroidism; etiology; thyroid stimulating hormone receptor blocking; autoimmunity

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