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1.  Brain tumors: Special characters for research and banking 
A brain tumor is an intracranial neoplasm within the brain or in the central spinal canal. Primary malignant brain tumors affect about 200,000 people worldwide every year. Brain cells have special characters. Due to the specific properties of brain tumors, including epidemiology, growth, and division, investigation of brain tumors and the interpretation of results is not simple. Research to identify the genetic alterations of human tumors improves our knowledge of tumor biology, genetic interactions, progression, and preclinical therapeutic assessment. Obtaining data for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy requires sufficient samples, and brain tumors have a wide range. As a result, establishing the bank of brain tumors is very important and essential.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.148261
PMCID: PMC4300589  PMID: 25625110
Banking; brain; tumor
2.  An observational study on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in meningioma 
Background:
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme is overexpressed in different types of tumors and is known to be associated with malignant behavior of tumors. We determined the association of COX-2 expression and different grades of human meningioma.
Materials and Methods:
This retrospective study was conducted on specimens obtained from adult patients with meningioma. Meningioma was classified according to the WHO 2007 classification protocol (I, II, and III). COX-2 expression intensity was scored based on the percentage of immunopositive cells as 0: 0-10%; +1: >10% and a part of the cell membrane; +2: >10% and complete cell membrane; and +3: >30% and complete cell membrane. Scores of +2 or +3 were considered as COX-2 positive.
Results:
Ninety meningioma cases (mean age = 53.0 ± 13.2 years, 71.1% female) were studied. COX-2 was positive in 25% (17/68), 68.4% (13/19), and 100% (3/3) of cases with tumor grade I, II, and III, respectively (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between tumor grade and COX-2 expression score (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.422, P < 0.001).
Conclusions:
There is a strong association between COX-2 expression and tumoral grade in meningioma with more aggressive tumors expressing COX-2 with more intensity. Prospective studies examining the association of COX-2 expression with tumor recurrence and interventional studies examining the role of COX-2 inhibitors anticancer therapy of meningioma are warranted.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.143256
PMCID: PMC4219207  PMID: 25371868
Central nervous system neoplasms; cyclooxygenase-2; meningioma
3.  Anti-inflammatory effect of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC extract on acetic acid — Induced acute colitis in rats 
Background:
Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. from Asteraceae family is an endemic plant growing wild in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of H. oligocephalum hydroalcoholic extract (HOHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by acetic acid (AA) in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Rats were grouped (n = 6) and fasted for 24 h before colitis induction. Treatments were started 2 h before the induction of colitis and continued for two consecutive days with different doses of HOHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.). The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments.
Results:
Among the examined doses of HOHE, 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose that reduced the extent of UC lesions and resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an index of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished in the treatment group administered HOHE at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the results showed correlation with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that HOHE (100 mg/kg) administered either p.o. or i.p. was effective in diminishing inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis in a non–dose-related manner.
Conclusions:
H. oligocephalum could be considered as a suitable anticolitis alternative; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.128000
PMCID: PMC3988595  PMID: 24761395
Helichrysum oligocephalum; inflammation; rats; ulcerative colitis
4.  WT1 protein expression in astrocytic tumors and its relationship with cellular proliferation index 
Background:
Although Wilms’ tumor gene (WT1) was initially known as a tumor marker in Wilms’ tumor, nowadays its role is well known in other sorts of malignancy. This study aimed to evaluate WT1 protein expression levels and its association with cellular proliferation in astrocytic brain tumors by immunohistochemical methods.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study performed on 73 randomly selected archived tissue samples of astrocytic brain tumors. Sections were observed after immunohistochemical staining regarding WT1 protein expression and MIB-1 staining index. Tumors were classified based on World Health Organization grading system.
Results:
WT1 protein expression was seen in the majority of samples (97.3%) with significantly higher index in high-grade tumors (P<0.001). MIB-1 staining index was also significantly higher in high-grade tumors (P<0.001). Moreover, a significantly positive correlation was found between WT1 protein expression and MIB-1 staining index (r: 0.64, P<0.001).
Conclusion:
Astrocytic brain tumors express WT1 protein. It was also found that high-grade tumors are accompanied with higher WT1 protein expression, which is correlated with MIB-1 staining index. WT1 can be used as a marker of malignant cell proliferation and diagnostic tool to differentiate normal astrocytes from neoplastic cells.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.108772
PMCID: PMC3748637  PMID: 23977661
Astrocytic brain tumor; immunotherapy; MIB-1 staining index; WT1 protein
5.  A 12-year epidemiologic study on primary spinal cord tumors in Isfahan, Iran 
Background:
Although primary spinal cord tumors (PSCTs) comprise a minority of primary central nervous system tumors, they often impose a great deal of morbidity on their victims. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed PSCTs in Iran.
Materials and Methods:
We analyzed the demographic/clinical features of all primary intraspinal tumors (with a specific focus on primary intradural spinal cord tumors) identified between 1992 and 2004 in three of the major related hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. We also tracked the malignant cases until 2012.
Results:
102 patients with primary intraspinal tumors were found; 82 tumors were Intradural (36 intramedullary and 46 extramedullary) and 20 extradural. The principal intradural histological subtypes were nerve sheath tumor (33%), ependymoma (22%), astrocytoma (16%), and meningioma (15%). 20 (19%) of the tumors were malignant. Local pain (43%) and motor disabilities (36%) were the most common first-presenting symptoms in the patients. Male-to-female ratio was significant only in ependymoma (male:female ratio = 3.6, P < 0.05). The mean age in meningioma (57 years, standard error [SE]: 15.7) was significantly higher than other types (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
Our results reflect analogous frequency of distribution for PSCTs compared with most of the previous counterpart studies worldwide. The only notable exception was the comparatively fewer frequency of spinal cord meningioma in our study.
PMCID: PMC3719220  PMID: 23901336
Epidemiology; spinal cord neoplasms; survival rate
6.  Involvement of 5HT3 Receptors in Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Tropisetron on Experimental TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rat 
BioImpacts : BI  2013;3(4):169-176.
Introduction: There is a pressing need for research leading to the development of new effective drugs with lower side effects and more efficacy for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-3 receptor antagonists have been shown in in vivo and in vitro studies. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on an immune-based animal model of IBD. Methods: In the present study, the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis in the rat was used. Two hours after induction of colitis in rats, tropisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, or tropisetron + mCPBG were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administrated for 6 days. Animals were then sacrificed; macroscopic, histological, biochemical (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) assessments and ELISA test (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 beta) were performed on distal colon samples. Results: Tropisetron or dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced macroscopic and microscopic colonic damages. In addition, a significant reduction in MPO activity and colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines was seen. The beneficial effects of tropisetron were antagonized by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the protective effects of tropisetron on TNBS-induced colitis can be mediated by 5-HT3 receptors.
doi:10.5681/bi.2013.021
PMCID: PMC3892736  PMID: 24455480
5-HT3 receptor; TNBS-induced colitis; Tropisetron; Ulcerative colitis
7.  Effect of Echium amoenum Fisch. et Mey a Traditional Iranian Herbal Remedy in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis 
ISRN Gastroenterology  2012;2012:141548.
Acute pancreatitis is a morbid inflammatory condition of pancreas with limited specific therapy. Enhanced oxidative stress plays an important role in induction and progression of acute pancreatitis. So reducing oxidative stress may relieve this pathogenic process. Echium amoenum Fisch. and Mey has been implemented in Iranian folk medicine for several centuries. Antioxidant, analgesic, immunomodulatory, and anxiolytic properties of E. amoenum suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of petals of E. amoenum extract (EAE) on a murine model of pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) with 1h intervals which was characterized by pancreatic inflammation and increase in the serum level of digestive enzymes, in comparison to normal mice. EAE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was administered i.p., 30 minutes before induction of pancreatitis. Pretreatment with EAE (400 mg/kg) reduced significantly the inflammatory response of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by ameliorating pancreatic edema, amylase and lipase serum levels, proinflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation and pathological alteration. These results show that EAE attenuates the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis with an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects.
doi:10.5402/2012/141548
PMCID: PMC3449129  PMID: 23008778
8.  Does Cisapride, as a 5HT4 Receptor Agonist, Aggravate the Severity of TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rat? 
There is a pressing need for research that will lead to the reveal of targets designed to analyse the possible pathways for the treatment of IBD. Because of the probable involvement of serotonin in inflammatory conditions of intestine and the important role of 5HT4 receptors in GI function, the investigation of the role of 5HT4 receptors in the pathogenesis of IBD will be interesting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cisapride, a 5HT4 receptor agonist, in trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid-(TNBS) induced rat colitis. Two hours subsequent to induction of colitis using TNBS in rats, cisapride (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p); 4 mg/kg, orally (p.o)) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p; 2 mg/kg, p.o) were administrated for 6 days. Animals were thereafter euthanized; macroscopic, histological, and biochemical assessments and ELISA test were carried out on distal colon samples. Our data showed that dexamethasone treatment (i.p, p.o) significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic damage and also biochemical markers, but there were no significant differences in aforementioned parameters between cisapride (i.p or p.o) and TNBS-treated rats. It can be deduced that because the severity of colitis produced by TNBS is massive (through various pathways), cisapride could not bring about more colitis damages through 5HT4 receptors. Based on the present study further researches are required for investigating the exact roles of 5HT4 receptors in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
doi:10.1155/2012/362536
PMCID: PMC3408677  PMID: 22888336
9.  Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum on selected traditional and novel biochemical factors of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: A comparison between the extract and lovastatin 
Context:
Evidence suggests that diets with high contents of cholesterol will increase serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, thereby increase risk of atherosclerosis. According to literature, some plants show hypolipidemic, hypocholestrolemic, and antiatherosclerotic activities.
Aims:
In this study, antiatherosclerotic effect of Hypericum perforatum hydroalcoholic extract on hypercholesterolemic rabbits was compared with that of lovastatin.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty five mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five and were fed for 60 days as follows: Standard diet (GroupI), standard diet and hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/kg daily)(GroupII), standard diet, hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/ kg daily) and cholesterol (1% of food content) (Group III), standard diet and cholesterol (1% of food content)(GroupIV), and finally standard diet, lovastatin (10 mg/kg), and cholesterol (1% of foodcontent) (GroupV).
Results:
Hypericum perforatum extract significantly decreased the levels of apolipoprotein B(apoB), apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A (apoB/apoA), triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as atherosclerosis index, and increased high density lipoprotein and apoA in rabbits of Group III compared to the rabbits of Group IV. The effect of Hypericum perforatum extract in decreasing the level of some biochemical factors like apoB, apoB/apoA, and CRP was meaningfully more than that of lovastatin. Histopathological findings confirmed that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum restricted the atherosclerotic lesions.
Conclusions:
This study indicates that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum possesses hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects and could be beneficial in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.99044
PMCID: PMC3425170  PMID: 22923963
Apolipoprotein; atherosclerosis; Hypericum perforatum; lovastatin
10.  Pectin Film Coated Pellets for Colon-targeted Delivery of Budesonide: In-vitro/In-vivo Evaluation in Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rat 
The main objective of this study was to prepare colon-specific pellets of budesonide, using pectin as film coating. Pellet cores of budesonide were prepared by extrusion / spheronization technique. Pectin, in different ratios was combined with Eudragit RS30D, Eudragit NE30D or Surelease to produce film coating. The dissolution profiles of pectin coated pellets were investigated in pH of 1.2 (2 h), pH of 7.4 (4 h) and pH of 6.8 in the absence as well as presence of rat cecal contents (18 h). Finally the selected formulation was evaluated on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis in rat model, in comparison with conventional UC treatments. The dissolution profiles of pectin coated pellets showed that the release of budesonide in presence of rat cecal content depended on adjuvant polymer, the ratio of pectin to polymer and film thickness. Coated pellets, prepared out of pectin and Surelease at a ratio of 1:3 at coating level of 35% (w/w), could increase budesonide release statistically in presence of rat cecal content, while they released no drug in pH of 1.2 and 7.4. Animal experiments revealed the therapeutic efficacy of pectin/Surelease-coated pellets of budesonide in alleviating the conditions of TNBS-induced colitis model as reflected by weight gain, as well as improvement of clinical, macroscopic and microscopic parameters of induced colitis. This confirmed the ability of the optimized formulation for targeted drug delivery of budesonide to colon.
PMCID: PMC3813129  PMID: 24250500
Skull; Budesonide; Pellets; Colon delivery; Pectin; Film coating; TNBS induced colitis
11.  Preventive Effect of Cichorium Intybus L. Two Extracts on Cerulein-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice 
Objectives:
Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of pancreas with sudden onset, high mortality rate and multiple organ failure characteristics. It has been shown that oxygen free radicals have an important role in development of pancreatitis and its complications. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxicity and gastroprotective properties of Cichorium intybus L. suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis.
Methods:
Five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulean (50 μg/ kg at 1 h intervals) in mice resulted in acute pancreatitis, which was characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, as well as increases in the serum levels of amylase and lipase in comparison to normal mice. Different doses of C. intybus root (CRE) and aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract (CAPE) orally (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and intraperitoneally (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) were administrated 1.0 and 0.5 h respectively before pancreatitis induction on separate groups of male mice (n=6). Control groups treated with normal saline (5 ml/ kg) similarly.
Results:
Both extracts in greater test doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) were effective to decrease amylase (23-36%) and lipase (27-35%) levels. In oral route, the dose of 200 mg/ kg showed a significant decrease in levels of amylase (16%) and lipase (24%) activity while the greatest dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was only effective to diminish inflammatory features like edema and leukocyte infiltration in pancreatitis tissue (P<0.01). Vacuolization was not significantly reduced in extracts treated groups.
Conclusions:
These data suggest that C. intybus hydroalcoholic extracts were effective to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis and the efficacy was partly dependent to the dose and was more significant after parenteral administration.
PMCID: PMC3372077  PMID: 22708031
Animal model; Cichorium intybus L.; inflammation; pancreatitis; plant extracts; preventive therapy
12.  Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats 
Background:
Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide.
Methods:
Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg-1 BW); diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg-1 BW). Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg-1 BW), intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS), Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured each time.
Results:
FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L) in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal.
Conclusion:
These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3526135  PMID: 23267403
Alloxan; carthamus tinctorius L.; diabetes; glibenclamide; hydroalcoholic extract
13.  Preventive Therapy of Experimental Colitis with Selected iron Chelators and Anti-oxidants 
Objectives:
Iron chelators, such as maltol and kojic acid, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) because iron can develop and aggravate inflammation in IBD. In the present study, the effect of selected iron chelators and anti-oxidants were evaluated on a model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis.
Methods:
Colitis was induced with instillation of 75 mg/kg TNBS in 0.25 ml ethanol 50% via the anus in fasted male Wistar rats. The animals were assigned randomly to 12 groups (n = 6) and treated once daily, started 2 hours before colitis induction, with normal saline (5 ml/kg), maltol (70, 140, 280 mg/kg), kojic acid (75, 150, 300 mg/kg), vitamin E (400 mg/kg), deferiprone (L1) (150 mg/kg) and prednisolone (4 mg/kg) orally and deferoxamine (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 5 days. In the sixth day, rats were scarified and colon tissues were assessed macroscopically and pathologically.
Results:
Maltol (280 mg/kg) was able to reduce colon weight / length ratio, ulcer index and total colitis index similar to prednisolone, deferoxamine and deferiprone as positive controls. However, kojic acid and vitamin E could not significantly alleviate macroscopic and/or pathologic features of inflammation in comparison to normal saline.
Conclusions:
Maltol with the highest test dose was capable to protect against experimentally induced colitis. Kojic acid and vitamin E were not effective in this animal model of colon inflammation. More detailed studies are warranted to explore the mechanisms involved in anti-colitic property of maltol and to explain ineffectiveness of kojic acid and vitamin E.
PMCID: PMC3399289  PMID: 22826760
Anti-oxidant; Inflammatory bowel disease; Iron chelator; Kojic acid; Maltol
14.  A Case of Chondrosarcoma That Primarily Developed in the Cervical Spine 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2012;9(1):57-59.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.6344
PMCID: PMC3522341  PMID: 23329963
Chondrosarcoma; Cervical Vertebrae
15.  The study of CD117 expression in glial tumors and its relationship with the tumor-type and grade 
Background:
CD117 is a thyrosin kinase receptor encoded by c-kit proto-oncogene. It is expressed during normal development in some tissues and also in a subset of neoplasia especially gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Treatment with thyrosin kinase inhibitors (e.g., Imatinib) is useful in CD117- positive GISTs. The goal of this study is to investigate the expression of CD117 in glial tumors as a potential diagnostic marker and target for therapy.
Materials and Methods:
in this descriptive-analytical study, paraffin- embedded tissue blocks from 50 cases of glial tumors (various histological types and grades) were selected in a convenience sampling for the CD117 immunhistochemical study including expression of the marker, staining intensity, and percentage of the stained cells. The results were analyzed by Chi-square and Mann–Whitney tests.
Results:
CD117 expression was detected in about 76% of glial tumors but the frequency of the expression showed no statistically significant relationship with the tumor type (P = 0.829). Although CD117 immunoreactivity was more frequent in high-grade tumors (84%) compared to the low-grade ones (68%), no statistically significant relationship was found between the CD117 expression and grade of the tumor (P = 0.09). Staining intensity and percentage of stained cells in high-grade tumors were significantly more than in low-grade tumors (P values of 0.046 and 0.023, respectively).
Conclusion:
according to the statistically significant difference in the staining intensity and percentage of the stained cells between the low-grade and high-grade glial tumors, these two parameters may be useful for making distinction between various grades of these tumors. Moreover, according to the prominent expression of CD117 in high-grade gliomas, these tumors may be potential candidates for treatment with thyrosin kinase inhibitors.
PMCID: PMC3525034  PMID: 23264790
CD117; glial tumors; immunohistochemical staining; tumor grade
16.  An intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis in a 34-year-old man with beta thalassemia: a case report 
Introduction
Extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs in approximately 15% of cases of thalassemia. Intracranial deposits of extramedullary hematopoiesis are an extremely rare compensatory process in intermediate and severe thalassemia.
Case presentation
We present an unusual case of an intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis with a choroid plexus origin in a 34-year-old Caucasian man with beta thalassemia intermedia, who presented with the complaints of chronic headache and rapid progressive visual loss.
Conclusion
An intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis, although extremely rare, should be considered as a potential ancillary diagnosis in any thalassemic patient and therefore appropriate studies should be performed to investigate the probable intracranial ectopic marrow before any surgical intervention.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-580
PMCID: PMC3285055  PMID: 22182855
17.  An Iranian experience on renal allograft diseases* 
BACKGROUND:
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with end stage renal disease. In addition, renal biopsy is the gold standard to assess the causes of renal allograft dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate and designate renal lesions according to Banff schema.
METHODS:
In this cross-sectional study, all renal allograft biopsies obtained from renal transplant patients at Alzahra and Noor referral hospitals in Isfahan during 2006-2008 were studied. Evaluations were made according to the Banff classification 2009. Clinical data was collected from the pathology database and analyzed using SPSS.
RESULTS:
A total number of 161 specimens were studied from 68% male and 32% female subjects. The donor source was living unrelated in 85%, living related 9.9% and cadaveric in 5% of cases. Pathologic results showed 22.4% acute tubular necrosis (ATN), 13.7% interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) grade II, 9.9% IF/TA (Grade III), 6.8% acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR-IA), 5.6% TCMR-IB, 5% borderline change, 5% infarction, 4.3% TCMR-IIA, 4.3% TA/IF (Grade I), 3.7% acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), 1.9% TCMR-IIB and 17.4% other lesions.
CONCLUSIONS:
The commonest causes of graft dysfunction after kidney transplant were IF/TA, no evidence of any specific etiology (NOS) and ATN. Living donors were found to be important sources for kidney transplantation in Iran.
PMCID: PMC3434898  PMID: 22973365
Kidney Transplantation; Kidney Allograft; Transplantation Results; Renal Biopsy
18.  Intrinsic Third Ventricular Craniopharyngioma: A case report 
Craniopharyngioma accounts for 2.5-4 percent of all intracranial tumors. The tumor is more observed in the chiasmatic region in adults and the intraventricular subtype is rare. We report an intraventricular craniopharyngioma in a 22-year-old woman presented with chronic headache. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed hyperintense large mass on T1-weighted images and hypointense mass on T2-weighted images in third ventricle with pressure effect on both lateral ventricles and foramen of Monro. The diagnosis of craniopharyngioma was confirmed through histopathological examination of the resected tumor after surgery. After a follow-up period of nine months, neither tumor recurrence nor regrowth occurred. The early diagnosis of this relatively frequent tumor would help to prevent related sequelae.
PMCID: PMC3143532  PMID: 21811661
Craniopharyngioma; Headache; Histopathology
19.  A patient with refractory testicular adrenal rest tumour in the setting of cyp11b1 deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr06.2008.0280.
Testicular adrenal rest tumour (TART) due to CYP11B1 deficiency is a very rare clinical finding. Only seven cases have been reported previously. Here, the case of a 19-year-old boy with classic CYP11B1 deficiency and large testicles refractory to medical treatment that led to orchidectomy is reported. The clinical and laboratory manifestations of this patient are discussed and compared with that of the previously reported cases. The patient presented with rapid body growth, precocious puberty, hypertension, recurrent hypokalaemic paralysis and testicular enlargement. The most important differential diagnosis of his latter presentation is Leydig cell tumour (LCT). It was found that positive family history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hypertension, bilaterality, hypokalaemia and multiple hypoechoic masses on ultrasonography of the testes are in favour of a diagnosis of TART. Conversely, high titres of tumour markers and presence of Reinke crystalloids are supportive of a diagnosis of LCT.
doi:10.1136/bcr.06.2008.0280
PMCID: PMC3028312  PMID: 21686875
20.  A case report of cemento-ossifying fibroma presenting as a mass of the ethmoid sinus 
Cemento-ossifying fibroma is a lesion containing both fibrous and osseous components. Such lesions include fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma, cemento-ossifying fibroma and cementifying fibroma. Periodontal membrane is the origin of fibro-osseous lesions other than fibrous dysplasia.
Here a clinical case of a young woman referred for evaluation of a mass in the right side of face between eye and nose is presented. The first time she noticed the mass was 2 years ago and was growing larger inwards. She was treated with surgical resection.
In this case of a cemento-ossifying fibroma, histological interpretation was critical, and was the basis of correct treatment.
PMCID: PMC3214308  PMID: 22091236
Fibroma; Ossifying; Ethmoid Sinus; Tomography; X-Ray Computed; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
21.  Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats 
Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally or rectally prior to ulcer induction. BEC (10 mg/Kg), prednisolone (5 mg/Kg), hydrocortisone acetate enema (20 mg/Kg) and normal saline (5 mL/Kg) were considered as respective controls. The tissue was assessed macroscopically for damage scores, area, index and weight/length ratio. They were also examined histopathologically for inflammation extent and severity, crypt damage, invasion involvement and total colitis index.
Results indicated that greater doses of oral BFE (750, 1500 mg/Kg) as well as BEC (10 mg/Kg) were effective to protect against colonic damage. By rectal pretreatment, the extract was only effective to diminish the ulcer index and the efficacy was not significant for mucosal inflammation parameters. In conclusion BFE, which is nearly devoid of berberine, was effective to protect against colitis and this might be attributed to its anthocyanin constituents.
PMCID: PMC3869597  PMID: 24363687
Berberis vulgaris; Berberine; Barberry fruit extract; Colitis; Rats
22.  Granulosa cell tumor in a six-year-old girl presented as precocious puberty 
Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, including granulose cell tumors (GCTs), are a group of neoplasms that occur rarely, especially in children. Only 0.1 percent of all ovarian tumors and 4-5 percent of GCTs occur in children. The most common presentation of these tumors in children is precocious puberty. We report a 6 years old girl with isosexual precocity, presented as premature thelarche and vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography of pelvis showed a hypoechoic solid mass of left ovary.
Microscopic features of the resected mass were characteristic of juvenile GCT. Although in most of girls with precocious puberty, the etiology is idiopathic, important causes, such as ovarian tumors must be considered.
PMCID: PMC3082815  PMID: 21526089
Granulosa Cell Tumor; Puberty; Children
23.  Colon Delivery of Budesonide Using Solid Dispersion in Dextran for the Treatment and Secondary Prevention of Ulcerative Colitis in Rat 
Objectives:
Ulcerative colitis is characterized by local inflammation. Targeting drugs directly to the site of injury has the benefit of lower adverse effects and more effective therapy. The aim of this study was colon targeted delivery of budesonide to deliver the major part of the drug to the colon.
Methods:
Matrix tablets of budesonide from solid dispersion of drug with dextran were prepared using different drug to polymer ratios and three molecular weights of dextran. The physical evaluation and drug release behavior were studied. In vivo efficacy of the selected formulation against acetic acid induced colitis in rats was evaluated and compared to the control (untreated) and references (mesalazine and budesonide suspensions) groups.
Results:
The results showed that solid dispersion of budesonide with dextran in the ratio of 1:7 using molecular weight (MW) of 10,000 dextran (SDT710) released 25% of the drug in the first 6 hours and 100% in caecal and colonic contents. It could target the drug to colon with improvement in some of the inflammatory signs of induced ulcerative colitis in rat. Treatment with SDT710 could improve not only the percent of involvement also macroscopic damage parameters. The macroscopic parameters included weight/length ratio of the colon, ulcer area, damage score, and ulcer index reduced in comparison to the control group and conventional suspension of budesonide; however, only weight/length ratio was significant.
Conclusions:
In the experimental model studied, the new colonic delivery system significantly improved the efficacy of budesonide in the weight/length ratio of the colon in induced colitis in rats.
PMCID: PMC3075473  PMID: 21566772
Budesonide; Solid dispersion; Dextran; Ulcerative colitis; Colon delivery
24.  Ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis type 1 with bilateral psoas muscle neurofibromas: a case report 
The most common gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis is due to tumoral lesions which may present with gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. We report a case of concurrent ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis.
A 39 year-old woman, known case of neurofibromatosis, was admitted to our department with complaint of chronic bloody diarrhea. After thorough clinical examination and paraclinical assessments, including colonoscopy and biopsy, ulcerative colitis was confirmed as the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Another rare finding in this patient was bilateral neurofibroma in psoas muscle that was detected on abdominal spiral Computer Tomography scan.
PMCID: PMC3129114  PMID: 21772893
Ulcerative Colitis; Neurofibromatosis; Von Recklinghausen's Disease; Mast Cells; Bilateral Neurofibroma; Psoas Muscle
25.  Colonoscopic diagnosis of appendiceal intussusception in a patient with intermittent abdominal pain: A case report 
Intussusception of the appendix is a rare condition. Most cases are diagnosed during operation of the patients suspected to have appendicitis. In this report we present a seventy one year-old man with a history of periumbilical intermittent abdominal pain for several months. None of the paraclinical tests were useful for determining the diagnosis. Colonoscopy performed during the last episode of abdominal pain revealed the prolapsed appendix in the cecum and the patient was sent to the operating room. Macroscopic appearance of the appendix was normal and microscopic examination revealed follicular hyperplasia and acute focal appendicitis. Appendiceal intussusception should be considered in differential diagnosis of intermittent abdominal pain and colonoscopic diagnosis could be very important to avoid dangerous or unnecessary decision making.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i31.4274
PMCID: PMC4250632  PMID: 17696262
Appendix; Intussusception; Colonoscopic diagnosis

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