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author:("kachuga, Ali")
1.  The effects of non-attendance information therapy on the control of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in type 2 diabetic patients 
Patient education plays an important role in the control of diabetes. Nonattendance education, enabling elimination of limitations caused by time and space and facilitating the relationship between patient and care liaison is an effective, simple, and cheap method. The aim of this study is determination of the effects of nonattendance information therapy on the control of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in type 2 diabetic patients in Isfahan.
Materials and Methods:
The present study was an interventional semi experimental study with pretest and post-test and control groups. Statistical population were type 2 diabetics patients of the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, of whom 64 people were randomly selected and divided into intervention and control groups. First, the preliminary data were collected using the HbA1c test in patients. Then, the intervention group received training package and Short Message Service (SMS) for eight weeks. After one-month incubation period, HbA1c was again determined in both groups. Data were analyzed using t-test, paired t-test and Mann–Whitney U and Chi-square tests.
Results showed that diabetes patients’ HbA1c in the intervention group was significantly lower after the intervention through training packages and SMS service compared to before the intervention (P < 0.001). Comparison of the two groups showed that there was a significant difference in the HbA1C between the intervention and control groups (P = 0.048).
Follow-up of education of patients with type 2 diabetes through training packages and SMS services had significant effects on the control of the patients’ HbA1C. Also due to the low cost and high effectiveness of this method, it is recommended to health-care providers and treatment groups. This study also showed that having medical librarians along with treatment group can have a positive effect on the type 2 diabetic patients’ health.
PMCID: PMC4165099  PMID: 25250356
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C); Isfahan; nonattendance information therapy; type 2 diabetes
2.  Effects of Levothyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone on bone loss in patients with primary hypothyroidism 
Previous studies on bone mineral density (BMD) abnormalities associated with hypothyroidism are scarce and not conclusive. The effect of thyroid hormone therapy on BMD has shown mixed results. The aim of the present study was to determine the severities of osteoporosis in female patients with hypothyroidism in comparison to healthy women.
This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 150 women aged over 50 years. Totally, 100 patients with primary hypothyroidism and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups. Group A, which consisted the patients who had been recently diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism. The second group of patients diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism for at least 2 years and was treated with levothyroxine (Group B). The third group of healthy individuals was selected as a control group (Group C). Blood samples were taken for the measurements of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and bone densitometry was performed to determine the BMD reported as T-score in order to measure the severity of osteoporosis. T-score of the lumbar vertebra (L2-L4) and femoral neck were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and were compared between the three groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS using regression analysis and Mann–Whitney, Kruskal–Wallis, or analysis of variances statistical tests. The statistical significance was set at a P < 0.05.
The average age of patients and baseline serum TSH levels in Group B was significantly different from the other two groups (P < 0.001). T-score of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in Group B was significantly lower than the other groups (P = 0.01). The linear regression between serum TSH levels and BMD categories were not clearly associated. However, after removing the effect of the baseline TSH level in Group B, bone loss was significantly greater than the other two groups (P = 0.01).
According to the present study, it seems that the treatment of hypothyroidism with thyroid hormones reduces both serum levels of TSH and bone density. Hence, proper control of this risk factor can be an effective way in prevention of osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC4199196  PMID: 25328897
Levothyroxine; osteoporosis; primary hypothyroidism
3.  Zinc status in goitrous school children of Semirom, Iran 
Iodine deficiency produces the spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) including endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism and congenital anomalies. Other factors, including goitrogens and micronutrient deficiencies may influence the prevalence and severity of IDDs and response to iodine supplementation. An association between zinc and goiter has previously been reported.
A cross sectional study investigating an association between goiter and serum zinc status was performed in 2003 in a mountainous region of Iran. One thousand eight hundred twenty-eight children were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Goiter staging was performed by inspection and palpation. Serum zinc, total thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone and urinary iodine concentration were measured in a group of these children.
Thirty six and seven tenth percent of subjects were classified as goitrous. Serum zinc level in goitrous and nongoitrous children was 82.80 ± 17.85 and 83.38 ± 16.25 μg/dl, respectively (p = 0.81). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (serum zinc ≤65 μg/dl) in goitrous and nongoitrous children did not differ significantly (9.3 % vs. 10.8%, p = 0.70).
Goiter is still a public health problem in Semirom. According to the present study zinc status may not play a role in the etiology of goiter in Semirom school children. However, the role of other goitrogens or micronutrient deficiencies should be investigated in this region.
PMCID: PMC3129056  PMID: 21772878
Goiter; Iodine Deficiency; Zinc Deficiency; Child

Results 1-3 (3)