In this study, we evaluated the quality of care and control of cardiovascular risk factors in newly diagnosed diabetic patients, identified during diabetes screening program, 1 year after diagnosis.
In this prospective study, 83 newly diagnosed diabetic patients identified at screening in Isfahan, were studied. Height, weight, blood pressure, plasma glucose, lipids, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of these patients were measured 2 times, first at the time of diagnosis and then 1 year later, and the results were compared between two groups, with and without regular course of treatment.
Nearly 46.99% and 53.1% of the studied patients have regular and irregular course of treatment. After 1 year, significant improvement in the mean of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein and HbA1c was seen in patients with regular course of treatment except for blood pressure (P < 0.05). Frequency of controlled cardiovascular risk factors including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and LDL was significantly improved in patients with regular course of treatment (P < 0.05). Mentioned changes were not seen in patients with irregular course of treatment.
The findings of the current study demonstrated that though diabetes screening program result in earlier diagnosis of patients with type 2 diabetes, but it seems that regular follow-up and proper management of newly diagnosed patients is crucial for appropriate glycemic and metabolic control and preventing its related micro and macrovascular complication.
Cardiovascular disease; care; screening; type 2 diabetes
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Annual medical and work loss costs of hepatitis A are significant even in low-endemic countries. It is recommended that each country should collect and review the information needed to estimate its national burden of hepatitis A to provide evidence for health policy makers to implement appropriate and cost-effective preventive strategy for HAV infection. The objective of this study was to estimate accurate prevalence of HAV infection in Iran for best preventive measures.
Materials and Methods:
MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information, Scopus, Iranmedex, Irandoc, Magiran and Scientific Information Database were searched. The seroprevalence of HAV were pooled by age, sex and residence using fixed and random effect models.
Sixteen papers representing 11857 subjects were included. The overall HAV seroprevalence was 51% (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 50-52%) in fixed and 66% (95% CI: 50-79%) in random effects models. The prevalence was 32% (CI 95%: 11-63%) in less than 20, 50% (CI 95%: 24-75%) in 20-30, and 67% (CI 95%: 17-95%) in more than 30 years of age. The difference was not significant in gender or residence subgroups.
HAV infection in Iran may be considered as low or very low. Therefore, targeted vaccination of high-risk groups and more improvement in environmental sanitation would be the best preventive measure.
Hepatitis A; Iran; seroprevalence
the aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum and filter paper thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). We also tried to determine an appropriate cutoff point of filter TSH for recalling screened neonates.
Materials and Methods:
in this descriptive-analytic study, records of 2283 neonates who had been recalled during CH screening program in Isfahan (Iran) were studied. The relation between serum and filter paper TSH levels in the studied neonates was assessed and the best cutoff point of filter TSH and its sensitivity and specificity for proper diagnosis of CH were determined.
among the studied neonates, 103 (4.5%) were diagnosed with CH. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the best cutoff point for diagnosing CH was 7.5 with a sensitivity of 74.8% and specificity of 71.3%. The rates of false positive and false negative diagnoses at this cutoff point were28.7% and 25.2%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between serum and filter paper TSH levels.
the cutoff point for recall should be changed to 7.5 for appropriate screening outcome. On the other hand, considering the low cost of filter paper and importance of missing any case of CH, changing the cutoff point is not necessary. However, further studies in different parts of Iran are required to obtain more accurate results and consider all related factors.
Congenital hypothyroidism; filter paper; thyroid-stimulating hormone
Considering the higher prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Iran and the importance of determination of the etiology of CH for assessing appropriate treatment strategies, understanding the pathogenesis of CH and the implications of its inheritance and prognosis, the aim of this study was to determine the etiology of CH 7 years after initiation of the program in Isfahan province.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, children with a primary diagnosis of CH studied. They clinically examined and their medical files were reviewed by a Pediatric Endocrinologist. Considering screening and follow-up lab data and radiologic findings the etiology of CH was determined. Screening properties of different etiologies of CH was compared.
In this study, 437 patients with permanent CH (PCH) were studied. Etiology of PCH in 316 (72.3%) and 121 (27.7%) of cases was thyroid dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis, respectively. Prevalence of agenesis, ectopia, hypoplasia and hemiagenesis in thyroid dysgenetic patients was 13.3%, 6.4%, 4.3% and 3.7% respectively. Mean of thyroid stimulating hormone in screening, recall and after discontinuing treatment at 3 years of age was significantly lower in dyshormonogenetic CH patients than dysgenetic ones(P < 0.01).
Seven years of our experiences in CH screening program indicated that the etiology of CH in Isfahan, with a higher rate of CH, with a predominance of thyroid dyshormonogenesis is different from most of the studies world-wide and similar to other reports from Iran. The findings of the current study provide us baseline information for determination of CH pathogenesis in this region.
Congenital hypothyroidism; dysgenesis; dyshormonogenesis; permanent
Considering the importance to determine the reasons for the higher occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Iran, in this study we report the prevalence of permanent CH (PCH) in Isfahan province 7 years after initiation of CH screening program in Isfahan.
In this cross-sectional study, children with a primary diagnosis of CH studied. They clinically examined and their medical files were reviewed by a pediatric endocrinologist. Considering screening and follow-up lab data, radiologic findings and the decision of pediatric endocrinologists the final diagnosis of PCH was determined.
A total of 464,648 neonates screened in Isfahan province. The coverage percent of the CH screening and recall rate was 98.9% and 2.1%, respectively. A total of 1990 neonates were diagnosed with primary CH. PCH was diagnosed in 410 neonates. The prevalence of PCH and transient CH (TCH) was 1 in 1133 and 1 in 294 live births. The most common etiology of CH was thyroid dyshormonogenesis.
Though the prevalence of PCH is high, but the higher prevalence of CH in Isfahan is commonly due to cases with TCH. Hence, the necessity of determining new strategies for earlier diagnosis of patients with TCH is recommended.
Congenital hypothyroidism; permanent; transient
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) considered a common endocrine disorder in Iran. We report the epidemiologic findings of CH screening program in Isfahan, seven years after its development, regarding the prevalence of transient CH (TCH) and its screening properties comparing with permanent CH (PCH).
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, children with primary diagnosis of CH were studied. Considering screening and follow-up lab data and the decision of pediatric endocrinologists, the final diagnosis of TCH was determined.
A total of 464,648 neonates were screened. The coverage percent of the CH screening and recall rate was 98.9 and 2.1%, respectively. Out of which, 1,990 neonates were diagnosed with primary CH. TCH was diagnosed in 1,580 neonates. The prevalence of TCH was 1 in 294 live births. 79.4% of patients with primary CH had TCH. Mean of screening (54.7 ± 59.0 in PCH vs 21.8 ± 28.9 in TCH), recall (56.5 ± 58.8 in PCH vs 36.6 ± 45.0 in TCH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and mean of TSH before (2.0 ± 2.9 in PCH vs 1.6 ± 1.6 in TCH) and after (37.7 ± 29.5 in PCH vs 4.3 ± 1.9 in TCH) discontinuing treatment at 3 years of age was significantly higher in PCH than TCH (P < 0.0000).
The higher rate of CH in Isfahan is mainly due to the transient form of the disease. Further studies for evaluating the role of other environmental, autoimmune and/or genetic factors in the pathophysiology of the disease is warranted.
Congenital hypothyroidism; permanent; transient
Considering the high prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Isfahan, the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children with CH and the effect of diagnostic and treatment variables on it were investigated during the CH screening program.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 120 children in three studied groups were studied in this comparative study the IQ score, in three subsets of verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ, of children diagnosed with transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) and permanent congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) was measured using revised Wechsler pre-school and primary scale of intelligence and compared with the control group. The relation between IQ score with time of treatment initiation and screening thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was evaluated in all studied groups.
Mean of verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full scale IQ score was significantly higher in the control group than CH patients (both permanent and transient) In PCH patients though it was not significant, there was a negative relationship between verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ and screening TSH and age of treatment initiation. In TCH patients, there was negative and significant relationship between verbal IQ (r = −0.40) and full scale IQ (r = −0.38) and age of treatment initiation (r = −0.46).
Mean IQ score in both PCH and TCH patients were lower than the control group, which correlates negatively with treatment initiation time. Though CH screening and early treatment has improved the prognosis of patients, but early and high dose of treatment in children with CH is recommended.
Congenital hypothyroidism; intelligence quotient; permanent; transient; Wechsler pre-school and primary scale
The relation between Vitamin D deficiency with depressive and fatigue symptoms in both Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy population have been reported. To represent our regional achievement in this field we investigated the relation between Vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms in MS patients.
Materials and Methods:
In two hundred MS patients, depressive symptoms and fatigue were measured using Beck PC (BDI-PC) and FFS scale, respectively. Venous blood sample was obtained from all participants and serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. Mean score of FSS, BDI-PC and EDSS were compared in patients with normal and low level of Vitamin D. The relation between FSS, BDI-PC score, EDSS and low Vitamin D status was determined.
There was a moderate significant correlation between MS disability evaluated by EDSS and fatigue (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) and depression (r = 0.26, P < 0.001). The prevalence of low Vitamin D status was 48.5%. Low Vitamin D status was inversely associated with depressive symptoms of patients with MS (P = 0.02 rs = -0.16), but there was not significant correlation between Vitamin D and fatigue symptoms (P = 0.2).
More interventional studies for determining the role of Vitamin D supplements in this regard is recommended.
Depressive symptom; fatigue; multiple sclerosis; Vitamin D
Objectives. The aim of the current study was to investigate the growth status of CH, generate specialized growth charts of CH infants, and compare them with their counterparts of regional normal infants. Methods. In this prospective cohort study, 760 (345 girls and 415 boys) neonates born in 2002–2009 diagnosed by neonatal CH screening program in Isfahan were followed up from the time of diagnosis. 552 healthy children were recruited as a control group. The empirical 3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th, and 97th percentiles for height, weight, and head circumference of both sexes were determined and compared with their counterpart values of the control group. The relative frequency of patients with impaired growth for each studied variable was determined. Also, specialized growth charts of CH patients were generated. Results. The percentiles of weight, height, and head circumference of studied patients are significantly different from regional healthy children (P < 0.001). The relative frequency of impaired head circumference was decreased to less than 3% at the 3rd year of age and for height it reached gradually 3% and 9% at the 5th year of age for boys and girls, respectively (P < 0.05); however for weight still it was statistically more than 3% in both sexes. Conclusion. CH patients had impaired growth development which was improved during follow up, but the catch-up time was earlier for head circumference and later for weight.
Considering the high prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Isfahan and its different etiologies in comparison with other countries, the high rate of parental consanguinity, and the role of NIS gene in permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis, the aim of this study was to investigate the G395R mutation of the NIS gene in patients with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis
In this case–control study, patients diagnosed with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis during CH screening program were selected. Venous blood sample was obtained to determine the G395R mutations of NIS gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing method.
In this study, 35 CH patients with permanent CH due to dyshormonogenesis and 35 neonates with normal screening results as a control group were studied. We did not find any changes of the mentioned mutation of NIS gene in the patients’ group.
Considering the findings of the current study, it seems that further studies with larger sample size and with consideration of other gene mutations such as pendrin and thyroglobulin are needed for more accurate conclusion.
Congenital hypothyroidism; dyshormonogenesis; G395R; mutation; sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene
Despite elimination of iodine deficiency, the rates of both permanent and transient congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in our study were higher than the comparable worldwide rates, which emphasize the major role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of CH and many studies in this regard confirm this possibility.
Materials and Methods:
In this review, we report all studies that established during CH screening program regarding familial and genetic component of the disease.
Although we could not entirely ignore the possible role of environmental and autoimmune factors in the development and function of thyroid gland, our findings strongly suggest the role of genetic factors as dominant etiologic factor in CH.
The studies support the existence of a familial component of CH involving dominant genetic predisposition factors with a low penetrance. Considering the polygenic/multifactorial basis of CH, they suggest the possible involvement of other unknown genes in the pathogenesis of the disease, which may also follow non-Mendelian pattern of inheritance.
Congenital hypothyroidism familial; dysgenesis; dyshormonogenesis; genetic
Background. Thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO) mutations are one of the most common causes of thyroid dyshormonogenesis in patients with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). In this study, the prevalence of TPO gene mutations in patients with thyroid dyshormonogenesis in Isfahan was investigated. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, genomic DNA of 41 patients with permanent CH due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis was extracted using the salting out method. The 17 exonic regions of the TPO gene were amplified. SSCP technique was performed for scanning of the exonic regions of the TPO gene, except exon 8. DNA sequencing was performed for those with different migration patterns in SSCP by chain termination method. Exon 8 was sequenced directly in all patients. In 4 patients, all fragments were also sequenced. Results. One missense mutation c.2669G > A (NM_000547.5) at exon 15 (14th coding exon) in one patient in homozygous form and seven different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exons 1, 7, 8, 11, and 15 of TPO gene. Conclusion. The TPO gene mutations among CH patients with dyshormonogenesis in Isfahan were less frequent in comparison with other similar studies. It may be due to the presence of other unknown gene mutations which could not be detected by SSCP and sequencing methods.
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles) was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities.
46XY; failure to thrive; lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Considering that thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer occur more frequently in people chronically exposed to radiation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in a population occupationally exposed to radiation in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran.
Materials and Methods:
In this case-control study, the prevalence of thyroid nodules in staff members occupationally exposed to radiation was determined by ultrasonography. The results were compared with the results of another study among the adult population of Isfahan which selected by cluster random sampling method. The 2 studied groups were matched according to sex and age.
The case and control groups included 124 and 471 persons, respectively. The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the case and control groups was 22.6% and 24.6%, respectively (p > 0.05). Although thyroid nodules were significantly more prevalent in females in the control group, no such difference was observed between females and males of the case group (p > 0.05). The number of thyroid nodules (single or multiple) and calcification were not different between the two groups (p > 0.05). In addition, hypoechogenicity of thyroid nodules was not different between the two groups for (p > 0.05).
In our study, there was not any correlation between chronic occupational exposure to low dose of radiation and the risk of developing thyroid nodules. Further studies with larger sample sizes, at different doses of radiation, and considering iodine status and thyroid function are thus required.
Thyroid Nodule; Radiation; Occupational Exposure; Ultrasonography
Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal development of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of hearing impairment in congenitally hypothyroid (CH) patients, and its relation with factors such as CH severity and age at starting treatment, during CH screening program in Isfahan.
Hearing acuity was assessed in two groups of children with (94 patients aged 4 months – 3 years) and without CH (450), between 2000-2006. Otoacostic emission (OAE) was performed by a two step method. After two tests without OAE signals bilaterally, they were referred for auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. Subjects with both OAE and ABR abnormal test results were considered to have hearing problem. Obtained data was compared in case and control group and also CH patients with and without hearing impairment.
Three (3.2%) of patients and 1 of control group (0.2%) were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. The rate of hearing loss was not different significantly in two studied groups (P>0.05). There was no difference between age of starting treatment and first T4 and TSH level in CH patients with and without hearing loss (P>0.05). CH neonates with hearing impairment had thyroid dyshormonogenesis according to the follow up results.
The rate of hearing loss was low among our studied CH patients. It may be due to proper management of CH patients. In view of the fact that all CH neonates were dyshormonogentic and considering the relation between certain gene mutations and hearing impairment in CH patients, further studies with larger sample size, with regard to different etiologies of CH should be investigated to indicate the possible gene mutations related to hearing loss in CH.
Hearing impairment; Auditory Brain Stem Response; ABR; Oto Acostic Emission; OAE
Considering the role of maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor blocking antibody (TRAb) in the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), this study aimed to determine TRAb among patients with CH in Isfahan, Iran.
In this case–control study, patients with CH and their mothers were compared with a group of healthy neonates and their mothers. Venous blood samples were obtained for measurement of TRAb using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method among mothers and their neonates. TSH of mothers was also determined.
The case group consisted of 65 patients with CH and their mothers; controls were 148 healthy neonates and their mothers. The prevalence of positive TRAb in patients with CH and their mothers was higher than in the control group (81.5% vs. 1.3% in mothers and 80% vs. 0% in neonates, respectively, P<0.05). The relationship between the TRAb and occurrence of CH was significant (P<0.05), whereas the corresponding figure was not significant for TRAb and the level of maternal and neonatal TSH in case and control groups (P>0.05).
It seems that autoimmunity has an important role in the etiology of CH. Further studies are necessary to determine other autoantibodies in CH patients.
Congenital hypothyroidism; etiology; thyroid stimulating hormone receptor blocking; autoimmunity
The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of ultrasonography and scintigraphy in diagnosing the etiology of primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH).
The newborns that were examined by both thyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography during CH screening program in Isfahan were included in this study. The ultrasonographic findings were compared with the scintigraphic findings and the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasonography was determined.
During this study, 102 CH newborns were studied. According to the ultrasonographic results, 61.8%, 26.5%, 2.9% and 8.8% of them had normal thyroid gland, agenesia, ectopia and hypoplasia, respectively, and according to scintigraphic results, 55.9%, 35.3% and 8.8% of them had normal thyroid gland, agenesia and ectopia, respectively. Ultrasound detected sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were 77%, 92%, 89%, 84%, 9.6 and 0.25, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography compared with thyroid scintigraphy in diagnosis of thyroid gland ectopia was 33% and 100%, respectively.
Though thyroid ultrasonography failed to diagnose 67% of ectopic cases and nonfunctioning thyroid gland, it had the ability to determine the anatomy of thyroid gland. So, considering some limitations of scintigraphy, we concluded that ultrasonography is a relatively appropriate imaging tool for diagnosing CH etiologies, especially in the initial phase of CH screening.
Congenital Hypothyroidism; Etiology; Iran; Radioisotope Scanning; Ultrasonography
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare non-inherited disorder characterized by the clinical triad of precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait skin lesions, and fibrous dysplasia of bone.
We report a girl with MAS, presenting initially with vaginal bleeding at the age of 17 months. Ultrasonography revealed unilateral ovarian cysts and ureteral and ovarian enlargement. Considering the clinical and paraclinical findings, the patient diagnosed as a case of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty was treated with medroxy-progestrone acetate (MPA) for three months. During the follow up, recurrent episodes of bleeding, ovarian activation and cyst formation, as well as breast size development were reported. At the age of 5.5 years, fibrous dysplasia was detected, which in coexistence with precocious puberty confirmed the diagnosis of MAS. The patient had no cafe-au-lait skin macles during follow up.
Considering that clinical manifestations of MAS appear later in the course of recurrent periods of ovarian activation and cyst formation, a careful clinical observation and follow up of patients is necessary and the diagnosis of MAS must be kept in mind in cases with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty.
McCune-Albright Syndrome; Bleeding; Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone; Precocious Puberty
Determination of vitamin D status in different age-groups in a community and in different climates of a country is necessary and has important implications for general health. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population of Isfahan, a centrally-located city in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 1,111 healthy people—243 men and 868 women—aged 41.4 (mean 14 and range 20-80) years, who attended a single-consultation outpatient clinic, were selected. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus concentrations were measured. Mild, moderate and severe vitamin D deficiencies were defined as 25-OHD values of 20-30 ng/mL, 10-20 ng/mL, and <10 ng/mL respectively. The median (range) concentrations of 25-OHD were 21 (4.0-105.0) ng/mL in males and 18 (1.5-117) ng/mL in females (p=0.05). The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe vitamin D deficiencies among the adult population was 19.6%, 23.9%, and 26.9% respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent among women (p=0.001) and younger age-group (p=0.001). Medians of 25-OHD in spring-summer and autumn-winter were 21 ng/mL and 18 ng/mL respectively (p=0.005). The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency was higher in autumn-winter than in spring-summer (odds ratio=1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.2, p=0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was high in a sunny city—Isfahan— especially among women and younger population. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this city emphasizes the necessity of vitamin D supplementation as more exposure to sun is limited due to the type of clothing required by current law.
Adult; Cross-sectional studies; Parathyroid hormone; Seasonal variation; Vitamin D deficiency; Iran
Considering that serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity could reflect several different processes relevant to diabetes pathogenesis and the increasing rate of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the aim of this study was to assess the association between serum GGT concentrations and glucose intolerance, in the first-degree relatives (FDR) of type 2 diabetic patients.
In this descriptive study, 30-80 years old, non diabetic FDRs of type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Serum GGT was measured by enzymatic photometry method in all studied population. The relationship between GGT and glucose intolerance status (normal, prediabetic and diabetics) was evaluated.
During this study 551 non-diabetic FDRs of type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Mean of GGT was 25.3 ± 12.1 IU/L. According to glucose tolerance test, 153 were normal and 217 and 181 were diabetic and prediabetic respectively. Mean of GGT in normal, prediabetic and diabetic patients was 23.5 ± 15.9 IU/L, 29.1 ± 28.1 IU/L and 30.9 ± 24.8 IU/L respectively (p = 0.000). The proportion of prediabetic and diabetic patients was higher in higher quartile of GGT and there was a significant correlation between GGT and BMI, HbA1c, FPG, cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride (p < 0.05). There was a significant relation between GGT and area under the curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.00).
Measurement of GGT in FDRs of type 2 diabetic patients may be useful in assessing the risk of diabetes; those with chronically high levels of GGT should be considered as high risk group for diabetes.
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase; Glucose Intolerance; Diabetes Mellitus; Type 2
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of goitre in Isfahan, a centrally-located city in Iran, 15 years after the initiation of universal salt iodization. In total, 2,523 Isfahani adults (1,275 males, 1,248 females) aged >20 years were selected by multi-stage cluster-sampling method. Goitre rate, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured and compared between the goitrous (n=478) and the non-goitrous (n=2,045) participants. The total goitre rate was 19% (n=478) of the 2,523 adults. The rate of Grade I and II goitre was 12.4% (n=312) and 6.6% (n=166) respectively. The total goitre rate, Grade I and II goitre were more prevalent among women than among men. Hypothyroidism was observed in 6.4% (130/2,045) and 18.6% (89/478) of the non-goitrous and goitrous participants respectively [odds ratio (OR)=3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-4.9, p=0.001]. Hyperthyroidism was present in 0.8% (17/2,045) and 5.2% (29/478) of the non-goitrous and goitrous adults respectively (OR=9.0, 95% CI 4.9-16.6, p=0.001). Hypothyroidism was more prevalent in Grade II than in Grade I goitre and among those without goitre (31.3%, 14.1%, and 6.4% respectively) (p=0.001). Positive TPOAb was observed in 24% (n=50) of the non-goitrous and 33.5% (n=84) of the goitrous subjects (p=0.03). Positive TPOAb was observed in 24.6% (35 of 142) of the Grade I and 45% (49 of 109) of the Grade II goitrous adults (p=0.001). Positive TgAb was observed in 21.6% (n=45) of the non-goitrous and 35.9% (n=90) of the goitrous adults (p=0.001). Positive TgAb was observed in 30.3% (43 of 142) of the Grade I and 43.1% (47 of 109) of the Grade II goitrous adults (p=0.04). The median UIC was 18 μg/dL (range 1-80 μg/dL). It was 17.9 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL in the non-goitrous and goitrous adults respectively. After 15 years of successful universal salt iodization in Isfahan, goitre is still endemic, which may be due to thyroid autoimmunity. However, other environmental or genetic factors may have a role.
Autoimmunity; Cross-sectional studies; Goitre; Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism; Impact studies; Iodine; Iodine deficiency; Iran
Early and proper treatment is crucial to prevent neuropsychologic deficits in congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Considering the high prevalence of CH in Isfahan, the aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment in CH patients.
In this study CH neonates diagnosed during screening program in Isfahan from May 2002 to September 2009 were studied. Frequent visits were performed to CH patients to monitor and follow their treatments. Quality of treatment was assessed by evaluating mean age of treatment initiation and mean TSH and T4 levels before and after treatment and during the first and second years according to their normal reference ranges.
Of 225,224 screened neonates, 536 were diagnosed as CH patients. The prevalence of CH was 1/420 live births. Mean age at starting treatment was 22.9 ± 13.2 days. In 93.7% of patients, treatment was begun before the 45th day of life. In the first measurement after initiating the treatment, T4 and TSH were not in their acceptable range in 3.9% and 9.8% of CH patients, respectively. Mean T4 and TSH reached to normal range during the treatment period. T4 reached the normal range earlier than TSH.
The mean age of treatment initiation was in acceptable range but the findings suggest that both early and high-dose treatments are crucial for optimal treatment, especially in patients with severe CH. Further studies are needed to determine the outcome of treatment specially regarding to different etiologies of CH.
Congenital hypothyroidism; Treatment; Isfahan; Iran