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1.  A case report of osteochondroma with unusual clinical and imaging presentation 
Osteochondroma or exostosis is a bony developmental anomaly, which arises from exophytic outgrowth on bone surfaces in a characteristic manner. Osteochondroma is asymptomatic and grows away from the nearby joint. This paper reports an unusual presentation of osteochondroma in which the patient was surprisingly completely symptomatic. The lesion grew toward the nearby joint and the radiographic findings were not compatible with surgical findings
PMCID: PMC4300597  PMID: 25625108
Knee joint; osteochondroma; radiography
2.  Prevalence of hippocampal morphologic variants between healthy elderly subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease 
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with atrophic changes in the temporal lobe. Enlargement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces, hippocampal sulcus (HS) enlargement, or an increase in the number or size of hippocampal cavities (HCs) could be associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). In this study, we assessed the relation of these CSF spaces with AD.
Materials and Methods:
A total 36 demented patients with diagnosis of Alzheimer (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≤25) and 36 non-demented elderly individuals were referred for basic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before initiating anti-dementia therapy in the demented group. Two observers assessed the maximal HS width, as well as the occurrence, number, and size of HCs, and the visual rating score of MTA on magnified coronal high-resolution T1-weighted MR images.
The findings of our study indicate that the presence of hippocampal cavity (HC) (especially in the left side) and medial temporal lobe atrophy in demented patients was significantly higher in comparison with non-demented elderly subjects (P ≤ 0.05). There was a significant relationship between MTA and HS width (P = 0.003, r = 0.00323), and it also had a trend to be significant with size of HCs (P = 0.08, r = 0.00314). A correlation between MTA and number of HCs was not detected.
HS width is associated with MTA in patients with AD. It may serve as a measure to evaluate MTA for identifying individuals at particularly high risk for Alzheimer progression, and could be employed for selecting subjects for clinical trials or for treatment decisions.
PMCID: PMC3950805  PMID: 24627867
Alzheimer's disease; hippocampal cavities; hippocampal sulcus; magnetic resonance imaging
3.  Azygos Vein Aneurysm as a Posterior Mediastinal Mass Discovered After Minor Chest Trauma 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2014;11(1):e7467.
Azygos vein aneurysm is a rare cause of a posterior or paratracheal mediastinal mass. Trauma or conditions causing elevated flow or pressure in the azygos system, such as cardiac failure or cirrhosis of the liver are secondary causes of aneurysm of the azygos vein. We report a case of asymptomatic saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a 45-year-old man with blunt minor chest trauma. The azygos vein aneurysm was managed by conservative treatment.
PMCID: PMC3955859  PMID: 24693303
Azygos Vein; Aneurysm; Mediastinum; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Magnetic Resonance Angiography
4.  The role of ultrasonography in primary congenital hypothyroidism 
The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of ultrasonography and scintigraphy in diagnosing the etiology of primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH).
The newborns that were examined by both thyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography during CH screening program in Isfahan were included in this study. The ultrasonographic findings were compared with the scintigraphic findings and the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasonography was determined.
During this study, 102 CH newborns were studied. According to the ultrasonographic results, 61.8%, 26.5%, 2.9% and 8.8% of them had normal thyroid gland, agenesia, ectopia and hypoplasia, respectively, and according to scintigraphic results, 55.9%, 35.3% and 8.8% of them had normal thyroid gland, agenesia and ectopia, respectively. Ultrasound detected sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were 77%, 92%, 89%, 84%, 9.6 and 0.25, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography compared with thyroid scintigraphy in diagnosis of thyroid gland ectopia was 33% and 100%, respectively.
Though thyroid ultrasonography failed to diagnose 67% of ectopic cases and nonfunctioning thyroid gland, it had the ability to determine the anatomy of thyroid gland. So, considering some limitations of scintigraphy, we concluded that ultrasonography is a relatively appropriate imaging tool for diagnosing CH etiologies, especially in the initial phase of CH screening.
PMCID: PMC3430036  PMID: 22973380
Congenital Hypothyroidism; Etiology; Iran; Radioisotope Scanning; Ultrasonography
5.  The comparative study on diagnostic validity of cerebral aneurysm by computed tomography angiography versus digital subtraction angiography after subarachnoid hemorrhage* 
In order to declare the preoperative diagnostic value of brain aneurysms, two radiological modalities, computed tomographic angiography and digital subtraction angiography were compared.
In this descriptive analytic study, diagnostic value of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated and compared between the two modalities. All data were analyzed with SPSS software, version 16.
Mean age of patients was 49.5 ± 9.13 years. 57.9 % of subjects were female. CTA showed 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity whereas DSA demonstrated 74% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predictive value of both methods was 100%, but negative predictive value of CTA and DSA was 85% and 69%, respectively.
Based on our data, CTA is a valuable diagnostic modality for detection of brain aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
PMCID: PMC3263078  PMID: 22279477
CT scan angiography; digital subtraction angiography; cerebral aneurysm; subarachnoid hemorrhage

Results 1-5 (5)