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1.  Pathological diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in renal allograft without c4d staining, how much reliable? 
C4d as a part of complement activation process is a marker for detecting antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) and its positivity accompanied by positive donor specific antibody (DSA), and morphologic view of humoral rejection has been suggested to detect ABMR since 2003.
Materials and Methods:
41 specimens of transplanted kidney biopsies gathered from 2006 to 2008 were evaluated for morphological changes on light microscopy, and nephro-pathologist made distinct diagnosis for all of specimens then c4d staining was done for all of them. The association between primary diagnosis without c4d staining and c4d scoring on peritubular capillaries and glomerular capillaries were evaluated to determine whether morphological changes were enough for distinct diagnosis or not.
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) 27%, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF&TA) 17%, and T cell mediated rejection (TCMR) 22% were the commonest diagnosis on light microscopy, and 17% of all biopsies had diffuse positive c4d staining. There was not any report of ABMR in morphological evaluation while c4d positive staining was seen in some specimens (17%). It may result from masking of ABMR by other morphological changes such as TCMR and no specific histologic changes for ABMR on light microscopy.
We would like to emphasize that c4d staining should be done for all of renal allograft biopsies, and pathologists all over the world should consider the probability of ABMR masked by other morphological changes on light microscopic evaluation.
PMCID: PMC3544100  PMID: 23326771
Antibody-mediated rejection; c4d; kidney transplantation
2.  The metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Isfahan, Iran 
To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Isfahan, Iran.
During a 4-year period (2003 to 2007), 55 children (33 male and 22 female) diagnosed with ALL at Unit of Hematology/ Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified version of Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) crite-ria. Insulin resistance was defined based on the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR).
The mean age of participates was 10.4 years (range 6-19 years) and the mean interval since completion of chemotherapy was 35 months. Twenty percent (11/55) of survivors (10 male, 1 female) met criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Obesity was observed in one forth of patients and nearly 3/4 of obese patients had metabolic syndrome. High serum insulin levels were found in 16% of participants and in 63% of obese survivors. The mean insulin levels in survivors with metabolic syndrome was three-times more than those without (28.3 mu/l vs. 9.57 mu/l, p = 0.004). Insulin resistance was detected in 72.7% of survivors with metabolic syndrome and it was positively correlated with serum triglycerides (0.543, p ≤ 0.001), systolic and diastolic BP (0.348, p = 0.01 and 0.368, p = 006 respectively), insulin levels (0.914, p < 0.001) and blood sugar (0.398, p = 003).
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Iran is higher than developed countries. Nearly all of the obese patients had metabolic syndrome. Weight control and regular physical exercise are recommended to the survivors.
PMCID: PMC3129086  PMID: 21772869
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; metabolic syndrome; obesity; children
3.  The neonatal outcome in twin versus triplet and quadruplet pregnancies 
To assess the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity in twin, triplet and quadruplet pregnancies.
In a retrospective study, the neonatal outcome of all twin, triplet and quadruplet gestations delivered from October 2001 to September 2006 was reviewed. The neonatal outcome of triples and quadruplets was compared with a matched group of twins for gestational age.
During a 5-year period, 511 sets of twin pregnancies, 42 sets of triplet and 5 sets of quadruplet pregnancies were studied. The mean of gestational age for twins, triplets and quadruplets were 33.92 ± 3.5 weeks, 30.92 ± 3.8 weeks and 31.60 ± 2.0 weeks, respectively, (P = 0.0001). Triplets and quadruplets weighed less than twins, (P = 0.0001). Neonatal mortality was 13.5% for twins, 26.8% for triplets and 30% for quadruplets. In vitro fertilization, use of ovulation induction agents, and cesarean delivery in the women with triplet and quadruplet were significantly higher than in those with twin pregnancies, (P = 0.0001). The mean age of mothers with triplets and quadruplets was significantly higher than with twins (P = 0.026). There was not a significant difference in respiratory and non-respiratory short outcomes between triplets, quadruplets and twins when matched for gestational age. Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes was significantly lower in triplets and quadruplets than twins. There was no influence of birth order on neonatal mortality of triplet pregnancy. Neonatal mortality of triplet births was significantly decreased over the 5 years of the study period.
Triplets and quadruplets have a similar neonatal outcome as twins when matched for gestational age. There is no influence of birth on the neonatal mortality of triplet pregnancy. It appears that outcome is mainly dependent on gestational age.
PMCID: PMC3129073  PMID: 21772855
Neonatal outcome; twins; triplets; quadruplets

Results 1-3 (3)