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1.  Complex Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of West Nile Virus C, PreM, E, and NS1 Proteins Induces both Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses▿  
West Nile Virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, was first identified in Africa in 1937. In recent years, it has spread into Europe and North America. The clinical manifestations of WNV infection range from mild febrile symptoms to fatal encephalitis. Two genetic lineages (lineages I and II) are recognized; lineage II is associated with mild disease, while lineage I has been associated with severe disease, including encephalitis. WNV has now spread across North America, significantly affecting both public and veterinary health. In the efforts to develop an effective vaccine against all genetic variants of WNV, we have studied the feasibility of inducing both neutralizing and cellular immune responses by de novo synthesis of WNV antigens using a complex adenoviral vaccine (CAdVax) vector. By expressing multiple WNV proteins from a single vaccine vector, we were able to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in vaccinated mice. Neutralization assays demonstrated that the antibodies were broadly neutralizing against both lineages of WNV, with a significant preference for the homologous lineage II virus. The results from this study show that multiple antigens synthesized de novo from a CAdVax vector are capable of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses against WNV and that a multiantigen approach may provide broad protection against multiple genetic variants of WNV.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00070-07
PMCID: PMC2043313  PMID: 17634508
2.  Two Complex, Adenovirus-Based Vaccines That Together Induce Immune Responses to All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes▿  
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology  2006;14(2):182-189.
Dengue virus infections can cause hemorrhagic fever, shock, encephalitis, and even death. Worldwide, approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-infested regions with about 100 million new cases each year, although many of these infections are believed to be silent. There are four antigenically distinct serotypes of dengue virus; thus, immunity from one serotype will not cross-protect from infection with the other three. The difficulties that hamper vaccine development include requirements of the natural conformation of the envelope glycoprotein to induce neutralizing immune responses and the necessity of presenting antigens of all four serotypes. Currently, the only way to meet these requirements is to use a mixture of four serotypes of live attenuated dengue viruses, but safety remains a major problem. In this study, we have developed the basis for a tetravalent dengue vaccine using a novel complex adenovirus platform that is capable of expressing multiple antigens de novo. This dengue vaccine is constructed as a pair of vectors that each expresses the premembrane and envelope genes of two different dengue virus serotypes. Upon vaccination, the vaccine expressed high levels of the dengue virus antigens in cells to mimic a natural infection and induced both humoral and cellular immune responses against multiple serotypes of dengue virus in an animal model. Further analyses show the humoral responses were indeed neutralizing against all four serotypes. Our studies demonstrate the concept of mimicking infections to induce immune responses by synthesizing dengue virus membrane antigens de novo and the feasibility of developing an effective tetravalent dengue vaccine by vector-mediated expression of glycoproteins of the four serotypes.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00330-06
PMCID: PMC1797786  PMID: 17192403
3.  Development of a cAdVax-Based Bivalent Ebola Virus Vaccine That Induces Immune Responses against both the Sudan and Zaire Species of Ebola Virus 
Journal of Virology  2006;80(6):2738-2746.
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever for which there are currently no vaccines or effective treatments. While lethal human outbreaks have so far been restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, the potential exploitation of EBOV as a biological weapon cannot be ignored. Two species of EBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) and Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), have been responsible for all of the deadly human outbreaks resulting from this virus. Therefore, it is important to develop a vaccine that can prevent infection by both lethal species. Here, we describe the bivalent cAdVaxE(GPs/z) vaccine, which includes the SEBOV glycoprotein (GP) and ZEBOV GP genes together in a single complex adenovirus-based vaccine (cAdVax) vector. Vaccination of mice with the bivalent cAdVaxE(GPs/z) vaccine led to efficient induction of EBOV-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to both species of EBOV. In addition, the cAdVax technology demonstrated induction of a 100% protective immune response in mice, as all vaccinated C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice survived challenge with a lethal dose of ZEBOV (30,000 times the 50% lethal dose). This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of a bivalent EBOV vaccine based on a cAdVax vaccine vector design.
doi:10.1128/JVI.80.6.2738-2746.2006
PMCID: PMC1395467  PMID: 16501083

Results 1-3 (3)