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1.  Antibody to the E3 Glycoprotein Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(24):12683-12690.
Six monoclonal antibodies were isolated that exhibited specificity for a furin cleavage site deletion mutant (V3526) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). These antibodies comprise a single competition group and bound the E3 glycoprotein of VEEV subtype I viruses but failed to bind the E3 glycoprotein of other alphaviruses. These antibodies neutralized V3526 virus infectivity but did not neutralize the parental strain of Trinidad donkey (TrD) VEEV. However, the E3-specific antibodies did inhibit the production of virus from VEEV TrD-infected cells. In addition, passive immunization of mice demonstrated that antibody to the E3 glycoprotein provided protection against lethal VEEV TrD challenge. This is the first recognition of a protective epitope in the E3 glycoprotein. Furthermore, these results indicate that E3 plays a critical role late in the morphogenesis of progeny virus after E3 appears on the surfaces of infected cells.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01345-10
PMCID: PMC3004303  PMID: 20926570
3.  A Multisystem Approach for Development and Evaluation of Inactivated Vaccines for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) 
A multisystem approach was used to assess the efficiency of several methods for inactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidates. A combination of diverse assays (plaque, in vitro cytopathology and mouse neurovirulence) was used to verify virus inactivation, along with the use of a specific ELISA to measure retention of VEEV envelope glycoprotein epitopes in the development of several inactivated VEEV candidate vaccines derived from an attenuated strain of VEEV (V3526). Incubation of V3526 aliquots at temperatures in excess of 64°C for periods >30 minutes inactivated the virus, but substantially reduced VEEV specific monoclonal antibody binding of the inactivated material. In contrast, V3526 treated either with formalin at concentrations of 0.1% or 0.5% v/v for 4 or 24 hours, or irradiated with 50 kilogray gamma radiation rendered the virus non-infectious while retaining significant levels of monoclonal antibody binding. Loss of infectivity of both the formalin inactivated (fV3526) and gamma irradiated (gV3526) preparations was confirmed via five successive blind passages on BHK-21 cells. Similarly, loss of neurovirulence for fV3526 and gV3526 was demonstrated via intracerebral inoculation of suckling BALB/c mice. Excellent protection against subcutaneous challenge with VEEV IA/B Trinidad donkey strain was demonstrated using a two dose immunization regimen with either fV3526 or gV3526. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assays provides a practical approach to optimize manufacturing process parameters for development of other inactivated viral vaccines.
doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.11.006
PMCID: PMC2815040  PMID: 19903494
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV); Formalin inactivated vaccines; Gamma irradiated vaccines; Neurovirulence; Alphavirus
5.  Telemetric analysis to detect febrile responses in mice following vaccination with a live-attenuated virus vaccine 
Vaccine  2009;27(49):6814-6823.
Nonhuman primates (NHP) are considered to be the most appropriate model for predicting how humans will respond to many infectious diseases. Due to ethical and monetary concerns associated with the use of NHP, rodent models that are as predictive of responses likely to be seen in human vaccine recipients are warranted. Using implanted telemetry devices, body temperature and activity were monitored in inbred and outbred mouse strains following administration of the live-attenuated vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), V3526. Following analysis of individual mouse data, only outbred mouse strains showed changes in diurnal temperature and activity profiles following vaccination. Similar changes were observed following VEEV challenge of vaccinated outbred mice. From these studies, we conclude, outbred mouse strains implanted with telemeters are a sensitive model for predicting responses in humans following vaccination.
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.013
PMCID: PMC2783281  PMID: 19761841
vaccine; mouse; telemetry
6.  Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(3):283-288.
A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified.
doi:10.3201/eid0803.010199
PMCID: PMC2732474  PMID: 11927026
Alphavirus; Encephalitis; Arbovirus; Togavirus; Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction; Vaccine
7.  Candidate Vaccine against Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Derived from a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vector System 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(9):5709-5715.
A candidate vaccine against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) was developed by using a Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon vector. This vaccine vector is composed of a self-replicating RNA containing all of the VEE nonstructural genes and cis-acting elements and also a heterologous immunogen gene placed downstream of the subgenomic 26S promoter in place of the viral structural genes. In this study, the nontoxic 50-kDa carboxy-terminal fragment (HC) of the BoNT/A heavy chain was cloned into the replicon vector (HC-replicon). Cotransfection of BHK cells in vitro with the HC-replicon and two helper RNA molecules, the latter encoding all of the VEE structural proteins, resulted in the assembly and release of propagation-deficient, HC VEE replicon particles (HC-VRP). Cells infected with HC-VRP efficiently expressed this protein when analyzed by either immunofluorescence or by Western blot. To evaluate the immunogenicity of HC-VRP, mice were vaccinated with various doses of HC-VRP at different intervals. Mice inoculated subcutaneously with HC-VRP were protected from an intraperitoneal challenge of up to 100,000 50% lethal dose units of BoNT/A. Protection correlated directly with serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers to BoNT/A. The duration of the immunity achieved was tested at 6 months and at 1 year postvaccination, and mice challenged at these times remained refractory to challenge with BoNT/A.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.9.5709-5715.2001
PMCID: PMC98687  PMID: 11500447
8.  The effect of subunit or modified live bovine herpesvirus-1 vaccines on the efficacy of a recombinant Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine for the prevention of respiratory disease in feedlot calves 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1992;33(11):734-741.
The efficacy of a Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine (PhV) administered once to calves within 24 hours of arrival at a feedlot was tested for the ability to prevent morbidity and mortality from all bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and specifically from fibrinous pneumonia mortality. The PhV consisted of two immunizing ingredients: outer membrane proteins extracted from P. haemolytica, plus genetically attenuated leukotoxin produced by recombinant DNA technology. This double blind study was conducted at a large Saskatchewan feedlot using 2,324 high-risk calves purchased at auction markets and kept under typical commercial feedlot conditions. The trial design included four vaccine test groups: 1) PhV and a bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) subunit vaccine comprised only of the virus glycoprotein IV (gIV); 2) PhV and a commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) containing BHV-1 and parainfluenza-3 viruses; 3) gIV alone; and 4) MLV alone. Calves were assigned to vaccine groups in a random systematic manner, individually identified, and monitored for 90 days after vaccination. The vaccines were given once, on arrival, to reflect common feedlot practice, although vaccination prior to expected risk would be more appropriate.
The PhV in combination with gIV reduced BRD morbidity by 20% (p < 0.05) compared to gIV alone and 24% (p < 0.05) compared to MLV alone, and reduced BRD mortality by 88% (p < 0.05) and fibrinous pneumonia mortality by 100% (p < 0.05) when compared to either gIV or MLV alone. Vaccination with PhV in combination with MLV significantly reduced the efficacy of the PhV in preventing BRD morbidity, BRD mortality, and fibrinous pneumonia mortality and also reduced the antibody response to P. haemolytica leukotoxin. These results suggest that the MLV interfered with the protective capacity of the PhV.
PMCID: PMC1481421  PMID: 17424116

Results 1-8 (8)