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1.  Evaluation of the Activity of Lamivudine and Zidovudine against Ebola Virus 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(11):e0166318.
In the fall of 2014, an international news agency reported that patients suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia were treated successfully with lamivudine, an antiviral drug used to treat human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus infections. According to the report, 13 out of 15 patients treated with lamivudine survived and were declared free from Ebola virus disease. In this study, the anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) activity of lamivudine and another antiretroviral, zidovudine, were evaluated in a diverse set of cell lines against two variants of wild-type EBOV. Variable assay parameters were assessed to include different multiplicities of infection, lengths of inoculation times, and durations of dosing. At a multiplicity of infection of 1, lamivudine and zidovudine had no effect on EBOV propagation in Vero E6, Hep G2, or HeLa cells, or in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. At a multiplicity of infection of 0.1, zidovudine demonstrated limited anti-EBOV activity in Huh 7 cells. Under certain conditions, lamivudine had low anti-EBOV activity at the maximum concentration tested (320 μM). However, lamivudine never achieved greater than 30% viral inhibition, and the activity was not consistently reproducible. Combination of lamivudine and zidovudine showed no synergistic antiviral activity. Independently, a set of in vitro experiments testing lamivudine and zidovudine for antiviral activity against an Ebola-enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter virus was performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No antiviral activity was observed for either compound. A study evaluating the efficacy of lamivudine in a guinea pig model of EVD found no survival benefit. This lack of benefit was observed despite plasma lamivudine concentrations in guinea pig of about 4 μg/ml obtained in a separately conducted pharmacokinetics study. These studies found no evidence to support the therapeutic use of lamivudine for the treatment of EVD.
PMCID: PMC5130197  PMID: 27902714
2.  Isolation of potent neutralizing antibodies from a survivor of the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2016;351(6277):1078-1083.
Antibodies targeting the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein (EBOV GP) are implicated in protection against lethal disease, but the characteristics of the human antibody response to EBOV GP remain poorly understood. Here we isolated and characterized 349 GP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the peripheral B cells of a convalescent donor who survived the 2014 EBOV Zaire outbreak. Remarkably, 77% of the mAbs neutralize live EBOV and several mAbs exhibit unprecedented potency. Structures of selected mAbs in complex with GP reveal a site of vulnerability located in the GP stalk region proximal to the viral membrane. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting this site show potent therapeutic efficacy against lethal EBOV challenge in mice. The results provide a framework for the design of new EBOV vaccine candidates and immunotherapies.
PMCID: PMC4900763  PMID: 26912366
3.  Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice II: pathogenesis is dependent on route of exposure 
Virology Journal  2015;12:154.
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with a case fatality rate estimated to be as high as 75 % in humans and 90 % in horses. Surviving patients often have long-lasting and severe neurological sequelae. At present, there is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic for EEEV infection. This study completes the clinical and pathological analysis of mice infected with a North American strain of EEEV by three different routes: aerosol, intranasal, and subcutaneous. Such an understanding is imperative for use of the mouse model in vaccine and antiviral drug development.
Twelve-week-old female BALB/c mice were infected with EEEV strain FL93-939 by the intranasal, aerosol, or subcutaneous route. Mice were euthanized 6 hpi through 8 dpi and tissues were harvested for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.
Viral antigen was detected in the olfactory bulb as early as 1–2 dpi in aerosol and intranasal infected mice. However, histologic lesions in the brain were evident about 24 hours earlier (3 dpi vs 4 dpi), and were more pronounced following aerosol infection relative to intranasal infection. Following subcutaneous infection, viral antigen was also detected in the olfactory bulb, though not as routinely or as early. Significant histologic lesions were not observed until 6 dpi.
These pathologic studies suggest EEEV enters the brain through the olfactory system when mice are exposed via the intranasal and aerosol routes. In contrast, the histopathologic lesions were delayed in the subcutaneous group and it appears the virus may utilize both the vascular and olfactory routes to enter the brain when mice are exposed to EEEV subcutaneously.
PMCID: PMC4589026  PMID: 26423229
Alphavirus; Eastern equine encephalitis virus; Neuroinvasion; Mice
4.  Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice I: clinical course and outcome are dependent on route of exposure 
Virology Journal  2015;12:152.
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an arbovirus, is an important human and veterinary pathogen belonging to one of seven antigenic complexes in the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. EEEV is considered the most deadly of the mosquito-borne alphaviruses due to the high case fatality rate associated with clinical infections, reaching up to 75 % in humans and 90 % in horses. In patients that survive acute infection, neurologic sequelae are often devastating. Although natural infections are acquired by mosquito bite, EEEV is also highly infectious by aerosol. This fact, along with the relative ease of production and stability of this virus, has led it to being identified as a potential agent of bioterrorism.
To characterize the clinical course and outcome of EEEV strain FL93-939 infection, we compared clinical parameters, cytokine expression, viremia, and viral titers in numerous tissues of mice exposed by various routes. Twelve-week-old female BALB/c mice were infected by the intranasal, aerosol, or subcutaneous route. Mice were monitored for clinical signs of disease and euthanized at specified time points (6 hpi through 8 dpi). Blood and tissues were harvested for cytokine analysis and/or viral titer determination.
Although all groups of animals exhibited similar clinical signs after inoculation, the onset and severity differed. The majority of those animals exposed by the aerosol route developed severe clinical signs by 4 dpi. Significant differences were also observed in the viral titers of target tissues, with virus being detected in the brain at 6 hpi in the aerosol study.
The clinical course and outcome of EEEV infection in mice is dependent on route of exposure. Aerosol exposure to EEEV results in acute onset of clinical signs, rapid neuroinvasion, and 100 % mortality.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12985-015-0386-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4588493  PMID: 26420265
Alphavirus; Eastern equine encephalitis virus; Neuroinvasion; Mice
5.  Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses 
Journal of Virology  2015;90(1):266-278.
The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species.
IMPORTANCE Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus, cross-protective immunotherapeutics are urgently needed. Here, we describe monoclonal antibodies with cross-reactivity to several filoviruses, including the first report of a cross-neutralizing antibody that exhibits protection against Ebola virus and Sudan virus in mice. Our results further describe a novel combination of antibodies with enhanced protective efficacy. These results form a basis for further development of effective immunotherapeutics against filoviruses for human use. Understanding the cross-protective epitopes are also important for rational design of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus vaccines.
PMCID: PMC4702560  PMID: 26468533
6.  Macaque Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Novel Conserved Epitopes within Filovirus Glycoprotein 
Journal of Virology  2015;90(1):279-291.
Filoviruses cause highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Current immunotherapeutic options for filoviruses are mostly specific to Ebola virus (EBOV), although other members of Filoviridae such as Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Marburg virus (MARV) have also caused sizeable human outbreaks. Here we report a set of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from cynomolgus macaques immunized repeatedly with a mixture of engineered glycoproteins (GPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) for three different filovirus species. The antibodies recognize novel neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the filovirus glycoprotein, including conserved conformational epitopes within the core regions of the GP1 subunit and a novel linear epitope within the glycan cap. We further report the first filovirus antibody binding to a highly conserved epitope within the fusion loop of ebolavirus and marburgvirus species. One of the antibodies binding to the core GP1 region of all ebolavirus species and with lower affinity to MARV GP cross neutralized both SUDV and EBOV, the most divergent ebolavirus species. In a mouse model of EBOV infection, this antibody provided 100% protection when administered in two doses and partial, but significant, protection when given once at the peak of viremia 3 days postinfection. Furthermore, we describe novel cocktails of antibodies with enhanced protective efficacy compared to individual MAbs. In summary, the present work describes multiple novel, cross-reactive filovirus epitopes and innovative combination concepts that challenge the current therapeutic models.
IMPORTANCE Filoviruses are among the most deadly human pathogens. The 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) led to more than 27,000 cases and 11,000 fatalities. While there are five species of Ebolavirus and several strains of marburgvirus, the current immunotherapeutics primarily target Ebola virus. Since the nature of future outbreaks cannot be predicted, there is an urgent need for therapeutics with broad protective efficacy against multiple filoviruses. Here we describe a set of monoclonal antibodies cross-reactive with multiple filovirus species. These antibodies target novel conserved epitopes within the envelope glycoprotein and exhibit protective efficacy in mice. We further present novel concepts for combination of cross-reactive antibodies against multiple epitopes that show enhanced efficacy compared to monotherapy and provide complete protection in mice. These findings set the stage for further evaluation of these antibodies in nonhuman primates and development of effective pan-filovirus immunotherapeutics for use in future outbreaks.
PMCID: PMC4702572  PMID: 26468532
7.  Complete Coding Sequences of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strains Isolated from Human Cases 
Genome Announcements  2015;3(2):e00243-15.
We obtained the complete coding genome of an eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) strain, EEEV V105-00210, and the complete genome of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain, VEEV INH-9813. They were obtained from human cases and are proposed as reference challenge strains for vaccine and therapeutic development in animal models.
PMCID: PMC4408325  PMID: 25908124
8.  Combined Alphavirus Replicon Particle Vaccine Induces Durable and Cross-Protective Immune Responses against Equine Encephalitis Viruses 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(20):12077-12086.
Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal.
IMPORTANCE Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the surface proteins of all three viruses. In this report we demonstrate in both mice and macaques that this combined vaccine is safe, generates a strong immune response, and protects against aerosol challenge with the viruses that cause Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis.
PMCID: PMC4178741  PMID: 25122801
9.  Repurposing of Clinically Developed Drugs for Treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection 
Outbreaks of emerging infections present health professionals with the unique challenge of trying to select appropriate pharmacologic treatments in the clinic with little time available for drug testing and development. Typically, clinicians are left with general supportive care and often untested convalescent-phase plasma as available treatment options. Repurposing of approved pharmaceutical drugs for new indications presents an attractive alternative to clinicians, researchers, public health agencies, drug developers, and funding agencies. Given the development times and manufacturing requirements for new products, repurposing of existing drugs is likely the only solution for outbreaks due to emerging viruses. In the studies described here, a library of 290 compounds was screened for antiviral activity against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Selection of compounds for inclusion in the library was dependent on current or previous FDA approval or advanced clinical development. Some drugs that had a well-defined cellular pathway as target were included. In total, 27 compounds with activity against both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV were identified. The compounds belong to 13 different classes of pharmaceuticals, including inhibitors of estrogen receptors used for cancer treatment and inhibitors of dopamine receptor used as antipsychotics. The drugs identified in these screens provide new targets for in vivo studies as well as incorporation into ongoing clinical studies.
PMCID: PMC4136000  PMID: 24841273
10.  Second Generation Inactivated Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Candidates Protect Mice against a Lethal Aerosol Challenge 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104708.
Currently, there are no FDA-licensed vaccines or therapeutics for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) for human use. We recently developed several methods to inactivate CVEV1219, a chimeric live-attenuated eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Dosage and schedule studies were conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three potential second-generation inactivated EEEV (iEEEV) vaccine candidates in mice: formalin-inactivated CVEV1219 (fCVEV1219), INA-inactivated CVEV1219 (iCVEV1219) and gamma-irradiated CVEV1219 (gCVEV1219). Both fCVEV1219 and gCVEV1219 provided partial to complete protection against an aerosol challenge when administered by different routes and schedules at various doses, while iCVEV1219 was unable to provide substantial protection against an aerosol challenge by any route, dose, or schedule tested. When evaluating antibody responses, neutralizing antibody, not virus specific IgG or IgA, was the best correlate of protection. The results of these studies suggest that both fCVEV1219 and gCVEV1219 should be evaluated further and considered for advancement as potential second-generation inactivated vaccine candidates for EEEV.
PMCID: PMC4130539  PMID: 25116127
11.  Preserving Immunogenicity of Lethally Irradiated Viral and Bacterial Vaccine Epitopes Using a Radio-Protective Mn2+-Peptide Complex from Deinococcus 
Cell host & microbe  2012;12(1):117-124.
Sterilization of pathogens with γ-radiation is an attractive approach for development of inactivated whole-organism vaccines. However, the radiation doses required to ensure sterility also destroy immunogenic epitopes needed to mount a protective immune response. We report that genome damage and killing can be uncoupled from epitope damage using a reconstituted manganous peptide complex of Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium. The Mn2+ complex preserved antigenic structures in aqueous preparations of bacteriophage lambda, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Staphylococcus aureus during supralethal irradiation (25-40 kGy). An irradiated vaccine elicited both antibody and CD4 T cell IL-17 (Th17) responses, and induced B cell- and T cell-dependent protection against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in mice. We demonstrate that structural integrity of viruses and bacteria can be preserved at radiation doses far above those which abolish infectivity. This approach could expedite vaccine production for emerging and established pathogens for which no protective vaccines exist.
PMCID: PMC4073300  PMID: 22817993
12.  Antibody to the E3 Glycoprotein Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(24):12683-12690.
Six monoclonal antibodies were isolated that exhibited specificity for a furin cleavage site deletion mutant (V3526) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). These antibodies comprise a single competition group and bound the E3 glycoprotein of VEEV subtype I viruses but failed to bind the E3 glycoprotein of other alphaviruses. These antibodies neutralized V3526 virus infectivity but did not neutralize the parental strain of Trinidad donkey (TrD) VEEV. However, the E3-specific antibodies did inhibit the production of virus from VEEV TrD-infected cells. In addition, passive immunization of mice demonstrated that antibody to the E3 glycoprotein provided protection against lethal VEEV TrD challenge. This is the first recognition of a protective epitope in the E3 glycoprotein. Furthermore, these results indicate that E3 plays a critical role late in the morphogenesis of progeny virus after E3 appears on the surfaces of infected cells.
PMCID: PMC3004303  PMID: 20926570
15.  Eastern and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses Differ in Their Ability To Infect Dendritic Cells and Macrophages: Impact of Altered Cell Tropism on Pathogenesis▿  
Journal of Virology  2008;82(21):10634-10646.
Eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (EEEV and VEEV, respectively) cause severe morbidity and mortality in equines and humans. Like other mosquito-borne viruses, VEEV infects dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in lymphoid tissues, fueling a serum viremia and facilitating neuroinvasion. In contrast, EEEV replicates poorly in lymphoid tissues, preferentially infecting osteoblasts. Here, we demonstrate that infectivity of EEEV for myeloid lineage cells including DCs and macrophages was dramatically reduced compared to that of VEEV, whereas both viruses replicated efficiently in mesenchymal lineage cells such as osteoblasts and fibroblasts. We determined that EEEV infection of myeloid lineage cells was restricted after attachment, entry, and uncoating of the genome. Using replicon particles and translation reporter RNAs, we found that translation of incoming EEEV genomes was almost completely inhibited in myeloid, but not mesenchymal, lineage cells. Alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) responses did not mediate the restriction, as infectivity was not restored in the absence of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, RNase L, or IFN-α/β receptor-mediated signaling. We confirmed these observations in vivo, demonstrating that EEEV is compromised in its ability to replicate within lymphoid tissues, whereas VEEV does so efficiently. The altered tropism of EEEV correlated with an almost complete avoidance of serum IFN-α/β induction in vivo, which may allow EEEV to evade the host's innate immune responses and thereby enhance neurovirulence. Taken together, our data indicate that inhibition of genome translation restricts EEEV infectivity for myeloid but not mesenchymal lineage cells in vitro and in vivo. In this regard, the tropisms of EEEV and VEEV differ dramatically, likely contributing to observed differences in disease etiology.
PMCID: PMC2573165  PMID: 18768986
16.  Chikungunya Virus Strains, Reunion Island Outbreak 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(10):1604-1605.
PMCID: PMC3290959  PMID: 17176585
Chikungunya Virus; Alphavirus; La Reunion; Indian Ocean; Arbovirus; letter
17.  Two Nonoverlapping Domains on the Norwalk Virus Open Reading Frame 3 (ORF3) Protein Are Involved in the Formation of the Phosphorylated 35K Protein and in ORF3-Capsid Protein Interactions 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(6):3569-3577.
Expression of the Norwalk virus open reading frame 3 (ORF3) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells yields two major forms, the predicted 23,000-molecular-weight (23K) form and a larger 35K form. The 23K form is able to interact with the ORF2 capsid protein and be incorporated into virus-like particles. In this paper, we provide mass spectrometry evidence that both the 23K and 35K forms are composed only of the ORF3 protein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphatase treatment showed that the 35K form results solely from phosphorylation and that the 35K band is composed of several different phosphorylated forms with distinct isoelectric points. Furthermore, we analyzed deletion and point mutants of the ORF3 protein. Mutants that lacked the C-terminal 33 amino acids (ORF31-179, ORF31-152, and ORF31-107) no longer produced the 35K form. An N-terminal truncation mutant (ORF351-212) and a site-directed mutant (ORF3T201V) were capable of producing the larger form, which was converted to the smaller form by treatment with protein phosphatase. These data suggest that the region between amino acids 180 and 212 is phosphorylated, and mass spectrometry showed that amino acids Arg196 to Arg211 are not phosphorylated; thus, phosphorylation of the serine-threonine-rich region from Thr181 to Ser193 must be involved in the generation of the 35K form. Studies of the interaction between the ORF2 protein and full-length and mutated ORF3 proteins showed that the full-length ORF3 protein (ORF3FL), ORF31-179, ORF31-152, and ORF351-212 interacted with the ORF2 protein, while an ORF31-107 protein did not. These results indicate that the region of the ORF3 protein between amino acids 108 and 152 is responsible for interaction with the ORF2 protein.
PMCID: PMC149496  PMID: 12610132
18.  Norwalk Virus Open Reading Frame 3 Encodes a Minor Structural Protein 
Journal of Virology  2000;74(14):6581-6591.
Norwalk virus (NV) is a causative agent of acute epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The inability to cultivate NV has required the use of molecular techniques to examine the genome organization and functions of the viral proteins. The function of the NV protein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) has been unknown. In this paper, we report the characterization of the NV ORF 3 protein expressed in a cell-free translation system and in insect cells and show its association with recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) and NV virions. Expression of the ORF 3 coding region in rabbit reticulocyte lysates resulted in the production of a single protein with an apparent molecular weight of 23,000 (23K protein), which is not modified by N-linked glycosylation. The ORF 3 protein was expressed in insect cells by using two different baculovirus recombinants; one recombinant contained the entire 3′ end of the genome beginning with the ORF 2 coding sequences (ORFs 2+3), and the second recombinant contained ORF 3 alone. Expression from the construct containing both ORF 2 and ORF 3 resulted in the expression of a single protein (23K protein) detected by Western blot analysis with ORF 3-specific peptide antisera. However, expression from a construct containing only the ORF 3 coding sequences resulted in the production of multiple forms of the ORF 3 protein ranging in size from 23,000 to 35,000. Indirect-immunofluorescence studies using an ORF 3 peptide antiserum showed that the ORF 3 protein is localized to the cytoplasm of infected insect cells. The 23K ORF 3 protein was consistently associated with recombinant VLPs purified from the media of insect cells infected with a baculovirus recombinant containing the entire 3′ end of the NV genome. Western blot analysis of NV purified from the stools of NV-infected volunteers revealed the presence of a 35K protein as well as multiple higher-molecular-weight bands specifically recognized by an ORF 3 peptide antiserum. These results indicate that the ORF 3 protein is a minor structural protein of the virion.
PMCID: PMC112168  PMID: 10864672

Results 1-18 (18)