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1.  Antibody to the E3 Glycoprotein Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(24):12683-12690.
Six monoclonal antibodies were isolated that exhibited specificity for a furin cleavage site deletion mutant (V3526) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). These antibodies comprise a single competition group and bound the E3 glycoprotein of VEEV subtype I viruses but failed to bind the E3 glycoprotein of other alphaviruses. These antibodies neutralized V3526 virus infectivity but did not neutralize the parental strain of Trinidad donkey (TrD) VEEV. However, the E3-specific antibodies did inhibit the production of virus from VEEV TrD-infected cells. In addition, passive immunization of mice demonstrated that antibody to the E3 glycoprotein provided protection against lethal VEEV TrD challenge. This is the first recognition of a protective epitope in the E3 glycoprotein. Furthermore, these results indicate that E3 plays a critical role late in the morphogenesis of progeny virus after E3 appears on the surfaces of infected cells.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01345-10
PMCID: PMC3004303  PMID: 20926570
2.  Proinflammatory Mediators of Toxic Shock and Their Correlation to Lethality 
Mediators of Inflammation  2010;2010:517594.
Bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins both stimulate proinflammatory mediators but the contribution of each individual toxin in the release of mediators causing lethal shock is incompletely understood. This study examines the cytokine response and lethality of mice exposed to varying doses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their combinations. In vivo, SEB alone induced moderate levels of IL-2 and MCP-1 and all mice survived even with a high dose of SEB (100 μg/mouse). LPS (80 μg/mouse) caused 48% lethality and induced high levels of IL-6 and MCP-1. SEB induced low levels of TNFα, IL-1, IFNγ, MIP-2, and LPS synergized with SEB in the expression of these cytokines and that of IL-6 and MCP-1. Importantly, the synergistic action of SEB and LPS resulted in lethal shock and hypothermia. ANOVA of cytokine levels by survival status of SEB-plus-LPS groups revealed significantly higher levels of TNFα, IL-6, MIP-2, and MCP-1 in nonsurvivors measured at 8 hours. Significantly higher levels of IFNγ and IL-2 were observed at 21 hours in nonsurvivors of toxic shock compared to those in survivors. Overall, synergistic action of SEB and LPS resulted in higher and prolonged levels of these key cytokines leading to toxic shock.
doi:10.1155/2010/517594
PMCID: PMC2903957  PMID: 20634937

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