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1.  Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes Using the New IADPSG Recommendation Compared with the Carpenter and Coustan Criteria in an Area with a Low Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes 
Aims. This paper aims to evaluate characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in women prior classified normal by Carpenter and Coustan criteria (old criteria) and now gestational diabetes (GDM) by the IADPSG criteria. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 6727 pregnancies is used. Using the old criteria, 222 had GDM (old GDM). Using the IADPSG criteria, 382 had GDM of which 160 had a normal glucose tolerance with the old criteria (new GDM). We compared the new GDM group with the old GDM group and women with normal glucose tolerance with both criteria (NGT group, 6345). Results. New GDM women were younger (31.6 ± 4.7 versus 33.3 ± 7.2 years, P = 0.010) than old GDM women. Caesarean section was performed in 30.5% of new GDM, in 32.4% of old GDM (P = 0.706), and in 23.3% of NGT women (P = 0.001). Large for gestational age occurred in 10.8% of new GDM, in 13.8% of old GDM (P = 0.473), and in 9.0% of NGT women (P = 0.099). Shoulder dystocia occurred in 3.9% of new GDM, in 3.2% of old GDM (P = 0.736), and in 1.4% of NGT women (P = 0.007). Conclusion. Using the IADPSG criteria, more women are identified as having GDM, and these women carry an increased risk for adverse gestational outcome compared to women without GDM.
PMCID: PMC3556446  PMID: 23365571
2.  Physiologic variations of serum tumor markers in gynecological malignancies during pregnancy: a systematic review 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:86.
Recent insights provide support for the treatment of cancer during pregnancy, a coincidence that poses both mother and fetus at risk. Our aim was to critically review studies on the physiologic variations during pregnancy, the most common tumor markers used in diagnosis and follow-up of gynecological cancers.
We conducted a systematic review of six tumor markers during normal pregnancy: carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3 (breast cancer); squamous cell carcinoma antigen (cervical cancer); and CA 125, anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B and lactate dehydrogenase (ovarian cancer).
For CA 15-3, 3.3% to 20.0% of all measurements were above the cut-off (maximum 56 U/mL in the third trimester). Squamous cell carcinoma antigen values were above cut-off in 3.1% and 10.5% of the measurements (maximum 4.3 µg/L in the third trimester). Up to 35% of CA 125 levels were above cut-off: levels were highest in the first trimester, with a maximum value up to 550 U/mL. Inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone and lactate dehydrogenase levels were not elevated in maternal serum during normal pregnancy.
During normal pregnancy, tumor markers including CA 15.3, squamous cell carcinoma antigen and CA 125 can be elevated; inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone and lactate dehydrogenase levels remain below normal cut-off values. Knowledge of physiological variations during pregnancy can be clinically important when managing gynecological cancers in pregnant patients.
PMCID: PMC3425318  PMID: 22873292
anti-Müllerian hormone; CA 125; CA 15-3; cancer; human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4); inhibin B; lactate dehydrogenase; pregnancy; squamous-cell carcinoma antigen tumor markers
3.  A Randomized Controlled Trial of Misoprostol and Sulprostone to End Pregnancy after Fetal Death 
Objective. To compare effectiveness, side effects, and patients' perception of vaginal misoprostol versus intravenous sulprostone for ending pregnancy after fetal death between 14 and 42 weeks gestation. Method. Multicenter randomized controlled trial, using block randomization, central allocation, and prior power analysis. Outcome measures. Induction-delivery interval, gastrointestinal side effects, use of analgesia, pain perception, pyrexia, placental retention, hemorrhage, and women's opinions. Results. Of 176 women aimed for, 143 were randomized over 7 years, of whom 4 were excluded. There was no difference in delivery within 24 and 36 hours: 91.4% and 97.1% with misoprostol (n = 70) versus 85.5% and 92.8% with sulprostone (n = 69). There was no difference in either gastrointestinal side effects, as reported by the women and their caregivers, use of analgesia, women's pain perception, blood loss or placental retention. Hyperthermia ≥38°C was more common with misoprostol (24.3%) than with sulprostone (11.6%; difference: +12.7%; 95% CI: +1.2% to +25.3%) and related to the total dose used. Acceptability of both induction methods was similar except for freedom of movement, which was substantially in favor of misoprostol (lack of freedom reported with misoprostol in 34.3% versus 63.8% with sulprostone; difference: −29.5%; 95% CI: −13.6% to −45.4%). Conclusions. Misoprostol and sulprostone are similarly effective with little difference in side effects except for hyperthermia, related to the dose of misoprostol used, and women's reported lack of mobility with intravenous sulprostone. Effectiveness of both methods increased with gestational age.
PMCID: PMC2778817  PMID: 19960062
4.  Adverse drug reactions to tocolytic treatment for preterm labour: prospective cohort study 
Objective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations.
Design Prospective cohort study.
Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium.
Participants 1920 consecutive women treated with tocolytics for threatened preterm labour.
Main outcome measures Maternal adverse events (those suspected of being causally related to treatment were considered adverse drug reactions) leading to cessation of treatment.
Results An independent panel evaluated the recorded adverse events, without knowledge of the type of tocolytic used. Of the 1920 women treated with tocolytics, 1327 received a single course of treatment (69.1%), 282 sequential courses (14.7%), and 311 combined courses (16.2%). Adverse drug reactions were categorised as serious or mild in 14 cases each. The overall incidence of serious adverse drug reaction was 0.7%. Compared with atosiban, the relative risk of an adverse drug reaction for single treatment with a β adrenoceptor agonist was 22.0 (95% confidence interval 3.6 to 138.0) and for single treatment with a calcium antagonist was 12 (1.9 to 69). Multiple drug tocolysis led to five serious adverse drug reactions (1.6%). Multiple gestation, preterm rupture of membranes, and comorbidity were not independent risk factors for adverse drug reactions.
Conclusions The use of β adrenoceptor agonists or multiple tocolytics for preventing preterm birth is associated with a high incidence of serious adverse drug reactions. Indometacin and atosiban were the only drugs not associated with serious adverse drug reactions. A direct comparison of the effectiveness of nifedipine and atosiban in postponing preterm delivery is needed.
PMCID: PMC2654772  PMID: 19264820

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