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1.  Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms 
World Journal of Radiology  2015;7(1):7-16.
This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread.
PMCID: PMC4295176  PMID: 25628800
Gastrointestinal; Barium enema; Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging; Neoplasm
2.  Radiofrequency ablation as a treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma 
AIM: To explore the role of radio-frequency ablation (RFA) as a treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS: Eleven patients with obstructive cholestasis underwent Computed Tomography (CT) examination, occupying lesions were observed in the hepatic hilar region in each patient. All lesions were confirmed as cholangioadenocarcinoma by biopsy and were classified as type III or IV by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Patients were treated with multiple electrodes RFA combined with other adjuvant therapy. The survival rate, change of CT attenuation coefficient of the tumor and tumor size were studied in these patients after RFA.
RESULTS: In a follow-up CT scan one month after RFA, a size reduction of about 30% was observed in six masses, and two masses were reduced by about 20% in size, three of the eleven masses remained unchanged. In a follow-up CT scan 6 mo after RFA, all the masses were reduced in size (overall 35%), in which the most significant size reduction was 60%. The survival follow-up among these eleven cases was 18 mo in average. Ongoing follow-up showed that the longest survival case was 30 mo and the shortest case was 10 mo.
CONCLUSION: RFA is a microinvasive and effective treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC2731283  PMID: 18680236
Radio-frequency ablation; Cholangiocarcinoma; Computed tomography
3.  The number of tumor-free axillary lymph nodes removed as a prognostic parameter for node-negative breast cancer 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(11):569-573.
Recently, there has been controversy about the relationship between the number of lymph nodes removed and survival of patients diagnosed with lymph node-negative breast cancer. To assess this relationship, 603 cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer with a median of 126 months of follow-up data were studied. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group A, 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed; Group B, more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed). The number of tumor-free lymph nodes in ipsilateral axillary resections as well as 5 other disease parameters were analyzed for prognostic value. Our results revealed that the risk of death from breast cancer was significantly associated with patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. The 5- and 10-year survival rates for patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed was 88.0% and 66.4%, respectively, compared with 69.2% and 51.1%, respectively, for patients with more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed. For patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for risk of death from breast cancer was 0.579 (95% confidence interval, 0.492-0.687, P < 0.001), independent of patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. Our study suggests that the number of tumor-free lymph nodes removed is an independent predictor in cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC4244320  PMID: 25322865
Number; tumor-free; axillary lymph nodes; prognostic parameter; lymph node-negative; breast cancer
4.  Debulking treatment with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and hepatic artery infusion of floxuridine improves survival of patients with unresectable pulmonary and hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(6):295-305.
The survival of most patients with both unresectable hepatic and pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer is poor. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and systemic chemotherapy plus hepatic artery infusion of floxuridine (HAI-FUDR). Sixty-one patients were selected from 1,136 patients with pulmonary and hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Patients were treated with RFA and systemic chemotherapy plus HAI-FUDR (ablation group, n = 39) or systemic chemotherapy plus HAI-FUDR (FUDR group, n = 22). Patients in the two groups were matched by sex, age, number of metastases, and calendar year of RFA or FUDR. Survival data were evaluated by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Clinical characteristics were comparable between the two groups. All patients in the ablation group underwent RFA and chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 56.8 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97%, 64%, and 37%, respectively, for the ablation group, and 82%, 32%, and 19%, respectively, for the FUDR group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after metastasis were 97%, 49%, and 26% for the ablation group, and 72%, 24%, and 24% for the FUDR group, respectively. The median OS times were 45 and 25 months for the ablation and FUDR groups, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, treatment allocation was a favorable independent prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.001) and survival after metastasis (P = 0.009). These data suggest that the addition of RFA to systemic chemotherapy plus HAI-FUDR improves the survival of patients with both unresectable hepatic and pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC4059867  PMID: 24823993
Hepatic metastases; pulmonary metastases; colorectal cancer; radiofrequency ablation; hepatic artery infusion of floxuridine
5.  Magnetic resonance image-guided versus ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of breast cancer 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(8):441-452.
Image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used for more than ten years, primarily in the treatment of liver and prostate cancers. HIFU has the advantages of precise cancer ablation and excellent protection of healthy tissue. Breast cancer is a common cancer in women. HIFU therapy, in combination with other therapies, has the potential to improve both oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for breast cancer patients by providing a curative therapy that conserves mammary shape. Currently, HIFU therapy is not commonly used in breast cancer treatment, and efforts to promote the application of HIFU is expected. In this article, we compare different image-guided models for HIFU and reviewed the status, drawbacks, and potential of HIFU therapy for breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3845578  PMID: 23237221
High-intensity focused ultrasound; breast cancer; magnetic resonance imaging; ultrasound; ablation
6.  Efficacy of minimally invasive therapies on unresectable pancreatic cancer 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(6):334-341.
For patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, current chemotherapies have negligible survival benefits. Thus, developing effective minimally invasive therapies is currently underway. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization plus radiofrequency ablation and/or 125I radioactive seed implantation on unresectable pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the outcome of 71 patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma who underwent chemoembolization plus radiofrequency ablation and/or radioactive seed implantation. Of the 71 patients, the median survival was 11 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 32.4%, 9.9%, and 6.6% respectively. Patients who had no metastasis, who had oligonodular liver metastases (≤3 lesions), and who had multinodular liver metastases (>3 lesions) had median survival of 12, 18, and 8 months, respectively, and 1-year overall survival rates of 50.0%, 68.8%, and 5.7%, respectively. Although the survival of patients without liver metastases was worse than that of patients with oligonodular liver metastasis, the result was not significant (P = 0.239). In contrast, the metastasis-negative patients had significantly better survival than did patients with multinodular liver metastases (P < 0.001). Patients with oligonodular liver lesions had a significanthg longer median survival than did patients with multinodular lesions (P < 0.001). In conclusion, combined minimally invasive therapies had good efficacy on unresectable pancreatic cancer and resulted in a good control of liver metastases. In addition, the number of liver metastases was a significant factor in predicting prognosis and response to treatment.
PMCID: PMC3845623  PMID: 22958741
Pancreatic cancer; minimally invasive therapies; transarterial chemoembolization; radiofrequency ablation; median survival
7.  Challenges in the modification of the M1 stage of the TNM staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A study of 1027 cases and review of the literature 
A series of modifications have been introduced to the TNM staging system over time for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), mainly focused on the T (primary tumor) and N (local node) components of the system. The M1 stage is a ‘catch all’ classification, covering a group of patients whose outlook ranges from potentially curable to incurable. Since the current M1 stage does not allow clinicians to stratify patients according to prognosis or guide therapeutic decision-making and allow comparison of results of radical and non-radical treatments, we aimed to subdivide the M1 stage according to a retrospective study of 1027 metastatic NPC patients and to review the relevant literature. Between 1995 and 2007, 1027 inpatients with distant metastasis from NPC were retrospectively analyzed. Various possible subdivisions of the M1 stage were considered, looking at different metastatic sites, the number of metastatic organs and the number of metastases. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The most frequently involved metastatic sites were the bone, lung and liver. The incidence rates of solitary metastatic lesions and pulmonary metastasis were 16.2 and 41.3%. Despite the poor survival of these patients with a median survival of 30.8 months, patients in the metachronous metastatic group with metastases to the lung and/or solitary lesions, were defined as M1a, and were significantly associated with favorable median survival of 41.5 and 49.1 months in the univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively. Patients in the metachronous metastatic group with metastasis to the lung and/or solitary lesions (M1a) have a more favorable prognosis compared with those patients with multiple metastases located in other anatomic sites (M1b). These data, in one of the largest reported metastatic NPC cohorts, are the first to show the prognostic impact of metastatic status in NPC. As a powerful predictor, the potential clinical value of a modified M1 of the TNM system for NPC will facilitate patient counseling and individualize management.
PMCID: PMC3460246  PMID: 23139721
distant metastasis; M1 stage; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; metastatic survival; prognostic factors
8.  Nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma: magnetic resonance imaging features in ten cases 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2012;31(1):19-28.
Nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (NACC) is a rare malignancy with high local invasiveness. To date, there is no consensus on the imaging characteristics of NACC. To address this, we retrospectively reviewed 10 cases of NACC and summarized the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. MR images of 10 patients with histologically validated NACC were reviewed by two experienced radiologists. The location, shape, margin, signal intensity, lesion texture, contrast enhancement patterns, local invasion, and cervical lymphadenopathy of all tumors were evaluated. Clinical and pathologic records were also reviewed. No patients were positive for antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The imaging patterns of primary tumors were classified into two types as determined by location, shape, and margin. Of all patients, 7 had tumors with a type 1 imaging pattern and 3 had tumors with a type 2 imaging pattern. The 4 tubular NACCs were all homogeneous tumors, whereas 3 (60%) of 5 cribriform NACCs and the sole solid NACC were heterogeneous tumors with separations or central necrosis on MR images. Five patients had perineural infiltration and intracranial involvement, and only 2 had cervical lymphadenopathy. Based on these results, we conclude that NACC is a local, aggressive neoplasm that is often negative for EBV infection and associated with a low incidence of cervical lymphadenopathy. Furthermore, MRI features of NACC vary in locations and histological subtypes.
PMCID: PMC3777462  PMID: 22200180
Neoplasm of the nasopharynx; adenoid cystic carcinoma; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
9.  Complications of high intensity focused ultrasound in patients with recurrent and metastatic abdominal tumors 
AIM: To analyze the local and systemic complications of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for patients with recurrent and metastatic abdominal tumors.
METHODS: From Aug 2001 to Aug 2004, 17 patients with recurrent and metastatic abdominal tumors were enrolled in this study. Real-time sonography was taken, and vital signs, liver and kidney function, skin burns, local reactions, and systemic effects were observed and recored before, during, and after HIFU. CT and MRI were also taken before and after HIFU.
RESULTS: All 17 patients had skin burns and pain in the treatment region; the next common complication was neurapraxia of the stomach and intestines to variable degrees. The other local and systemic complications were relatively rare. Severe complications were present in two patients; one developed a superior mesenteric artery infarction resulting in necrosis of the entire small intestines, and the other one suffered from a perforation in terminal ileum due to HIFU treatment.
CONCLUSION: Although HIFU is a one of noninvasive treatments for the recurrent and metastatic abdominal tumors, there are still some common and severe complications which need serious consideration.
PMCID: PMC4147127  PMID: 17569147
Abdominal cavity; Recurrent; Metastatic; Tumor; High intensity focused ultrasound; Ultrasonic therapy
10.  Safe temperature range for intraoperative and early postoperative continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion in a swine model of experimental distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction 
The current study sought to investigate the safety of intraoperative and early postoperative continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion (IEPCHIP) at different temperatures in a swine model of experimental distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction.
Thirty pigs were randomly divided into 5 groups. Two groups were used as the control groups (groups A1 and A2), and 3 groups were used as the perfusion groups (groups B, C and D). Pigs in group A1 received distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction only. Pigs in groups A2, B, C and D received the same surgery as group A1, followed by IEPCHIP at 37 ± 0.5°C, 42.5 ± 0.5°C, 43.5 ± 0.5°C or 44.5 ± 0.5°C, respectively. The perfusion time was assessed for each pig in group A2 as well as in the perfusion groups, and the perfusions were performed twice for each group. The first perfusion was conducted intraoperatively, and the second perfusion was initiated 1 day after surgery. Data concerning vital signs and hepatic and renal function were collected. Parameters concerning anastomotic healing, the pathology of the anastomotic tissue and abdominal adhesion were compared.
The vital signs and hepatic and renal functions of the pigs in groups A1, A2, B and C were not significantly affected by this procedure. In contrast, the vital signs and hepatic and renal functions of the pigs in group D were significantly affected. Compared to the pigs in groups A1, A2 or B, the anastomotic bursting pressure, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in group C and D pigs were significantly lower. No significant differences were observed in these parameters between groups A1, A2 and B. Abdominal adhesion was more severe in group D pigs. Collagen deposition in group A1, A2 and B pigs was dense in the anastomosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in group D.
IEPCHIP at 42.5 ± 0.5°C was safe and caused minimal impairments. However, anastomotic healing was affected by perfusion at 43.5 ± 0.5°C and 44.5 ± 0.5°C, and abdominal adhesion was most severe in the group D animals, which were perfused at 44.5 ± 0.5°C.
PMCID: PMC3733927  PMID: 23895276
Temperature; Safety; Swine model; Continuous hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion; Anastomotic healing; Abdominal adhesion; Intraoperative; Early postoperative

Results 1-10 (10)