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1.  A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress 
Frontiers in Psychology  2015;5:1562.
The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01562
PMCID: PMC4294141  PMID: 25642201
self-determination theory; problematic Internet use; need satisfaction; psychological distress; structural equation modeling
2.  Acupuncture for postherpetic neuralgia: a systematic review protocol 
BMJ Open  2014;4(11):e005725.
Introduction
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is one of the most common complications following herpes zoster. Clinical trials indicate that acupuncture could reduce pain and discomfort among patients with PHN. This protocol aims to describe how to accumulate the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating PHN.
Methods and analysis
This systematic review will electronically search multiple databases including the Cochrane Skin Group Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and will hand search a list of medical journals as a supplement. Any clinical randomised controlled trials related to acupuncture for treating PHN will be included. Outcomes will include pain intensity, global impression, quality of life, safety and costs. By screening the titles, abstracts and full texts, two reviewers will independently select studies, extract data, and assess study quality. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials will be conducted using Revman 5.1 software. The results will be presented as risk ratio for dichotomous data, and standardised or weighted mean difference for continuous data.
Ethics and dissemination
This systematic review does not need ethical approval because there are no data used in our study that are linked to individual patient data. Also, the findings will be disseminated through a peer-review publication or conference presentation.
Trial registration number
PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014009555.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005725
PMCID: PMC4244400  PMID: 25392023
DERMATOLOGY; COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE; PAIN MANAGEMENT
3.  Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates insulin resistance and improves glucose metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2014;35(10):1285-1292.
Aim:
To investigate whether alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) could attenuate the insulin resistance and metabolic disorders in high fat diet-fed mice.
Methods:
Male mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) plus ALA (100 and 200 mg·kg−1·d−1) or HFD plus a positive control drug metformin (300 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 24 weeks. During the treatments, the relevant physiological and metabolic parameters of the mice were measured. After the mice were euthanized, blood samples and livers were collected. The expression of proteins and genes related to glucose metabolism in livers were analyzed by immunoblotting and real time-PCR.
Results:
HFD induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and abnormal physiological and metabolic parameters in the mice, which were dose-dependently attenuated by ALA. ALA also significantly reduced HFD-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, ALA significantly upregulated the glycolytic enzymes GCK, HK-1 and PK, and the glycogen synthesis enzyme GS, and downregulated the gluconeogenic enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase, thus decreased glucose production, and promoted glycogen synthesis and glucose utilization in livers. Moreover, ALA markedly increased PKB/Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation, and nuclear carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) expression in livers. Metformin produced similar effects as ALA in HFD-fed mice.
Conclusion:
ALA is able to sustain glucose homeostasis and prevent the development of NAFLD in HFD-fed mice.
doi:10.1038/aps.2014.64
PMCID: PMC4186984  PMID: 25152027
alpha-lipoic acid; metformin; high fat diet; glucose metabolism; insulin resistance; hyperglycemia; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; hepatic steatosis
4.  TOP2Ahigh is the phenotype of recurrence and metastasis whereas TOP2Aneg cells represent cancer stem cells in prostate cancer 
Oncotarget  2014;5(19):9498-9513.
Recurrence and metastasis are the main causes of death for prostate cancer patients and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are proposed to play important roles in cancer recurrence and metastasis. It is generally thought that genes upregulated in recurrent/metastatic disease are likely biomarkers of CSCs. Hence we analyzed multiple microarray datasets on prostate tumor tissues to identify upregulated genes associated with cancer recurrence/metastasis, and tried to explore whether those genes were true biomarkers of prostate CSCs. Our results indicated that TOP2A was the most highly upregulated gene in recurrent/metastatic prostate cancer, and its high expression was positively correlated with poor prognosis in patients. Using a promoter reporter system, we unexpectedly discovered enrichment of CSCs in TOP2Aneg cells. Compared to TOP2Ahigh cells, TOP2Aneg cells formed spheres and tumors more efficiently, and became enriched in the presence of stresses. Analysis of cell divisions by time lapse imaging indicated that more slow-cycling cells were observed in TOP2Aneg cells while the proportion of abnormal divisions was higher in TOP2Ahigh cells. Our studies demonstrate that TOP2Ahigh is the phenotype of recurrence/metastasis but TOP2Aneg cells show slow cycling and have CSCs properties in prostate cancer, which has significant implications for prostate cancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC4253449  PMID: 25237769
prostate cancer; cancer stem cells; TOP2A; recurrence; metastasis
5.  The utility of naphthyl-keratin adducts as biomarkers for jet-fuel exposure 
We investigated the association between biomarkers of dermal exposure, naphthyl-keratin adducts (NKA), and urine naphthalene biomarker levels in 105 workers routinely exposed to jet-fuel. A moderate correlation was observed between NKA and urine naphthalene levels (p = 0.061). The NKA, post-exposure breath naphthalene, and male gender were associated with an increase, while CYP2E1*6 DD and GSTT1-plus (++/+−) genotypes were associated with a decrease in urine naphthalene level (p < 0.0001). The NKA show great promise as biomarkers for dermal exposure to naphthalene. Further studies are warranted to characterize the relationship between NKA, other exposure biomarkers, and/or biomarkers of biological effects due to naphthalene and/or PAH exposure.
doi:10.3109/1354750X.2011.611598
PMCID: PMC4174274  PMID: 21961652
Biomarkers; CYP2E1; dermal exposure; glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1); glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1); jet fuel (JP-8); keratin adduct; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1); 1-naphthol; 2-naphthol; naphthalene; urine
6.  Analysis of Hepatitis E Virus-Like Sequence in Chimpanzee 
Hepatitis Monthly  2014;14(9):e19473.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.19473
PMCID: PMC4214123  PMID: 25368657
Hepatitis E Virus; Chimpanzee; Multilocus Sequence Analysis
7.  Characteristics and Stability of Mercury Vapor Adsorption over Two Kinds of Modified Semicoke 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:260141.
In an attempt to produce effective and lower price gaseous Hg0 adsorbents, two methods of HCl and KMnO4/heat treatment were used respectively for the surface modification of liginite semicoke from inner Mongolia. The different effects of modification process on the surface physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The characteristics and stability of mercury vapor adsorption over two kinds of modified semicoke were investigated. The results indicated that modification process caused lower micropore quantity and volume capacity of semicoke; the C-Cl functional groups, C=O bond and delocalized electron π on the surface of Cl-SC, the amorphous higher valency Mnx+, and O=C–OH functional groups on the surface of Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0. Modification process led to higher mercury removal efficiency of semicoke at 140°C and reduced the stability of adsorbed mercury of semicoke in simulated water circumstance simultaneously.
doi:10.1155/2014/260141
PMCID: PMC4181944  PMID: 25309948
8.  Acupuncture for patients with Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review protocol 
BMJ Open  2014;4(8):e005896.
Introduction
The aim of this protocol is to provide the methods used to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Methods and analysis
We will search the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Medical Current Contents and China National Knowledge Infrastructure without restriction of language and publication status. Other sources such as Chinese acupuncture journals and the reference list of selected studies will also be searched. After screening the studies, a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials will be conducted, if possible. Results expressed as risk ratios for dichotomous data and standardised or weighted mean differences for continuous data, will be used for data synthesis.
Dissemination
The protocol of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference.
Trial registration number
PROSPERO CRD42014009619
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005896
PMCID: PMC4139638  PMID: 25142265
Acupuncture; Alzheimer's disease; systematic review; protocol
9.  High-Strength Bolt Corrosion Fatigue Life Model and Application 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:567318.
The corrosion fatigue performance of high-strength bolt was studied. Based on the fracture mechanics theory and the Gerberich-Chen formula, the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture crack model and the fatigue life model were established. The high-strength bolt crack depth and the fatigue life under corrosion environment were quantitatively analyzed. The factors affecting high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life were discussed. The result showed that the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture biggest crack depth reduces along with the material yield strength and the applied stress increases. The material yield strength was the major factor. And the high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life reduced along with the increase of material strength, the applied stress or stress amplitude. The stress amplitude influenced the most, and the material yield strength influenced the least. Low bolt strength and a low stress amplitude level could extend high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life.
doi:10.1155/2014/567318
PMCID: PMC4135168  PMID: 25152916
10.  Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Prostate-Like Epithelial Cells In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102657.
Although human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have been identified as a new source of MSCs for potential application in regenerative medicine, their full potential of differentiation has not been determined. In particular, whether they have the capability to differentiate into epithelial cells of endodermal origin such as the prostate epithelial cells is unknown. Here we report that when hUC-MSCs were combined with rat urogenital sinus stromal cells (rUGSSs) and transplanted into the renal capsule in vivo, they could differentiate into prostate epithelial-like cells that could be verified by prostate epithelial cell-specific markers including the prostate specific antigen. The prostatic glandular structures formed in vivo displayed similar cellular architecture with lumens and branching features as seen for a normal prostate. In addition, the human origin of the hUC-MSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for human nuclear antigen. These findings together indicate that hUC-MSCs have the capability to differentiate into epithelial-like cells that are normally derived from the endoderm, implicating their potential applications in tissue repair and regeneration of many endoderm-derived internal organs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102657
PMCID: PMC4108360  PMID: 25054276
11.  Dietary Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Induces Nrf2/ARE Pathway and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High-Fat via Activation of PI3K/AKT Signaling 
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), an antioxidant from wolfberry, displays the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on experimental models of insulin resistance in vivo. However, the effective mechanism of LBP on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance is still unknown. The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism involved in LBP-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/Nrf2 axis against high-fat-induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells were incubated with LBP for 12 hrs in the presence of palmitate. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with LBP for 24 weeks. We analyzed the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) involved in insulin signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. First, LBP significantly induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 through PI3K/AKT signaling. Second, LBP obviously increased detoxification and antioxidant enzymes expression and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels via PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 axis. Third, LBP also regulated phosphorylation levels of GSK3β and JNK through PI3K/AKT signaling. Finally, LBP significantly reversed glycolytic and gluconeogenic genes expression via the activation of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective effects. In summary, LBP is novel antioxidant against insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet via activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 pathway.
doi:10.1155/2014/145641
PMCID: PMC4089200  PMID: 25045414
12.  Numerical Analysis of Modeling Based on Improved Elman Neural Network 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:271593.
A modeling based on the improved Elman neural network (IENN) is proposed to analyze the nonlinear circuits with the memory effect. The hidden layer neurons are activated by a group of Chebyshev orthogonal basis functions instead of sigmoid functions in this model. The error curves of the sum of squared error (SSE) varying with the number of hidden neurons and the iteration step are studied to determine the number of the hidden layer neurons. Simulation results of the half-bridge class-D power amplifier (CDPA) with two-tone signal and broadband signals as input have shown that the proposed behavioral modeling can reconstruct the system of CDPAs accurately and depict the memory effect of CDPAs well. Compared with Volterra-Laguerre (VL) model, Chebyshev neural network (CNN) model, and basic Elman neural network (BENN) model, the proposed model has better performance.
doi:10.1155/2014/271593
PMCID: PMC4090489  PMID: 25054172
13.  Crude Extracts from Lycium barbarum Suppress SREBP-1c Expression and Prevent Diet-Induced Fatty Liver through AMPK Activation 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:196198.
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is well known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine that, has beneficial effects. Previous study reported that LBP reduced blood glucose and serum lipids. However, the underlying LBP-regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether LBP prevented fatty liver through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or 100 mg/kg LBP-treatment diet for 24 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with LBP in the presence of palmitic acid. In our study, LBP can improve body compositions and lipid metabolic profiles in high-fat diet-fed mice. Oil Red O staining in vivo and in vitro showed that LBP significantly reduced hepatic intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation. H&E staining also showed that LBP can attenuate liver steatosis. Hepatic genes expression profiles demonstrated that LBP can activate the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppress nuclear expression of SREBP-1c, and decrease protein and mRNA expression of lipogenic genes in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, LBP significantly elevated uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression of brown adipose tissue. In summary, LBP possesses a potential novel treatment in preventing diet-induced fatty liver.
doi:10.1155/2014/196198
PMCID: PMC4071778  PMID: 25013763
14.  Debulking treatment with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and hepatic artery infusion of floxuridine improves survival of patients with unresectable pulmonary and hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(6):295-305.
The survival of most patients with both unresectable hepatic and pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer is poor. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and systemic chemotherapy plus hepatic artery infusion of floxuridine (HAI-FUDR). Sixty-one patients were selected from 1,136 patients with pulmonary and hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Patients were treated with RFA and systemic chemotherapy plus HAI-FUDR (ablation group, n = 39) or systemic chemotherapy plus HAI-FUDR (FUDR group, n = 22). Patients in the two groups were matched by sex, age, number of metastases, and calendar year of RFA or FUDR. Survival data were evaluated by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Clinical characteristics were comparable between the two groups. All patients in the ablation group underwent RFA and chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 56.8 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97%, 64%, and 37%, respectively, for the ablation group, and 82%, 32%, and 19%, respectively, for the FUDR group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after metastasis were 97%, 49%, and 26% for the ablation group, and 72%, 24%, and 24% for the FUDR group, respectively. The median OS times were 45 and 25 months for the ablation and FUDR groups, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, treatment allocation was a favorable independent prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.001) and survival after metastasis (P = 0.009). These data suggest that the addition of RFA to systemic chemotherapy plus HAI-FUDR improves the survival of patients with both unresectable hepatic and pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer.
doi:10.5732/cjc.013.10191
PMCID: PMC4059867  PMID: 24823993
Hepatic metastases; pulmonary metastases; colorectal cancer; radiofrequency ablation; hepatic artery infusion of floxuridine
15.  Factors that predict lymph node status in clinical stage T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinomas 
Background
To identify patients in whom systematic lymph node dissection would be suitable, preoperative diagnosis of the biological invasiveness of lung adenocarcinomas through the classification of these T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinomas into several subgroups may be warranted. In this retrospective study, we sought to determine predictive factors of lymph node status in clinical stage T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinomas.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 273 consecutive patients undergone surgical resection of clinical stage T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinomas at Shanghai Chest Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012. Preoperative computed tomography findings of all 273 patients were reviewed and their tumors categorized as pure GGO, GGO with minimal solid components (<5 mm), part-solid (solid parts >5 mm), or purely solid. Relevant clinicopathologic features were investigated to identify predictors of hilar or mediastinal lymph node metastasis using univariate or multiple variable analysis.
Results
Among the 273 eligible clinical stage T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinomas examined on thin-section CT, 103 (37.7%) were pure GGO, 118 (43.2%) GGO with minimal solid components, 13 (4.8%) part-solid (solid parts >5 mm, five GGO predominant and eight solid predominant), and 39 (14.3%) pure solid. There were 18 (6.6%) patients with lymph node metastasis. Incidence of N1 and N2 nodal involvement was 11 (6.6%) and seven (2.6%) patients, respectively. All patients with pure GGO and GGO with minimal solid components (<5 mm) tumors were pathologically staged N0. Multivariate analyses showed that the following factors significantly predicted lymph node metastasis for T1a lung adenocarcinomas: symptoms at presentation, GGO status, and abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) titer. Multivariate analyses also showed that the following factors significantly predicted lymph node metastasis for pure solid tumors: air bronchogram sign, tumor size, symptoms at presentation, and abnormal CEA titer.
Conclusions
The patients of clinical stage T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinomas with pure GGO and GGO with minimal solid components tumors were pathologically staged N0 and systematic lymph node dissection should be avoided. But systematic lymph node dissection should be performed for pure solid tumors or part-solid, especially in patients with CEA greater than 5 ng/mL or symptoms at presentation, because of the high possibility of lymph node involvement.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-42
PMCID: PMC3945801  PMID: 24559138
Lymph node; Lung adenocarcinomas; Stage small non-small cell lung cancer
16.  Single nucleotide polymorphism at alcohol dehydrogenase-1B is associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
Background
Esophageal squamous incidence in many developed countries has increased dramatically over last decades, while the underlying mechanism of the biogenesis of ES was still unknown.
Methods
Here, we investigate 1001 subjects with esophageal cancer recruited from the affiliated hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University from Jan. 1, 2001 to Feb. 2, 2004. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) was performed, and the recombinant plasimd containing ADH1B was constructed. Then, the ADH1B was purified and the enzymatic activity was assayed according to the methodology of Quayle. Furthermore, the effect of ADH1B on proliferation of human esophageal squamous cell lines was determined and the underlying mechanism of ADH1B was investigated.
Results
Logistic regression analyses revealed that subjects carrying the GG variant homozygote had a significant 2.81-fold (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 2.18-3.62) increased risk of esophageal cancer. We found that SNP of ADH1B (GG) significantly promotes cell proliferation in ESGG. ADH1B (GG) could down-regulate endogenous ADH1B expression at posttranscriptional level. Moreover, re-expression of ADH1B in cells transfected with ADH1B (AA) significantly inhibits cell proliferation.
Conclusions
Our data implied that ADH1B (GG) could promote cell proliferation in human ESGG through regulating the enzyme activity of ADH1B. Therefore, we propose that ADH1B might be used as a therapeutic agent for human ESGG.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-14-12
PMCID: PMC3922640  PMID: 24485404
Single nucleotide polymorphism; Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
17.  Role of RUNX3 in Suppressing Metastasis and Angiogenesis of Human Prostate Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86917.
RUNX3 (runt-related transcription factor-3) has been reported to suppress tumor tumorigenesis and metastasis in different human cancers. In this study, we used tissue microarray (TMA) to determine the significance of RUNX3 in prostate cancer progession. Our results showed ectopic expression of RUNX3 in prostate cancer tissues when compared with tumor adjacent normal prostate tissues, and reduced RUNX3 staining was significantly correlated with TNM stage. Moreover, we demonstrated that RUNX3 overexpression inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion resulting from the elevated upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), which subsequently inhibited metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and activity in vitro. Knock down of RUNX3 expression broke up the balance of TIMP-2/MMP-2, whereas silence of TIMP-2 resulted in the inhibition of MMP-2 expression in prostate cells. We also showed that restoration of RUNX3 decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and suppressed endothelial cell growth and tube formation. Strikingly, RUNX3 was demonstrated to inhibit tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo. Altogether, our results support the tumor suppressive role of RUNX3 in human prostate cancer, and provide insights into development of targeted therapy for this disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086917
PMCID: PMC3901713  PMID: 24475196
18.  Hysteretic Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Pier with Fiber Model 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:467350.
The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop “pinching effect,” smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier.
doi:10.1155/2014/467350
PMCID: PMC3919084  PMID: 24578635
19.  Mild hypothermia for treatment of diffuse axonal injury: a quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(2):190-197.
Fractional anisotropy values in diffusion tensor imaging can quantitatively reflect the consistency of nerve fibers after brain damage, where higher values generally indicate less damage to nerve fibers. Therefore, we hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging could be used to evaluate the effect of mild hypothermia on diffuse axonal injury. A total of 102 patients with diffuse axonal injury were randomly divided into two groups: normothermic and mild hypothermic treatment groups. Patient's modified Rankin scale scores 2 months after mild hypothermia were significantly lower than those for the normothermia group. The difference in average fractional anisotropy value for each region of interest before and after mild hypothermia was 1.32-1.36 times higher than the value in the normothermia group. Quantitative assessment of diffusion tensor imaging indicates that mild hypothermia therapy may be beneficial for patients with diffuse axonal injury.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.125348
PMCID: PMC4146157  PMID: 25206800
nerve regeneration; brain injury; mild hypothermia; diffuse axonal injury; diffusion tensor imaging; region of interest; fractional anisotropy; modified Rankin scale; the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province in China; neural regeneration
20.  Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Self-Anchored Cable-Stayed Suspension Bridges 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:734387.
Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed.
doi:10.1155/2013/734387
PMCID: PMC3825120  PMID: 24282388
21.  Identification of MiRNA from Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by Small RNA Deep Sequencing and Their Response to Verticillium dahliae Infection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72840.
MiRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been extensively studied in model systems, less is known in other plants with limited genome sequence data, including eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). To identify miRNAs in eggplant and their response to Verticillium dahliae infection, a fungal pathogen for which clear understanding of infection mechanisms and effective cure methods are currently lacking, we deep-sequenced two small RNA (sRNA) libraries prepared from mock-infected and infected seedlings of eggplants. Specifically, 30,830,792 reads produced 7,716,328 unique miRNAs representing 99 known miRNA families that have been identified in other plant species. Two novel putative miRNAs were predicted with eggplant ESTs. The potential targets of the identified known and novel miRNAs were also predicted based on sequence homology search. It was observed that the length distribution of obtained sRNAs and the expression of 6 miRNA families were obviously different between the two libraries. These results provide a framework for further analysis of miRNAs and their role in regulating plant response to fungal infection and Verticillium wilt in particular.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072840
PMCID: PMC3754920  PMID: 24015279
22.  Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery versus robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the surgical treatment of Masaoka stage I thymoma 
Background
The purpose of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes in patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and assess the feasibility of robotic-assisted thymectomy for the treatment of Masaoka stage I.
Methods
We evaluated the short-term outcomes of 46 patients who underwent surgery for Masaoka stage I thymoma without myasthenia gravis between January 2009 and June 2012. Of these patients, 25 received unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS group) and the rest 21 recieved unilateral robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS group). We evaluated the duration of surgery, amount of intraoperative blood loss, duration of chest drainage, duration of postoperative hospital stay, hospitalization costs, postoperative complications and oncological outcomes.
Results
The duration of surgery was not significantly different between the two groups. Intraoperative blood loss volumes did not differ significantly between the VATS and RATS groups (86.8 mL and 58.6 mL, respectively; P=0.168). The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the RATS group (3.7 days vs. 6.7 days; P <0.01), and the postoperative pleural drainage volume of the RATS group was significantly less than VATS group (1.1 days vs. 3.6 days; P <0.01). No patients in the RATS group needed conversion to open surgery. However, in the VATS series, one patient had conversion to an open procedure. No surgical complications were observed except that one case had pulmonary atelectasis in the RATS group and one case developed pneumonia after surgery. Use of robot is much more expensive than video. No early recurrence was observed in both groups.
Conclusions
Robotic thymectomy is feasible and safe for Masaoka stage I thymoma. RATS is equally minimally invasive as VATS and results in a shorter drainage period and reduced hospital stay compared with the VATS approach.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-11-157
PMCID: PMC3716986  PMID: 23870330
Robotics; Thymoma; Minimally invasive surgery; Thymus
23.  Efficacy of minimally invasive therapies on unresectable pancreatic cancer 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2013;32(6):334-341.
For patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, current chemotherapies have negligible survival benefits. Thus, developing effective minimally invasive therapies is currently underway. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization plus radiofrequency ablation and/or 125I radioactive seed implantation on unresectable pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the outcome of 71 patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma who underwent chemoembolization plus radiofrequency ablation and/or radioactive seed implantation. Of the 71 patients, the median survival was 11 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 32.4%, 9.9%, and 6.6% respectively. Patients who had no metastasis, who had oligonodular liver metastases (≤3 lesions), and who had multinodular liver metastases (>3 lesions) had median survival of 12, 18, and 8 months, respectively, and 1-year overall survival rates of 50.0%, 68.8%, and 5.7%, respectively. Although the survival of patients without liver metastases was worse than that of patients with oligonodular liver metastasis, the result was not significant (P = 0.239). In contrast, the metastasis-negative patients had significantly better survival than did patients with multinodular liver metastases (P < 0.001). Patients with oligonodular liver lesions had a significanthg longer median survival than did patients with multinodular lesions (P < 0.001). In conclusion, combined minimally invasive therapies had good efficacy on unresectable pancreatic cancer and resulted in a good control of liver metastases. In addition, the number of liver metastases was a significant factor in predicting prognosis and response to treatment.
doi:10.5732/cjc.012.10093
PMCID: PMC3845623  PMID: 22958741
Pancreatic cancer; minimally invasive therapies; transarterial chemoembolization; radiofrequency ablation; median survival
24.  SATB1 is overexpressed in metastatic prostate cancer and promotes prostate cancer cell growth and invasion 
Background
Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a nuclear factor that functions as the global chromatin organizer to regulate chromatin structure and gene expression gene expression. SATB1 has been shown to be abnormally expressed in various types of cancer. However, the expression and role of SATB1 in prostate cancer remain unclear.
Methods
120 cases of prostatic carcinoma and 60 cases of benign prostate hyperplasia were analyzed for SATB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. LNCaP, DU-145, and PC3 prostate cancer cells were examined for SATB1 expression by Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation and invasion was evaluated by CCK8 and transwell invasion assay, respectively.
Results
SATB1 staining was stronger in prostatic carcinomas with metastasis than in those without metastasis, but was absent in benign prostate hyperplasia. Furthermore, SATB1 expression was positively correlated with bone metastasis and the Gleason score. SATB1 overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of LNCaP cells while SATB1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and invasion of DU-145 cells.
Conclusions
These findings provide novel insight into oncogenic role of SATB1 in prostate cancer, suggesting that SATB1 is a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-111
PMCID: PMC3651708  PMID: 23642278
SATB1; Prostate cancer; Metastasis; Invasion; Proliferation
25.  Zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot releases calcium into blood and promotes blood coagulation in vitro 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2013;34(3):367-372.
Aim:
To examine the changes in electrolyte concentrations after addition of zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot in blood and the effects of zeolite on blood coagulation in vitro.
Methods:
Fresh blood was taken from healthy adult volunteers and sheep, and the electrolyte concentrations in blood were measured using a blood electrolyte analyzer. Zeolite Saline Solution (ZSS) was prepared by addition of 2 g zeolite to 0.9% NaCl solution (4, 8, or 16 mL). The electrolytes in ZSS were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of blood were measured using the test tube method. The activated clotting time (ACT) and clotting rate (CR) of blood were measured with Sonoclot Coagulation and Platelet Function Analyzer.
Results:
Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 2 mL human blood significantly increased Ca2+ concentration, while Na+ and K+ concentrations were significantly decreased. Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 0.9% NaCl solution (2 mL) caused similar changes in Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations. Si4+ (0.2434 g/L) and Al3+ (0.2575 g/L) were detected in ZSS (2 g/8 mL). Addition of ZSS in sheep blood shortened APTT in a concentration dependent manner, without changing PT. ZSS or aqueous solution of CaCl2 that contained Ca2+ concentration identical to that of ZSS significantly shortened ACT in human blood without significantly changing CR, and the effect of ZSS on ACT was not significantly different from that of CaCl2.
Conclusion:
Zeolite releases Ca2+ into blood, thus accelerating the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and shortening the clot formation time.
doi:10.1038/aps.2012.159
PMCID: PMC4002488  PMID: 23334236
hemostatics; QuikClot; zeolites; electrolytes; calcium; blood coagulation; prothrombin time; activated partial thromboplastin time; activated clotting time; clotting rate

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