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1.  Transcutaneous vaccination via laser microporation 
Journal of Controlled Release  2012;162(2):391-399.
Driven by constantly increasing knowledge about skin immunology, vaccine delivery via the cutaneous route has recently gained renewed interest. Considering its richness in immunocompetent cells, targeting antigens to the skin is considered to be more effective than intramuscular or subcutaneous injections. However, circumvention of the superficial layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, represents the major challenge for cutaneous immunization. An optimal delivery method has to be effective and reliable, but also highly adaptable to specific demands, should avoid the use of hypodermic needles and the requirement of specially trained healthcare workers. The P.L.E.A.S.E.® (Precise Laser Epidermal System) device employed in this study for creation of aqueous micropores in the skin fulfills these prerequisites by combining the precision of its laser scanning technology with the flexibility to vary the number, density and the depth of the micropores in a user-friendly manner. We investigated the potential of transcutaneous immunization via laser-generated micropores for induction of specific immune responses and compared the outcomes to conventional subcutaneous injection. By targeting different layers of the skin we were able to bias polarization of T cells, which could be modulated by addition of adjuvants. The P.L.E.A.S.E.® device represents a highly effective and versatile platform for transcutaneous vaccination.
Graphical abstract
doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.06.031
PMCID: PMC3462999  PMID: 22750193
Transcutaneous vaccination; Laser; Micropores; Targeting; Dendritic cells
2.  In Vivo Methods for the Assessment of Topical Drug Bioavailability 
Pharmaceutical Research  2007;25(1):87-103.
This paper reviews some current methods for the in vivo assessment of local cutaneous bioavailability in humans after topical drug application. After an introduction discussing the importance of local drug bioavailability assessment and the limitations of model-based predictions, the focus turns to the relevance of experimental studies. The available techniques are then reviewed in detail, with particular emphasis on the tape stripping and microdialysis methodologies. Other less developed techniques, including the skin biopsy, suction blister, follicle removal and confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques are also described.
doi:10.1007/s11095-007-9429-7
PMCID: PMC2217624  PMID: 17985216
cutaneous bioavailability; cutaneous drug concentration; dermatopharmacokinetics; microdialysis; tape stripping
3.  Recovery of human skin impedance in vivo after lontophoresis: Effect of metal ions 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):38-44.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the counter-ion (cation) on the recovery of human skin impedance after iontophoresis in vivo. A series of metal chloride aqueous solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2) was investigated: first at the same concentration (133 mmol/L) and then at the same ionic strength as a NaCl solution at 133 mmol/L. The influence of hydration alone was also examined as a control. The recovery of human skin impedance was followed in the frequency range 1–1,000 Hz, over a 30-minute period after iontophoresis during which 3 impedance spectra were recorded. The results revealed that at t=30 minutes post-iontophoresis, skin impedance was approximately 3 times greater than the value immediately after the cessation of current passage. However, the results showed that the nature of the cation had no effect on recovery, regardless of whether the ions were at the same concentration or at an equivalent ionic strength. A simple parallel RC-equivalent circuit model for skin was used to determine the resistive (R) and capacitive (C) contributions to skin impedance. An analysis of variance on the calculated R and C values did not show any differences between the electrolytes used at the 2 different ionic strengths.
doi:10.1208/ps020323
PMCID: PMC2761134  PMID: 11741239

Results 1-3 (3)