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1.  Distress in Older Patients With Cancer 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(26):4346-4351.
Purpose
To determine the predictors of distress in older patients with cancer.
Patients and Methods
Patients age ≥ 65 years with a solid tumor or lymphoma completed a questionnaire that addressed these geriatric assessment domains: functional status, comorbidity, psychological state, nutritional status, and social support. Patients self-rated their level of distress on a scale of zero to 10 using a validated screening tool called the Distress Thermometer. The relationship between distress and geriatric assessment scores was examined.
Results
The geriatric assessment questionnaire was completed by 245 patients (mean age, 76 years; standard deviation [SD], 7 years; range, 65 to 95 years) with cancer (36% stage IV; 71% female). Of these, 87% also completed the Distress Thermometer, with 41% (n = 87) reporting a distress score of ≥ 4 on a scale of zero to 10 (mean score, 3; SD, 3; range, zero to 10). Bivariate analyses demonstrated an association between higher distress (≥ 4) and poorer physical function, increased comorbid medical conditions, poor eyesight, inability to complete the questionnaire alone, and requiring more time to complete the questionnaire. In a multivariate regression model based on the significant bivariate findings, poorer physical function (increased need for assistance with instrumental activities of daily living [P = .015] and lower physical function score on the Medical Outcomes Survey [P = .018]) correlated significantly with a higher distress score.
Conclusion
Significant distress was identified in 41% of older patients with cancer. Poorer physical function was the best predictor of distress. Further studies are needed to determine whether interventions that improve or assist with physical functioning can help to decrease distress in older adults with cancer.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.19.9463
PMCID: PMC2799049  PMID: 19652074
2.  Factors of complicated grief pre-death in caregivers of cancer patients 
Psycho-oncology  2008;17(2):105-111.
Purpose
Over the past decade, Prigerson and her colleagues have shown that symptoms of ‘complicated grief’—intense yearning, difficulty accepting the death, excessive bitterness, numbness, emptiness, and feeling uneasy moving on and that the future is bleak—are distinct from depression and anxiety and are independently associated with substantial morbidity. Little is known about complicated grief experienced by family caregivers prior to the death. This study sought to examine differences in caregiver age groups and potential risk factors for complicated grief pre-death.
Method
Two hundred and forty eight caregivers from multiple sites nationwide (20–86 years of age) identified themselves as primary caregivers to a terminally ill cancer patient. Each caregiver was interviewed using the following measures: the Pre-Death Inventory of Complicated Grief-Caregiver Version; the Brief Interpersonal Support Evaluation List; the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I; the Life Orientation Test-Revised; the SEPRATE Measure of Stressful Life Events; the Covinsky Family Impact Survey; and mental health access questions.
Results
The study found that those under 60 years old had higher levels of complicated grief pre-death than caregivers 60 and older (t(246) = 2.30, p<0.05). Significant correlations were also found between levels of complicated grief pre-loss and the following psychosocial factors: perceived social support (r = −0.415, p<0.001); history of depression (r = −0.169, p<0.05); current depression (r = −0.158, p<0.05); current annual income (Spearman rho = −0.210, p<0.01); annual income at time of patient's diagnosis (Spearman rho = −0.155, p = 0.05); pessimistic thinking (r = 0.320; p<0.001); and number of moderate to severe stressful life events (Spearman rho = 0.218, p = 0.001). In a multi-variate analysis (R2 = 0.368), pessimistic thinking (Beta = 0.208, p<0.05) and severity of stressful life events (Beta = 0.222, p<0.05) remained as important factors to developing complicated grief pre-death.
Conclusions
These results suggest that mental health professionals who work with caregivers should pay particular attention to pessimistic thinking and stressful life events, beyond the stress of the loved one's illness, that caretakers experience. Additionally, although not reaching significance, mental health professionals should also consider younger caregivers at greater risk for complicated grief pre-loss.
doi:10.1002/pon.1188
PMCID: PMC2515552  PMID: 17443644
cancer; oncology; caregivers; complicated grief; pre-death

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