Our study aims to evaluate the image quality and feasibility of 128-slice dual-energy CTA (DE-CTA) for supra-aortic arteries using reduced amounts of contrast medium (CM).
A prospective study was performed in 54 patients receiving CTA of the head and neck with a 128-slice dual-source CT system. Patients were randomized into two groups with a volume of either 40 mL of CM (Group I) or 50 mL of CM (Group II). Arterial and venous enhancements were recorded for quantitative assessment. Qualitative assessments for images without bone removal (BR) were based on a) the visualization of the circle of Willis and b) streak artifacts due to residual CM in the subclavian or internal jugular veins ipsilateral to injection of CM. Qualitative assessment of dual-energy images using BR was based on the presence of bone remnants and vessel integrity. Quantitative data was compared using the Student t test. The χ2 test was used for the qualitative measurements of streak artifacts in veins while the Mann-Whitney U test was used for the qualitative measurements of images with BR.
Arterial and venous attenuation was significantly higher in Group II (P=0.000). Image quality regarding the circle of Willis was excellent in both groups (3.90±0.30 for Group I and 4.00±0 for Group II) . Imaging of the internal jugular veins was scored higher in Group I (1.87±0.72) compared with Group II (1.48±0.51) (P=0.021). Within Group I using BR, mean scores for bone remnants did not differ significantly (P>0.05) but mean scores of vessel integrity (P<0.05) did.
Contrast-enhanced head and neck CTA is feasible using a scan protocol with low amounts of contrast medium (40 mL) on a 128-slice dual-energy CTA. The 40-mL protocol provides satisfactory image quality before and after dual-energy bone-removal post-processing.
Studies support the importance of microRNAs in physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe the regulation and function of miR-29 in myogenesis and Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Results demonstrate that in myoblasts miR-29 is repressed by NF-κB acting through YY1 and the Polycomb. During myogenesis, NF-κB and YY1 downregulation causes derepression of miR-29, which in turn accelerates differentiation by targeting its repressor YY1. However, in RMS cells and primary tumors that possess impaired differentiation, miR-29 is epigenetically silenced by an activated NF-κB-YY1 pathway. Reconstitution of miR-29 in RMS in mice inhibits tumor growth and stimulates differentiation, suggesting that miR-29 acts as a tumor suppressor through its pro-myogenic function. Together, results identify a NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 regulatory circuit whose disruption may contribute to RMS.
MicroRNAs regulate skeletal myogenesis, but their impact in muscle diseases is not well understood. Here we describe miR-29 as an enhancer of myogenic differentiation and a suppressor of RMS. We find that miR-29 exists in a regulatory circuit involving NF-κB and YY1. In myoblasts NF-B acts through YY1 to epigenetically suppress miR-29, while during differentiation miR-29 is induced to facilitate myogenesis by a negative feedback on YY1. Significantly, RMS tumors lose miR-29 due to an elevation in NF-B and YY1, and readjustment of miR-29 levels in RMS stimulates differentiation. Thus, myogenesis is dependent on NF-κB–YY1–miR-29 circuitry whose dysfunction may contribute to RMS pathogenesis. Such findings offer potential avenues for the diagnosis and treatment of muscle relevant cancers.
microRNA; differentiation; myogenesis; YY1; NF-kappaB; Rhabdomyosarcoma
Degradation of certain proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a common strategy taken by the key modulators responsible for stress responses. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1(Keap1), a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin3 (Cul3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligase complex, mediates the ubiquitination of two key modulators, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and IκB kinase β (IKKβ), which are involved in the redox control of gene transcription. However, compared to the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI), the intermolecular recognition mechanism of Keap1 and IKKβ has been poorly investigated. In order to explore the binding pattern between Keap1 and IKKβ, the PPI model of Keap1 and IKKβ was investigated. The structure of human IKKβ was constructed by means of the homology modeling method and using reported crystal structure of Xenopus laevis IKKβ as the template. A protein-protein docking method was applied to develop the Keap1-IKKβ complex model. After the refinement and visual analysis of docked proteins, the chosen pose was further optimized through molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting structure was utilized to conduct the virtual alanine mutation for the exploration of hot-spots significant for the intermolecular interaction. Overall, our results provided structural insights into the PPI model of Keap1-IKKβ and suggest that the substrate specificity of Keap1 depend on the interaction with the key tyrosines, namely Tyr525, Tyr574 and Tyr334. The study presented in the current project may be useful to design molecules that selectively modulate Keap1. The selective recognition mechanism of Keap1 with IKKβ or Nrf2 will be helpful to further know the crosstalk between NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling.
The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in the pathology of various neurological disorders including schizophrenia, ADHD, and autism. mGluR5-dependent synaptic plasticity has been described at a variety of neural connections and its signaling has been implicated in several behaviors. These behaviors include locomotor reactivity to novel environment, sensorimotor gating, anxiety, and cognition. mGluR5 is expressed in glutamatergic neurons, inhibitory neurons, and glia in various brain regions. In this study, we show that deleting mGluR5 expression only in principal cortical neurons leads to defective cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) dependent synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex. These cortical glutamatergic mGluR5 knockout mice exhibit increased novelty-induced locomotion, and their locomotion can be further enhanced by treatment with the psychostimulant methylphenidate. Despite a modest reduction in repetitive behaviors, cortical glutamatergic mGluR5 knockout mice are normal in sensorimotor gating, anxiety, motor balance/learning and fear conditioning behaviors. These results show that mGluR5 signaling in cortical glutamatergic neurons is required for precisely modulating locomotor reactivity to a novel environment but not for sensorimotor gating, anxiety, motor coordination, several forms of learning or social interactions.
Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has a high economic value and is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Despite it is economic importance, it has remained largely unstudied at the genomic level. In this study, we conducted a genome survey of Gp. lemaneiformis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In total, 18.70 Gb of high-quality sequence data with an estimated genome size of 97 Mb were obtained by HiSeq 2000 sequencing for Gp. lemaneiformis. These reads were assembled into 160,390 contigs with a N50 length of 3.64 kb, which were further assembled into 125,685 scaffolds with a total length of 81.17 Mb. Genome analysis predicted 3490 genes and a GC% content of 48%.
The identified genes have an average transcript length of 1,429 bp, an average coding sequence size of 1,369 bp, 1.36 exons per gene, exon length of 1,008 bp, and intron length of 191 bp. From the initial assembled scaffold, transposable elements constituted 54.64% (44.35 Mb) of the genome, and 7737 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Among these SSRs, the trinucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (up to 73.20% of total SSRs), followed by the di- (17.41%), tetra- (5.49%), hexa- (2.90%), and penta- (1.00%) nucleotide repeat type. These characteristics suggest that Gp. lemaneiformis is a model organism for genetic study. This is the first report of genome-wide characterization within this taxon.
Stromal cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), 2 important cell populations within the hematopoietic microenvironment, may play an important role in the development of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We have successfully cultured human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells (hUCBDSCs). It has been demonstrated that MSCs also exist in hUCB. However, we have not found any reports on the distinct characteristics of hUCBDSCs and human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCBDMSCs). In this study, hUCBDSCs and hUCBDMSCs were isolated from the cord blood of full-term infants using the same density gradient centrifugation and cultured in the appropriate medium. Some biological characteristics and hematopoietic supportive functions were compared in vitro. hUCBDSCs were distinct from hUCBDMSCs in morphology, proliferation, cell cycle, passage, immunophenotype, and the capacity for classical tri-lineage differentiation. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) gene expression was higher in hUCBDSCs than that in hUCBDMSCs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the secretion of G-CSF, thrombopoietin (TPO), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by hUCBDSCs was higher than that by hUCBDMSCs. After coculture, the granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) of hematopoietic cells from the hUCBDSC feeder layer was more than that from the hUCBDMSC feeder layer. Flow cytometry was used to detect CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell committed differentiation during 14 days of coculture; the results demonstrated that CD14 and CD33 expression in hUCBDSCs was significantly higher than their expression in hUCBDMSCs. This observation was also true for the granulocyte lineage marker, CD15. This marker was expressed beginning at day 7 in hUCBDSCs. It was expressed earlier and at a higher level in hUCBDSCs compared with hUCBDMSCs. In conclusion, hUCBDSCs are different from hUCBDMSCs. hUCBDSCs are superior to hUCBDMSCs in supporting hematopoiesis stem/progenitor cells differentiation into myeloid lineage cells at an early stage in vitro.
Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their “siblings” to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01–0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524–0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211–0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically, suggesting that the Tai people most likely originated from southern China.
The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.
Vernier thresholds are known to be elevated when a target pair has opposite contrast polarity. Polarity reversal is used to assess the role of luminance and chromatic pathways in hyperacuity performance. Psychophysical hyperacuity thresholds were measured for pairs of gratings of various combinations of luminance (Lum) and chromatic (Chr) contrast polarities, at different ratios of luminance to chromatic contrast. With two red-green gratings of matched luminance and chromatic polarity (+Lum+Chr), there was an elevation of threshold at isoluminance. When both luminance and chromatic polarity were mismatched (−Lum−Chr), thresholds were substantially elevated under all conditions. With the same luminance contrast polarity and opposite chromatic polarity (+Lum−Chr) thresholds were only elevated close to isoluminance; in the reverse condition (−Lum+Chr), thresholds were elevated as in the −Lum−Chr condition except close to equiluminance. Similar data were obtained for gratings isolating the short-wavelength cone mechanism. Further psychophysical measurements assessed the role of target separation with matched or mismatched contrast polarity; similar results were found for luminance and chromatic gratings. Comparison physiological data were collected from parafoveal ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Positional precision of ganglion cell signals was assessed under conditions related to the psychophysical measurements. On the basis of these combined observations, it is argued that both magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular pathways have access to cortical positional mechanisms associated with vernier acuity.
hyperacuity; vernier; contrast; polarity; magnocellular; parvocellular; luminance; chromatic
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are emerging as a novel class of non-coding RNAs and potent gene regulators. High-throughput RNA-sequencing combined with de novo assembly promises quantity discovery of novel transcripts. However, the identification of lincRNAs from thousands of assembled transcripts is still challenging due to the difficulties of separating them from protein coding transcripts (PCTs).
We have implemented iSeeRNA, a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier for the identification of lincRNAs. iSeeRNA shows better performance compared to other software. A public available webserver for iSeeRNA is also provided for small size dataset.
iSeeRNA demonstrates high prediction accuracy and runs several magnitudes faster than other similar programs. It can be integrated into the transcriptome data analysis pipelines or run as a web server, thus offering a valuable tool for lincRNA study.
Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, plays a critical role in regulating cell development, differentiation, cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis. Previous studies identified many YY1-regulated target genes in both human and mouse. Emerging global mapping by Chromatin ImmnoPrecipitation (ChIP)-based high-throughput experiments indicate that YY1 binds to a vast number of loci genome-wide. However, the information is widely scattered in many disparate poorly cross-indexed literatures; a large portion was only published recently by the ENCODE consortium with limited annotation. A centralized database, which annotates and organizes YY1-binding loci and target motifs in a systematic way with easy access, will be valuable resources for the research community. We therefore implemented a web-based YY1 Target loci Database (YY1TargetDB). This database contains YY1-binding loci (binding peaks) from ChIP-seq and ChIP-on-chip experiments, computationally predicated YY1 and cofactor motifs within each locus. It also collects the experimentally verified YY1-binding motifs from individual researchers. The current version of YY1TargetDB contains 92 314 binding loci identified by ChIP-based experiments; 157 200 YY1-binding motifs in which 42 are experimentally verified and 157 158 are computationally predicted; and 130 759 binding motifs for 47 cofactors.
AIM: To explore the optimal steroid therapeutic strategy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).
METHODS: This study was conducted retrospectively in two large institutions in China. Patients with clinically, radiologically and biochemically diagnosed AIP were enrolled. The performed radiological investigations and biochemical tests, the regimen of the given steroid treatment, remission and relapse whether with and without steroid therapy were analyzed.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with AIP received steroid treatment, while 40 patients were treated surgically by pancreatoduodenectomy, distal pancreatectomy and choledochojejunostomy, radiofrequency ablation for the enlarged pancreatic head, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and endoscopic biliary drainage. The starting oral prednisolone dose was 30 mg/d in 18 (64.3%) patients and 40 mg/d in 10 (35.7%) patients administered for 3 wk. The remission rate of AIP patients with steroid treatment (96.4%) was significantly higher than in those without steroid treatment (75%). Maintenance therapy (oral prednisolone dose 5 mg/d) was performed after remission for at least 6-12 mo to complete the treatment course. Similarly, the relapse rate was significantly lower in AIP patients with steroid treatment (28.6%) than in those without steroid treatment (42.5%). Steroid re-treatment was effective in all relapsed patients with or without steroid therapy.
CONCLUSION: Steroid therapy should be considered in all patients with active inflammatory phase of AIP. However, the optimal regimen still should be trailed in larger numbers of patients with AIP.
Autoimmune pancreatitis; Chinese population; Steroid therapy; Remission; Relapse
Fetal DNA in maternal urine, if present, would be a valuable source of fetal genetic material for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. However, the existence of fetal DNA in maternal urine has remained controversial. The issue is due to the lack of appropriate technology to robustly detect the potentially highly degraded fetal DNA in maternal urine.
We have used massively parallel paired-end sequencing to investigate cell-free DNA molecules in maternal urine. Catheterized urine samples were collected from seven pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancies. We detected fetal DNA by identifying sequenced reads that contained fetal-specific alleles of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The sizes of individual urinary DNA fragments were deduced from the alignment positions of the paired reads. We measured the fractional fetal DNA concentration as well as the size distributions of fetal and maternal DNA in maternal urine.
Cell-free fetal DNA was detected in five of the seven maternal urine samples, with the fractional fetal DNA concentrations ranged from 1.92% to 4.73%. Fetal DNA became undetectable in maternal urine after delivery. The total urinary cell-free DNA molecules were less intact when compared with plasma DNA. Urinary fetal DNA fragments were very short, and the most dominant fetal sequences were between 29 bp and 45 bp in length.
With the use of massively parallel sequencing, we have confirmed the existence of transrenal fetal DNA in maternal urine, and have shown that urinary fetal DNA was heavily degraded.
Electron microscopy and crystallography studies of α4β7 integrin reveal the mechanism by which this atypical integrin enables rolling adhesion prior to integrin activation.
The lymphocyte homing receptor integrin α4β7 is unusual for its ability to mediate both rolling and firm adhesion. α4β1 and α4β7 are targeted by therapeutics approved for multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. Here, we show by electron microscopy and crystallography how two therapeutic Fabs, a small molecule (RO0505376), and mucosal adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) bind α4β7. A long binding groove at the α4–β7 interface for immunoglobulin superfamily domains differs in shape from integrin pockets that bind Arg-Gly-Asp motifs. RO0505376 mimics an Ile/Leu-Asp motif in α4 ligands, and orients differently from Arg-Gly-Asp mimics. A novel auxiliary residue at the metal ion–dependent adhesion site in α4β7 is essential for binding to MAdCAM-1 in Mg2+ yet swings away when RO0505376 binds. A novel intermediate conformation of the α4β7 headpiece binds MAdCAM-1 and supports rolling adhesion. Lack of induction of the open headpiece conformation by ligand binding enables rolling adhesion to persist until integrin activation is signaled.
Plasma DNA obtained from a pregnant woman contains a mixture of maternal and fetal DNA. The fetal DNA proportion in maternal plasma is relatively consistent as determined using polymorphic genetic markers across different chromosomes in euploid pregnancies. For aneuploid pregnancies, the observed fetal DNA proportion measured using polymorphic genetic markers for the aneuploid chromosome would be perturbed. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of analyzing single nucleotide polymorphisms using targeted massively parallel sequencing to detect such perturbations in mothers carrying trisomy 21 fetuses.
DNA was extracted from plasma samples collected from fourteen pregnant women carrying singleton fetuses. Hybridization-based targeted sequencing was used to enrich 2 906 single nucleotide polymorphism loci on chr7, chr13, chr18 and chr21. Plasma DNA libraries with and without target enrichment were analyzed by massively parallel sequencing. Genomic DNA samples of both the mother and fetus for each case were genotyped by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis. For the targeted regions, the mean sequencing depth of the enriched samples was 225-fold higher than that of the non-enriched samples. From the targeted sequencing data, the ratio between fetus-specific and shared alleles increased by approximately 2-fold on chr21 in the paternally-derived trisomy 21 case. In comparison, the ratio is decreased by approximately 11% on chr21 in the maternally-derived trisomy 21 cases but with much overlap with the ratio of the euploid cases. Computer simulation revealed the relationship between the fetal DNA proportion, the number of informative alleles and the depth of sequencing.
Targeted massively parallel sequencing of single nucleotide polymorphism loci in maternal plasma DNA is a potential approach for trisomy 21 detection. However, the method appears to be less robust than approaches using non-polymorphism-based counting of sequence tags in plasma.
To examine the composition of lanostanoids in Ganoderma lucidum, we have developed a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) method by using the ganoderic acids isolated in our laboratory as reference standards. The identity of 14 peaks in the high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) of G. lucidum has been confirmed. By using the HPLC retention times of these ganoderic acids and their mass fragmentation patterns established in this paper, one can use LC–MS to analyze G. lucidum without requiring the reference standards of these 14 ganoderic acids. Subsequently, only the HPLC–UV method would be needed to analyze routine samples of G. lucidum.
mushroom; Ganoderma lucidum; lanostanoids; triterpenes; ganoderic acids; LC–MS
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in post-transcriptional fashion, and emerging studies support their importance in regulating many biological processes, including myogenic differentiation and muscle development. miR-29 is a promoting factor during myogenesis but its full spectrum of impact on muscle cells has yet to be explored. Here we describe an analysis of miR-29 affected transcriptome in C2C12 muscle cells using a high throughput RNA-sequencing platform. The results reveal that miR-29 not only functions to promote myogenic differentiation but also suppresses the transdifferentiation of myoblasts into myofibroblasts. miR-29 inhibits the fibrogenic differentiation through down-regulating both extracellular matrix genes and cell adhesion genes. We further demonstrate that miR-29 is under negative regulation by TGF-beta (TGF-β)–Smad3 signaling via dual mechanisms of both inhibiting MyoD binding and enhancing Yin Yang 1 (YY1)-recruited Polycomb association. Together, these results identify miR-29 as a pleiotropic molecule in both myogenic and fibrogenic differentiation of muscle cells.
In the title compound, C16H16ClNO2S, the benzene and thiophene rings make a dihedral angle of 72.60 (4)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O interactions are observed.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, and mounting evidence supports the prevalence and functional significance of their interplay with transcription factors (TFs). Here we describe the identification of a regulatory circuit between muscle miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133 and miR-206) and Yin Yang 1 (YY1), an epigenetic repressor of skeletal myogenesis in mouse. Genome-wide identification of potential down-stream targets of YY1 by combining computational prediction with expression profiling data reveals a large number of putative miRNA targets of YY1 during skeletal myoblasts differentiation into myotubes with muscle miRs ranking on top of the list. The subsequent experimental results demonstrate that YY1 indeed represses muscle miRs expression in myoblasts and the repression is mediated through multiple enhancers and recruitment of Polycomb complex to several YY1 binding sites. YY1 regulating miR-1 is functionally important for both C2C12 myogenic differentiation and injury-induced muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-1 in turn targets YY1, thus forming a negative feedback loop. Together, these results identify a novel regulatory circuit required for skeletal myogenesis and reinforce the idea that regulatory circuitries involving miRNAs and TFs are prevalent mechanisms.
A new GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP compound semiconductor nanotube material structure was designed and fabricated in this work. A thin, InGaAs-strained material layer was designed in the nanotube structure, which can directionally roll up a strained heterostructure through a normal wet etching process. The compound semiconductor nanotube structure was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. A good crystalline quality of InGaP, InGaAs, and GaAs materials was obtained through optimizing the growth condition. The fabricated GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP semiconductor nanotubes, with a diameter of 300 to 350 nm and a length of 1.8 to 2.0 μm, were achieved through normal device fabrication.
compound semiconductor nanotubes; gas-source molecular beam epitaxy; GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP.
Variants of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) gene have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to explore the association of ALOX5AP variants with ischemic stroke risk in Han Chinese of eastern China. A total of 690 ischemic stroke cases and 767 controls were recruited. The subjects were further subtyped according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. On the basis of that, two polymorphisms of the ALOX5AP gene (rs10507391 and rs12429692) were determined by TaqMan genotyping assay. In addition, plasma leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels were analyzed in these subjects. There was no evidence of association between the two variants of ALOX5AP and the risk of ischemic stroke or its TOAST-subtypes. Haplotype analysis and stratification analysis according to sex, age, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes also showed negative association. Analysis of LTB4 levels in a subset of cases and controls revealed that LTB4 levels were significantly higher in ischemic stroke cases than in the controls (70.06±14.75 ng/L vs 57.34±10.93 ng/L; P = 0.000) and carriers of the T allele of the rs10507391 variant were associated with higher plasma LTB4 levels (P = 0.000). The present study suggests there is no association of the two polymorphisms in the ALOX5AP gene with ischemic stroke risk in Han Chinese of eastern China.
arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein; ischemic stroke; variants; leukotriene B4; risk factors
The conventional (size III) perimetric stimulus was superior to a frequency-doubling stimulus in preferentially stimulating magnocellular (M) retinal ganglion cells relative to parvocellular (P) cells.
Perimetry is used clinically to assess glaucomatous ganglion cell loss. It has been proposed that frequency-doubling stimuli are better than the conventional size III perimetric stimulus in preferentially stimulating magnocellular (M) versus parvocellular (P) ganglion cells. However, little is known about how primate ganglion cells respond to perimetric stimuli. The authors recorded contrast responses of M and P ganglion cells to size III and frequency-doubling stimuli and compared contrast gain of M and P cells to these stimuli to assess the ability of these stimuli to preferentially stimulate M versus P cells.
Data were recorded from 69 macaque retinal ganglion cells, by an in vivo preparation, at eccentricities of 5° to 15°. The size III stimulus was a circular luminance increment 26 min arc in diameter, 200 ms in duration. The frequency-doubling stimulus was a sinusoidal grating (0.5 cyc/deg) temporally modulated in counterphase at 13 Hz. A Michaelis-Menten function was fit to each cell's contrast responses to assess contrast gain.
For both size III and frequency-doubling stimuli, ganglion cell responses increased linearly at low contrasts, and then the increase slowed at high contrasts (saturation). The mean (± SE) difference in estimated log contrast gain between M and P cells for the size III stimulus was significantly higher than that for the frequency-doubling stimulus (1.24 ± 0.09 vs. 0.89 ± 0.13; P < 0.01).
The size III stimulus was superior to the frequency-doubling stimulus in preferentially stimulating M cells versus P cells.
Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due to the lack of data from a large sample set. We studied 392 pregnancies, among which 25 involved a trisomy 13 fetus and 37 involved a trisomy 18 fetus, by massively parallel sequencing. By using our previously reported standard z-score approach, we demonstrated that this approach could identify 36.0% and 73.0% of trisomy 13 and 18 at specificities of 92.4% and 97.2%, respectively. We aimed to improve the detection of trisomy 13 and 18 by using a non-repeat-masked reference human genome instead of a repeat-masked one to increase the number of aligned sequence reads for each sample. We then applied a bioinformatics approach to correct GC content bias in the sequencing data. With these measures, we detected all (25 out of 25) trisomy 13 fetuses at a specificity of 98.9% (261 out of 264 non-trisomy 13 cases), and 91.9% (34 out of 37) of the trisomy 18 fetuses at 98.0% specificity (247 out of 252 non-trisomy 18 cases). These data indicate that with appropriate bioinformatics analysis, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing is achievable.
In this study, we performed a genome-wide search for effector genes bound by STOX1A, a winged helix transcription factor recently demonstrated to be involved in late onset Alzheimer's disease and affecting the amyloid processing pathway.
Our results show that out of 218 genes bound by STOX1A as identified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq), the serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 7 (SFRS7) was found to be induced, both at the mRNA and protein levels, by STOX1A after stable transfection in glial cells. The increase in SFRS7 was followed by an increase in the 4R/3R ratios of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) by differential exon 10 splicing. Secondly, STOX1A also induced expression of total tau both at the mRNA and protein levels. Upregulation of total tau expression (SFRS7-independent) and tau exon 10 splicing (SFRS7-dependent), as shown in this study to be both affected by STOX1A, is known to have implications in neurodegeneration.
Our data further supports the functional importance and central role of STOX1A in neurodegeneration.