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1.  Anti-epileptic prophylaxis in traumatic brain injury: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing craniotomy versus decompressive craniectomy 
Seizures account for significant morbidity and mortality early in the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there is sufficient literature suggesting short-term benefits of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in post-TBI patients, there has been no study to suggest a time frame for continuing AEDs in patients who have undergone a decompressive craniectomy for more severe TBI. We examined trends in a level-II trauma center in southern California that may provide guidelines for AED treatment in craniectomy patients.
A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy and those who underwent a standard craniotomy from 2008 to 2012.
Out of the 153 patients reviewed, 85 were included in the study with 52 (61%) craniotomy and 33 (39%) craniectomy patients. A total of 78.8% of the craniotomy group used phenytoin (Dilantin), 9.6% used levetiracetam (Keppra), 5.8% used a combination of both, and 3.8% used topiramate (Topamax). The craniectomy group used phenytoin 84.8% and levetiracetam 15.2% of the time without any significant difference between the procedural groups. Craniotomy patients had a 30-day seizure rate of 13.5% compared with 21.2% in craniectomy patients (P = 0.35). Seizure onset averaged on postoperative day 5.86 for the craniotomy group and 8.14 for the craniectomy group. There was no significant difference in the average day of seizure onset between the groups P = 0.642.
Our study shows a trend toward increased seizure incidence in craniectomy group, which does not reach significance, but suggests they are at higher risk. Whether this higher risk translates into a benefit on being on AEDs for a longer duration than the current standard of 7 days cannot be concluded as there is no significant difference or trend on the onset date for seizures in either group. Moreover, a prospective study will be necessary to more profoundly evaluate the duration of AED prophylaxis for each one of the stated groups.
PMCID: PMC4310133  PMID: 25657861
Craniotomy; craniectomy; levetiracetam; phenytoin; seizure; traumatic brain injury; topiramate
2.  Suprasellar Mature Cystic Teratoma: An Unusual Location for an Uncommon Tumor 
Intracranial germ cell tumors are uncommon and account for only 0.3–3.4% of all intracranial tumors. Teratomas are a subset of these neoplasms, and their finding in brain structures is exceptionally rare, and occurrence within the skull base is quite novel. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented with vision changes, incontinence, ataxia, and altered mental status of 1 week's duration. Imaging revealed a large intrasellar mass with suprasellar extension, involvement of the ventricular system, and marked hydrocephalus with the enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The patient underwent a pterional craniotomy/transsylvian approach for resection of the mass. Postoperative histological examination of the resected mass was confirmatory for a mature cystic teratoma. This was followed by radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and adjuvant radiotherapy. At the most recent followup, approximately 4 years later, the patient is doing well with improved vision since the operation. This report highlights our experience with a teratoma in a very unusual location, and we review the relevant literature.
PMCID: PMC3807553  PMID: 24198987
3.  Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients with meningiomas and glioblastoma multiforme 
Oncology Letters  2013;5(3):783-786.
The prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients with glioblastoma multiforme or meningiomas has not been described. These infections are known to modulate the activity of the immune system, which potentially influences the development and course of cancer. We hypothesized that chronic hepatitis infection, which activates the immune system, decreases the risk of brain tumors, particularly those that are highly malignant. We performed a retrospective study to examine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients with meningiomas and glioblastomas. The combined prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the USA from 1999–2008 was 5.7%. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C in patients with meningiomas was 2.4%; while among glioblastoma patients, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C was 1.38%. The odds ratio of having hepatitis B or C with glioblastoma versus meningiomas was 0.56, with a confidence interval of 0.19–1.6 and a P-value of 0.29. Compared with historical controls, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in meningioma and glioblastoma patients was decreased. However, this difference may be attributed to the retrospective nature of our data and the natural history of hepatitis B and C infections. The prevalence of these viral infections was not statistically different in patients with meningiomas and glioblastomas. This suggests that hepatitis B and C primarily influence slow-growing, benign tumors and more aggressive cancers equally, if at all. To definitively test our hypothesis, future studies in which data are prospectively gathered are likely to be required.
PMCID: PMC3576201  PMID: 23426187
glioblastoma; meningioma; hepatitis; epidemiology; prevalence
4.  Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor in an adult: a case report and review of the literature 
Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors predominantly occur in children, and are rare in the adult population. Less than 100 cases of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor have been reported in adults internationally. Our case study reports this rare incident.
Case presentation
A 22-year-old Hispanic man presented with headaches, blurry vision, diplopia, intermittent vomiting, and grossly decreased vision. A magnetic resonance image showed a left posterior parietal heterogeneously enhancing mass measuring 4.2cm × 7.2cm × 7.0cm. After craniotomy for resection and decompression, the mass was histologically revealed to be a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Standardized immunohistochemical studies for this mass were carried out.
We have concluded that immunohistochemical and genetic workup should be included in the standardized pathological workup for primitive neuroectodermal tumors in order to provide more prognostic information. Based on our current literature review, we propose an immunohistochemical panel.
PMCID: PMC3492070  PMID: 23095172

Results 1-4 (4)