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author:("kruger, Laura")
1.  Skin/nail infections with the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab-based chemotherapy 
We report a series of breast cancer patients with invasive skin and nail infections with Staphylococcus species that we attribute to the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab-based therapy. With the suspicion of an increased incidence of cutaneous infection in patients treated with pertuzumab and trastuzumab-based chemotherapy, treating medical oncologists identified patients receiving therapy who experienced infection. Between March and October 2014, 18 patients treated with pertuzumab and trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were found to have 21 separate skin/nail infections. Treatment was administered as neoadjuvant therapy in 12 (67 %) patients, adjuvant therapy in four (22 %) patients, and for metastatic disease in two (11 %) patients. Granulocyte growth factors were administered in 11 (61 %) patients and no patients were documented to be neutropenic. New skin and nail lesions developed as early as cycle 1 and as late as 8 months from initial therapy. The 21 separate infections documented were folliculitis and “bite-like” lesions (10), abscess (6), paronychia (3), and cellulitis (2). The appearance of these lesions was distinct from typical EGFR-associated skin changes. When cultures were obtained, Staphylococcus species were isolated. Quantitative immunoglobulins were assessed in 14 (78 %) patients and were abnormally low in six (43 %) of these patients. The skin infections resulted in treatment delay in two (11 %) patients and premature discontinuation of therapy in one patient. We believe that the skin/nail infections reported here in patients treated with the combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab represent a previously unrecognized toxicity of adding pertuzumab to trastuzumab-based therapies.
PMCID: PMC4243002  PMID: 25385180
Skin; Nails; Staphylococcus infections; Pertuzumab; Trastuzumab-based chemotherapy; Breast cancer
2.  Utilization of Mastectomy and Reconstruction in the Outpatient Setting 
Annals of surgical oncology  2012;20(3):10.1245/s10434-012-2661-3.
Reconstruction rates after mastectomy have been reported to range from 25–40 %; however, most studies have focused on patients treated in an inpatient setting. We sought to determine the utilization of outpatient mastectomy and use of breast reconstruction in Southern California.
Postmastectomy reconstruction rates were determined from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database from 2006–2009 using CPT codes and similarly from an inpatient database using ICD-9 codes. Reconstruction rates were compared between the inpatient and outpatient setting. For the outpatient setting, univariate and multivariate odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were estimated for relative odds of immediate reconstruction versus mastectomy alone.
The percentage of patients undergoing outpatient mastectomy ranged from 20.4 to 23.9 % of the total number of all patients undergoing mastectomy. Whereas immediate inpatient reconstruction increased from 29.2 to 41.6 % (overall rate 35.5 %), the proportion of outpatients undergoing reconstruction only increased from 7.7 to 10.3 % (overall rate 9.1 %). Similar to the inpatient setting, in multivariate analysis, age, insurance status, race/ethnicity, and type of hospital were significantly associated with the use of reconstruction in the outpatient setting.
A substantial number of patients undergo outpatient mastectomy with low rates of reconstruction. Although the choice of an outpatient mastectomy may certainly represent a selection bias for those not choosing reconstruction, an increase in the use of outpatient mastectomy may result in decreases in the use of post-mastectomy reconstruction.
PMCID: PMC3819218  PMID: 22990647
3.  Impact of modern chemotherapy on the survival of women presenting with de novo metastatic breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:435.
Data that directly associate utilization of novel systemic therapies with survival trends in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are limited. In the setting of de novo MBC, large registry analyses cite positive temporal trends in survival, but the extent to which advances in systemic therapy have contributed to these gains is not clear.
The City of Hope Cancer Registry was used to identify a consecutive series of patients with de novo MBC who received their first line of therapy between 1985 and 2004. Comprehensive clinicopathologic and treatment-related data were collected for each patient. Univariate analyses were conducted via Cox regression to identify factors associated with improved survival. Multivariate analysis was also conducted via Cox regression and the stepwise procedure was used to identify independent predictors of survival.
A total of 324 patients with de novo MBC were identified. After application of exclusion criteria, including the sole presence of supraclavicular node metastasis, 274 patients were retained in the analysis. The treatment-related characteristics associated with improved survival included: use of endocrine therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.60, 95%CI 0.47-0.77; P<0.0001), and addition of bisphosphonates (HR 0.70, 95%CI 0.52-0.96; P=0.02). However, recipients of novel cytotoxic agents (defined as drugs approved for MBC since 1994) had no improvement in survival relative to patients treated with older cytotoxic agents. On multivariate analysis, age (< 50), receipt of aromatase inhibitors, and receipt of zoledronic acid were independent predictors of survival.
The overall survival of women with de novo metastatic breast cancer has improved over the past 20 years. However, the contribution of conventional cytotoxic agents to this improvement is minimal.
PMCID: PMC3526502  PMID: 23020297
Chemotherapy; Endocrine therapy; Survival; Metastatic breast cancer; Stage IV
4.  Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast: An Overview 
Papillary carcinoma of the breast represents approximately 0.5% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. The prevalence of both invasive and in situ papillary carcinoma seems to be greater older postmenopausal women, and -in relative terms-in males. Histologic features of the tumor include cellular proliferations surrounding fibrovascular cores, with or without invasion. In this review, characteristics of both in situ and invasive disease are outlined. Immunohistochemical analyses of papillary carcinoma suggest the utility of markers such as smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, calponin, p63 and high molecular weight keratins, which can characterize the myoepithelial cell layer. With respect to radiographic evaluation of papillary carcinoma, ultrasonography is the most extensively studied imaging modality, though magnetic resonance mammography has potential utility. Available data suggest improved outcome for papillary carcinoma as compared to invasive ductal carcinoma. Treatment-related information for patients with papillary carcinoma is limited, and patterns noted in available series suggest a variable approach to this disease. The scarcity of information underscores the need for further treatment- and outcome-related studies in papillary carcinoma of the breast.
PMCID: PMC3244819  PMID: 20524058
papillary; breast carcinoma; male breast cancer; breast ultrasonography; breast magnetic resonance mammography

Results 1-4 (4)