Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a common feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which is associated with intrinsic muscular abnormalities. One of the most consistently reported alterations is a shift from fibre type I to II in the vastus lateralis of these patients. Surprisingly, the relationship between this shift and the severity and phenotype of COPD remains unclear. A study was conducted to determine whether vastus lateralis muscle fibre type proportions are associated with COPD disease severity and to provide reference values for the proportions of fibre types in the vastus lateralis in COPD.
A systematic review and a meta‐analysis were conducted in which muscle fibre type data and markers of disease severity were collected from the literature.
The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) and body mass index were positively associated with the proportion of type I fibres in COPD. A proportion of 51% for vastus lateralis fibre type I and 13% for fibre type IIX were calculated from the combined data as normal values for patients with typical GOLD stage 3–4 COPD aged 60–70 years. Based on these reference values, a proportion of fibre type I <27% and of fibre type IIX >29% were defined as pathologically abnormal.
This review sheds new light on the relationship between skeletal muscle abnormalities and important hallmarks of the disease in severe COPD, and identifies absence of data in GOLD stages 1–2. This review also provides reference values on fibre type composition for diagnostic purposes in COPD.
Pulmonary rehabilitation can improve the functional capacity, but has a variable effect on the low fat‐free mass (FFM) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Pulmonary rehabilitation would not affect catabolic drives such as systemic inflammation and also protein breakdown.
Patients (n = 40) were studied at the start of an 8‐week in‐patient pulmonary rehabilitation programme, at the end of the programme and 4 weeks later. FFM and functional capacity (quadriceps strength, handgrip strength and peak workload) were assessed. Pseudouridine (PSU) urinary excretion (cellular protein breakdown) and inflammatory status were determined. Healthy participants had a single baseline assessment (n = 18).
PSU, (IL)‐6 and soluble tumour necrosis factor (sTNF)α R75 were increased in patients compared with healthy participants, whereas FFM and functional capacity were reduced (all p<0.01). PSU was inversely related to both FFM and skeletal muscle function. FFM and functional parameters increased with rehabilitation, but PSU and inflammatory status were unaffected. The gain in FFM was lost 4 weeks after the completion of rehabilitation (p<0.01).
The anabolic effect of pulmonary rehabilitation improved FFM, but it did not reverse the increased protein breakdown or systemic inflammation. Thus, on cessation of pulmonary rehabilitation the FFM gains were lost owing to a loss of anabolic drive.
It is established that cigarette smoke (CS) causes irreversible oxidations in lung epithelial cells, and can lead to their death. However, its impact on reversible and physiologically relevant redox-dependent protein modifications remains to be investigated. Glutathione is an important antioxidant against inhaled reactive oxygen species as a direct scavenger, but it can also covalently bind protein thiols upon mild oxidative stress to protect them against irreversible oxidation. This posttranslational modification, known as S-glutathionylation, can be reversed under physiological conditions by the enzyme, glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1). The aim of this study was to investigate if CS modifies Grx1, and if this impacts on protein S-glutathionylation and epithelial cell death. Upon exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CS extract (CSE), a decrease in Grx1 mRNA and protein expression was observed, in conjunction with decreased activity and increased protein S-glutathionylation. Using mass spectrometry, irreversible oxidation of recombinant Grx1 by CSE and acrolein was demonstrated, which was associated with attenuated enzyme activity. Furthermore, carbonylation of Grx1 in epithelial cells after exposure to CSE was shown. Overexpression of Grx1 attenuated CSE-induced increases in protein S-glutathionylation and increased survival. Conversely, primary tracheal epithelial cells of mice lacking Grx1 were more sensitive to CS-induced cell death, with corresponding increases in protein S-glutathionylation. These results show that CS can modulate Grx1, not only at the expression level, but can also directly modify Grx1 itself, decreasing its activity. These findings demonstrate a role for the Grx1/S-glutathionylation redox system in CS-induced lung epithelial cell death.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; cigarette smoke; cell death; glutaredoxin; protein S-glutathionylation
The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a critical regulator of inflammation and immunity, and is negatively regulated via S-glutathionylation. The inhibitory effect of S-glutathionylation is overcome by glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1), which under physiological conditions catalyses deglutathionylation and enhances NF-κB activation. The mechanisms whereby expression of the Glrx1 gene is regulated remain unknown. Here we examined the role of NF-κB in regulating activation of Glrx1. Transgenic mice which express a doxycyclin-inducible constitutively active version of inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta (CA-IKKβ) demonstrate elevated expression of Grx1. Transient transfection of CA-IKKβ also resulted in significant induction of Grx1. A 2kb region Glrx1 promoter that contains two putative NF-κB binding sites was activated by CA-IKKβ, RelA/p50, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed binding of RelA to the promoter of Glrx1 in response to LPS. Stimulation of C10 lung epithelial cells with LPS caused transient increases in Grx1 mRNA expression, and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of IKKβ. Overexpression of Grx1 decreased S-glutathionylation of IKKβ, prolonged NF-κB activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the Glrx1 gene is positively regulated by NF-κB, and suggests a feed forward mechanism to promote NF-κB signaling by decreasing S-glutathionylation.
S-glutathionylation; Nuclear Factor kappa B; Glutaredoxin; Lung; Inhibitory kappa B kinase
Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess health status and care dependency in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic heart failure (CHF) and to identify correlates of an impaired health status.
The following outcomes were assessed in outpatients with advanced COPD (n = 105) or CHF (n = 80): clinical characteristics; general health status (EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D); Assessment of Quality of Life instrument (AQoL); Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)); disease-specific health status (St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ)); physical mobility (timed ‘Up and Go’ test); and care dependency (Care Dependency Scale).
Patients with advanced COPD or CHF have an impaired health status and may be confronted with care dependency. Multiple regression analyses have shown that physical and psychological symptoms, care dependency and number of drugs were correlated with impaired health status in advanced COPD or CHF, while demographic and clinical characteristics like age, gender, disease severity and co-morbidities were not correlated.
Clinical care should regularly assess symptom burden and care dependency to identify patients with advanced COPD or CHF at risk for an impaired health status.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Chronic heart failure; Health status; Health-related quality of life; Care dependency; Functional status
The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes—emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness—and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD, CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10 in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness is positively associated with fat mass index in both subjects with and without COPD.
Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have a significantly lower peak aerobic capacity compared to healthy subjects, and, may therefore experience more inconvenience during the performance of domestic activities of daily life (ADLs). To date, the extent to which task-related oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation and symptoms during the performance of ADLs in CHF patients is different than in healthy subjects remains uncertain. General demographics, pulmonary function, body composition and peak aerobic capacity were assessed in 23 CHF outpatients and 20 healthy peers. In addition, the metabolic requirement of five simple self-paced domestic ADLs was assessed using a mobile oxycon. Task-related oxygen uptake (ml/min) was similar or lower in CHF patients compared to healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with CHF performing ADLs consumed oxygen at a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity than healthy subjects (p < 0.05). For example, getting dressed resulted in a mean task-related oxygen uptake of 49% of peak aerobic capacity, while sweeping the floor resulted in a mean task-related oxygen uptake of 52% of peak aerobic capacity, accompanied by significantly higher Borg symptom scores for dyspnea and fatigue (p < 0.05). Patients with CHF experience use a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity, peak ventilation and peak heart rate during the performance of simple self-paced domestic ADL than their healthy peers. These findings represent a necessary step in improving our understanding of improving what troubles patients the most—not being able to do the things that they could when they were healthy.
Self-paced; ADL; Domestic; Chronic heart failure
Oxidative stress is a hallmark of asthma, and increased levels of oxidants are considered markers of the inflammatory process. Most studies to date addressing the role of oxidants in the etiology of asthma were based on the therapeutic administration of low m.w. antioxidants or antioxidant mimetic compounds. To directly address the function of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the pathophysiology of allergic airway disease, we comparatively evaluated mice systemically overexpressing catalase, a major antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, and C57BL/6 strain matched controls in the OVA model of allergic airways disease. Catalase transgenic mice had 8-fold increases in catalase activity in lung tissue, and had lowered DCF oxidation in tracheal epithelial cells, compared with C57BL/6 controls. Despite these differences, both strains showed similar increases in OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a levels, comparable airway and tissue inflammation, and identical increases in procollagen 1 mRNA expression, following sensitization and challenge with OVA. Unexpectedly, mRNA expression of MUC5AC and CLCA3 genes were enhanced in catalase transgenic mice, compared with C57BL/6 mice subjected to Ag. Furthermore, when compared with control mice, catalase overexpression increased airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine both in naive mice as well as in response to Ag. In contrast to the prevailing notion that hydrogen peroxide is positively associated with the etiology of allergic airways disease, the current findings suggest that endogenous hydrogen peroxide serves a role in suppressing both mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness.
Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA) in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient-relevant characteristics were assessed. Prevalence of osteoporosis was determined. Characteristics of patients without osteoporosis were compared to patients with osteoporosis on local DXA. Results. A higher prevalence of osteoporosis was found using local DXA compared to whole-body DXA (39% versus 21%). One quarter of patients without osteoporosis on whole body-DXA did have osteoporosis on local DXA. Significant differences in patient characteristics between patients without osteoporosis based on both DXA measurements and patients with osteoporosis based on local DXA only were found. Conclusions. DXA of the hip and lumbar spine should be made to assess bone mineral density in COPD patients. The lowest T-score of these locations should be used to diagnose osteoporosis.
Glutaredoxins (GRX) are antioxidant enzymes that preferentially catalyze the reduction of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides. The formation of mixed disulfides with GSH is known as S-glutathionylation, a post-translational modification that is emerging as an important mode of redox signaling. Since asthma is a disease that is associated with increased oxidative stress and altered antioxidant defenses, we investigated the expression of GRX in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Sensitization and challenge of C57BL/6 mice with ovalbumin resulted in increased expression of GRX1 mRNA, as well as increased amounts of GRX1 protein and total GRX activity in the lung. Because GRX1 expression is prominent in bronchial epithelium, we isolated primary epithelial cells from mouse trachea to investigate the presence of GRX. Primary tracheal epithelial cells were found to express both GRX1 and 2 mRNA and detectable GRX activity. Treatment with IFN-γ increased the expression of GRX1 and overall GRX activity, resulting in attenuation of protein S-glutathionylation. In contrast, TGF-β1 caused decreased GRX1 expression and overall GRX activity, leading to markedly enhanced protein S-glutathionylation. GRX1 joins the cadre of antioxidant defenses known to be modulated during allergic airway inflammation.
glutaredoxin; asthma; epithelium; IFN-γ; TGF-β
Cachexia, whether assessed by body mass index (BMI) or fat-free mass index (FFMI), affects a significant proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is an independent risk factor for increased mortality, increased emphysema, and more severe airflow obstruction. The variable development of cachexia among patients with COPD suggests a role for genetic susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to determine genetic susceptibility loci involved in the development of low BMI and FFMI in subjects with COPD. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI was conducted in three independent cohorts of European descent with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II or higher COPD: Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-Points (ECLIPSE; n = 1,734); Norway-Bergen cohort (n = 851); and a subset of subjects from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT; n = 365). A genome-wide association of FFMI was conducted in two of the cohorts (ECLIPSE and Norway). In the combined analyses, a significant association was found between rs8050136, located in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity–associated (FTO) gene, and BMI (P = 4.97 × 10−7) and FFMI (P = 1.19 × 10−7). We replicated the association in a fourth, independent cohort consisting of 502 subjects with COPD from COPDGene (P = 6 × 10−3). Within the largest contributing cohort of our analysis, lung function, as assessed by forced expiratory volume at 1 second, varied significantly by FTO genotype. Our analysis suggests a potential role for the FTO locus in the determination of anthropomorphic measures associated with COPD.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genetics; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epidemiology; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease metabolism; genome-wide association study
Patients with COPD use a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity during the performance of domestic activities of daily life (ADLs) compared to healthy peers, accompanied by a higher degree of task-related symptoms. To date, the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the task-related metabolic demands remains unknown in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the effects of BMI on metabolic load during the performance of 5 consecutive domestic ADLs in patients with COPD.
Ninety-four COPD patients and 20 healhty peers performed 5 consecutive, self-paced domestic ADLs putting on socks, shoes and vest; folding 8 towels; putting away groceries; washing up 4 dishes, cups and saucers; and sweeping the floor for 4 min. Task-related oxygen uptake and ventilation were assessed using a mobile oxycon, while Borg scores were used to assess task-related dyspnea and fatigue.
1. Relative task-related oxygen uptake after the performance of domestic ADLs was increased in patients with COPD compared to healthy elderly, whereas absolute oxygen uptake is similar between groups; 2. Relative oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake per kilogram fat-free mass were comparable between BMI groups; and 3. Borg symptom scores for dyspnea en fatigue were comparable between BMI groups.
Patients with COPD in different BMI groups perform self-paced domestic ADLs at the same relative metabolic load, accompanied by comparable Borg symptom scores for dyspnea and fatigue.
Glutaredoxins (Grx) are redox enzymes that remove glutathione bound to protein thiols, know as S-glutathionylation (PSSG). PSSG is a reservoir of GSH and can affect the function of proteins. It inhibits the NF-κB pathway and LPS aspiration in Grx1 KO mice with decreased inflammatory cytokine levels. In this study we investigated whether absence of Grx1 similarly repressed cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in an exposure model in mice. Cigarette smoke exposure for four weeks decreased lung PSSG levels, but increased PSSG in lavaged cells and lavage fluid (BALF). Grx1 KO mice had increased levels of PSSG in lung tissue, BALF and BAL cells in response to smoke compared to wt mice. Importantly, levels of multiple inflammatory mediators in the BALF were decreased in Grx1 KO animals following cigarette smoke exposure compared to wt mice, as were levels of neutrophils, dendritic cells and lymphocytes. On the other hand, macrophage numbers were higher in Grx1 KO mice in response to smoke. Although cigarette smoke in vivo caused inverse effects in inflammatory and resident cells with respect to PSSG, primary macrophages and epithelial cells cultured from Grx1 KO mice both produced less KC compared to cells isolated from WT mice after smoke extract exposure. In this manuscript, we provide evidence that Grx1 has an important role in regulating cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation which seems to diverge from its effects on total PSSG. Secondly, these data expose the differential effect of cigarette smoke on PSSG in inflammatory versus resident lung cells.
To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects.
79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability) and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%).
COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.
Rationale: Several family-based studies have identified genetic linkage for lung function and airflow obstruction to chromosome 2q.
Objectives: We hypothesized that merging results of high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in four separate populations would lead to the identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility genes on chromosome 2q.
Methods: Within the chromosome 2q linkage region, 2,843 SNPs were genotyped in 806 COPD cases and 779 control subjects from Norway, and 2,484 SNPs were genotyped in 309 patients with severe COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial and 330 community control subjects. Significant associations from the combined results across the two case-control studies were followed up in 1,839 individuals from 603 families from the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN) and in 949 individuals from 127 families in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study.
Measurements and Main Results: Merging the results of the two case-control analyses, 14 of the 790 overlapping SNPs had a combined P < 0.01. Two of these 14 SNPs were consistently associated with COPD in the ICGN families. The association with one SNP, located in the gene XRCC5, was replicated in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, with a combined P = 2.51 × 10−5 across the four studies, which remains significant when adjusted for multiple testing (P = 0.02). Genotype imputation confirmed the association with SNPs in XRCC5.
Conclusions: By combining data from COPD genetic association studies conducted in four independent patient samples, we have identified XRCC5, an ATP-dependent DNA helicase, as a potential COPD susceptibility gene.
emphysema; genetic linkage; metaanalysis; single nucleotide polymorphism