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1.  Impact of occupational exposures on exacerbation of asthma: a population-based asthma cohort study 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2016;16:148.
Background
Asthma is a prevalent chronic disease and occupation contributes to approximately 15 % of cases among adults. However, there are still few studies on risk factors for work-exacerbated asthma. The current study investigated the association between asthma exacerbations and occupational exposures.
Methods
The study comprised all currently working adults (n = 1356) who reported ever asthma in prior population-based cohorts. All subjects completed a questionnaire about exposures, occupations and exacerbations of asthma. Exposure to high and low molecular weight agents, irritating agents and asthmagens were classified using the asthma-specific job exposure matrix for northern Europe (N-JEM). Severe exacerbation of asthma was defined as sought emergency care at a hospital, admitted to a hospital overnight, or made an urgent visit to a primary care physician or district medical office due to breathing problems during the last 12 months. Moderate exacerbation was defined as both being not severe exacerbation and an additional visit to a primary care physician or district medical office, or had extra treatments with corticosteroid tablets. Mild exacerbation was defined as being neither severe nor moderate exacerbation, and increasing usage of inhaled corticosteroids.
Multiple logistic regression was applied to investigate the association between exacerbation of asthma and occupational exposures while adjusting for potential confounders.
Results
Approximately 26 % of the working asthmatics reported exacerbation, and more than two-thirds of them had moderate or severe exacerbation. From 23 to 49 % of the asthmatics reported occupational exposure to a variety of different types of agents. Exposure to any gas, smoke or dust (OR 1.7[95 % CI 1.2–2.6]) was associated with severe exacerbation of asthma, as were organic dust (OR 1.7[1.2–2.5]), dampness and mold (OR 1.8[1.2–2.7]), cold conditions (OR 1.7[1.1–2.7]), and a physically strenuous job (OR 1.6[1.03–2.3]). Asthmagens and low molecular weight agents classified by the N-JEM were associated with mild exacerbation, with OR 1.6[1.1–2.5] and OR 2.2[1.1–4.4], respectively.
Conclusions
Self-reported exposure to any gas, smoke or dust, organic dust, dampness and mold, cold conditions and physically strenuous work, and jobs handling low molecular weight agents were associated with exacerbation of asthma. Reduction of these occupational exposures may help to reduce exacerbation of asthma.
doi:10.1186/s12890-016-0306-1
PMCID: PMC5109668  PMID: 27842581
Asthma; Exacerbation; Job exposure matrix; Occupational exposure; Work exacerbated asthma; Workplace
2.  The APOE Genotype in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(7):e0158985.
Introduction
Amyloid plaque has been reported in brain biopsies from patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and proposed as a significant feature of the pathophysiology. Presence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Aims
To compare the distribution of APOE genotype in iNPH patients with an age-matched population-based control group and with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients.
Methods
APOE genotype frequencies were determined in 77 iNPH patients (50 men and 27 women, mean age 71.7 years) diagnosed with iNPH, a sample of 691 AD patients and 638 age-matched population controls (299 men and 339 women) from the INTERGENE cohort.
Results
The APOE distribution did not differ significantly between the iNPH patients and the control population. The per e4-allele odds-ratio (OR) of iNPH was given by OR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.50, 1.60) that was considerably smaller than the per-allele OR of AD, OR = 5.34 (4.10, 7.00).
Conclusion
The results suggest that the APOE-related risk of AD in patients with iNPH is not higher than in the general population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158985
PMCID: PMC4956274  PMID: 27441602
3.  Vital capacity and COPD: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) 
Background
Spirometric diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/vital capacity (VC), either as a fixed value <0.7 or below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Forced vital capacity (FVC) is a proxy for VC. The first aim was to compare the use of FVC and VC, assessed as the highest value of FVC or slow vital capacity (SVC), when assessing the FEV1/VC ratio in a general population setting. The second aim was to evaluate the characteristics of subjects with COPD who obtained a higher SVC than FVC.
Methods
Subjects (n=1,050) aged 50–64 years were investigated with FEV1, FVC, and SVC after bronchodilation. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPDFVC was defined as FEV1/FVC <0.7, GOLDCOPDVC as FEV1/VC <0.7 using the maximum value of FVC or SVC, LLNCOPDFVC as FEV1/FVC below the LLN, and LLNCOPDVC as FEV1/VC below the LLN using the maximum value of FVC or SVC.
Results
Prevalence of GOLDCOPDFVC was 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2–12.0) and the prevalence of LLNCOPDFVC was 9.5% (95% CI 7.8–11.4). When estimates were based on VC, the prevalence became higher; 16.4% (95% CI 14.3–18.9) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.5–17.9) for GOLDCOPDVC and LLNCOPDVC, respectively. The group of additional subjects classified as having COPD based on VC, had lower FEV1, more wheeze and higher residual volume compared to subjects without any COPD.
Conclusion
The prevalence of COPD was significantly higher when the ratio FEV1/VC was calculated using the highest value of SVC or FVC compared with using FVC only. Subjects classified as having COPD when using the VC concept were more obstructive and with indications of air trapping. Hence, the use of only FVC when assessing airflow limitation may result in a considerable under diagnosis of subjects with mild COPD.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S104644
PMCID: PMC4859418  PMID: 27194908
obstructive; epidemiology; general population; air trapping; spirometry; slow vital capacity; asthma
4.  Dietary intake, leisure time activities and obesity among adolescents in Western Sweden: a cross-sectional study 
Nutrition Journal  2016;15:41.
Background
Overweight and obesity among adolescents are increasing worldwide. Risk factors include dietary intake characteristics and high levels of physical inactivity. In Sweden, few large comprehensive population-based surveys of dietary intake and lifestyle among adolescents have been carried out. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to describe dietary intake and food choices as well as leisure time activities in relation to overweight and obesity in a total sample of all schoolchildren aged 15 years in Western Sweden.
Methods
In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to all 21,651 adolescents born in 1992 in Västra Götaland Region, Sweden. Participation rate was 54.3 % (50.7 % girls/49.3 % boys). The questionnaire included a 73-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and questions on lifestyle. Results were evaluated against the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and Swedish indicators of healthy diet and exercise habits. Associations with concurrent overweight and obesity were evaluated in multiple linear regression analysis.
Results
Among girls, 49.5 % reached the goal of consuming fruit and vegetables at least daily, whereas for boys the figure was 34.4 %. Among both sexes, 15 % reached the goal of consuming fish at least twice weekly. Two-thirds of both sexes reached the goal of regular moderate or vigorous physical activity weekly. In total, 12.4 % were overweight and 2.4 % were obese. More girls than boys were underweight, whereas more boys than girls were overweight or obese (p < 0.001). Boys exhibited a more frequent intake of sodas and concentrated fruit juices, milk 3 % fat, bread and potatoes and fast food (p < 0.001). Frequent intake of candies and chocolate was reported by both sexes. Among girls and boys, living in rural areas, living in apartments and reporting no frequent leisure time physical activity were significant risk factors for being overweight or obese, also when adjusted for other risk factors.
Conclusions
Dietary habits of adolescents in Western Sweden warrant improvements. Public health actions should be taken to increase consumption of fruit, vegetables and fish, and decrease consumption of sodas and candies and also to increase frequency of physical activity. These actions may be helpful in reducing risks for overweight and obesity.
doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0160-2
PMCID: PMC4840851  PMID: 27103118
Diet; Obesity; Adolescents; Physical activity; Sweden; Cross-sectional study
5.  Job strain and resting heart rate: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish random working sample 
BMC Public Health  2016;16:228.
Background
Numerous studies have reported an association between stressing work conditions and cardiovascular disease. However, more evidence is needed, and the etiological mechanisms are unknown. Elevated resting heart rate has emerged as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relation to work-related stress. This study therefore investigated the association between job strain, job control, and job demands and resting heart rate.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected men and women in Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden (West county of Sweden) (n = 1552). Information about job strain, job demands, job control, heart rate and covariates was collected during the period 2001–2004 as part of the INTERGENE/ADONIX research project. Six different linear regression models were used with adjustments for gender, age, BMI, smoking, education, and physical activity in the fully adjusted model. Job strain was operationalized as the log-transformed ratio of job demands over job control in the statistical analyses.
Results
No associations were seen between resting heart rate and job demands. Job strain was associated with elevated resting heart rate in the unadjusted model (linear regression coefficient 1.26, 95 % CI 0.14 to 2.38), but not in any of the extended models. Low job control was associated with elevated resting heart rate after adjustments for gender, age, BMI, and smoking (linear regression coefficient −0.18, 95 % CI −0.30 to −0.02). However, there were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model.
Conclusions
Low job control and job strain, but not job demands, were associated with elevated resting heart rate. However, the observed associations were modest and may be explained by confounding effects.
doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2900-9
PMCID: PMC4779265  PMID: 26944255
Work-related stress; Job strain; Job demands; Job control; Resting heart rate
6.  Nonpsychotic Mental Disorders in Teenage Males and Risk of Early Stroke 
Stroke  2016;47(3):814-821.
Background and Purpose—
Although the incidence of stroke is on the decline worldwide, this is not the case for early stroke. We aimed to determine whether nonpsychotic mental disorder at the age of 18 years is a risk factor for early stroke, and if adolescent cardiovascular fitness and intelligence quotient might attenuate the risk.
Method—
Population-based Swedish cohort study of conscripts (n=1 163 845) who enlisted during 1968 to 2005. At conscription, 45 064 males were diagnosed with nonpsychotic mental disorder. Risk of stroke during follow-up (5–42 years) was calculated with Cox proportional hazards models. Objective baseline measures of fitness and cognition were included in the models in a second set of analyses.
Results—
There were 7770 first-time stroke events. In adjusted models, increased risk for stroke was observed in men diagnosed with depressive/neurotic disorders (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.37), personality disorders (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.29–1.78), and alcohol/substance use disorders (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.41–1.83) at conscription. Corresponding figures for fatal stroke were HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.79; HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.60 to 3.19; and HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.63 to 2.96. HRs for stroke were attenuated when fitness level and intelligence quotient were introduced. Associations remained significant for personality disorders and alcohol/substance use in the fully adjusted models. The interaction term was statistically significant for fitness but not for intelligence quotient.
Conclusions—
Our findings suggest that fitness may modify associations between nonpsychotic disorders and stroke. It remains to be clarified whether interventions designed to improve fitness in mentally ill youth can influence future risk of early stroke.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.012504
PMCID: PMC4760382  PMID: 26846861
adolescent; exercise; mental disorders; population; stroke
7.  The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0147518.
Background
There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar.
Aims
To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD.
Methods
A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed.
Results
Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10–3.18), asthma (1.62 [1.23–2.14]) and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28–3.18]). There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25–1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10–3.18]), and there was no heterogeneity between centres (pheterogeneity = 0.49). None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (pinteraction = 0.004).
Conclusions
A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147518
PMCID: PMC4725728  PMID: 26808490
8.  Non-response in a cross-sectional study of respiratory health in Norway 
BMJ Open  2016;6(1):e009912.
Objectives
Declining participation in epidemiological studies has been reported in recent decades and may lead to biased prevalence estimates and selection bias. The aim of the study was to identify possible causes and effects of non-response in a population-based study of respiratory health in Norway.
Design
The Telemark study is a longitudinal study that began with a cross-sectional survey in 2013.
Setting
In 2013, a random sample of 50 000 inhabitants aged 16–50 years, living in Telemark county, received a validated postal questionnaire. The response rate was 33%. In this study, a random sample of 700 non-responders was contacted first by telephone and then by mail.
Outcome measures
Response rates, prevalence and OR of asthma and respiratory symptoms based on exposure to vapours, gas, dust or fumes (VGDF) and smoking. Causes of non-response.
Results
A total of 260 non-responders (37%) participated. Non-response was associated with younger age, male sex, living in a rural area and past smoking. The prevalence was similar for responders and non-responders for physician-diagnosed asthma and several respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of chronic cough and use of asthma medication was overestimated in the Telemark study, and adjusted prevalence estimates were 17.4% and 5%, respectively. Current smoking was identified as a risk factor for respiratory symptoms among responders and non-responders, while occupational VGDF exposure was a risk factor only among responders. The Breslow-Day test detected heterogeneity between productive cough and occupational VGDF exposure among responders.
Conclusions
The Telemark study provided valid estimates for physician-diagnosed asthma and several respiratory symptoms, while it was necessary to adjust prevalence estimates for chronic cough and use of asthma medication. Reminder letters had little effect on risk factor associations. Selection bias should be considered in future investigations of the relationship between respiratory outcomes and exposures.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009912
PMCID: PMC4716229  PMID: 26739738
RESPIRATORY MEDICINE (see Thoracic Medicine)
9.  Psychosocial job conditions, fear avoidance beliefs and expected return to work following acute coronary syndrome: a cross-sectional study of fear-avoidance as a potential mediator 
BMC Public Health  2015;15:1263.
Background
Despite improvements in treatment, acute coronary syndrome remains a substantial cause for prolonged sick absences and premature retirement. Knowledge regarding what benefits return to work is limited, especially the effect of psychological processes and psychosocial work factors. The purposes of this cross-sectional study were two-fold: to examine associations between adverse psychosocial job conditions and fear-avoidance beliefs towards work, and to determine whether such beliefs mediated the relationship between work conditions and expected return to work in acute coronary syndrome survivors.
Methods
Study inclusion criteria: acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina diagnosis, below 65 years of age, being a resident in the West county of Sweden and currently working. In all, 509 individuals (21.8 % women) accepted study participation and for whom all data of study interest were available for analysis. Psychosocial work variables; job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance, were assessed with standard questionnaire batteries. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships between psychosocial factors and fear-avoidance, and to evaluate mediator effects for fear-avoidance. Both total sample and gender stratified analyses were calculated.
Results
Fear-avoidance beliefs about work were associated to psychosocial job environments characterized by high strain (β 1.4; CI 1.2–1.6), active and passive work and high effort-reward imbalance (β 0.6; CI 0.5–0.7). Further, such beliefs also mediated the relationship between adverse work conditions and expected time for return to work. However, these results were only observed in total sample analyses or among or male participants. For women only high strain was linked to fear-avoidance, and these relationships became non-significant when entering chosen confounders.
Conclusions
This cross-sectional study showed that acute coronary syndrome survivors, who laboured under adverse psychosocial work conditions, held fear-avoidance beliefs towards their workplace. Furthermore, these beliefs mediated the relationships between - high strained or high effort-reward imbalanced work - and expected return to work. However, mentioned results were primarily found among men, which could results from few female study participants or gender differences in return to work mechanisms. Still, an earlier return to work might be promoted by interventions focusing on improved psychosocial work conditions and cognitive behavioural therapy targeting fear-avoidance beliefs.
doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2599-z
PMCID: PMC4687316  PMID: 26689711
Job demand-control; Effort-reward imbalance
10.  Incidence of new-onset wheeze: a prospective study in a large middle-aged general population 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2015;15:163.
Background
Wheeze is a very common respiratory symptom, which is associated with several factors and diseases. Studies on incidence of new-onset wheeze in general adult populations are rare. The present prospective study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of new-onset wheeze, and predictors for wheeze, in a general, middle-aged population.
Methods
Individuals, born 1943–1973, who had participated in a previous Swedish study in 1993 (n = 15,813), were mailed a new respiratory questionnaire in 2003. The questionnaire, which included items about respiratory symptoms, atopy, and smoking was answered by 11,463 (72 %). Incidence rates of new-onset wheeze were calculated. Cox regression analyses were performed with incident wheeze as an event and person-years under observation as dependent variable.
Results
Among those free of wheeze at baseline (n = 8885), there were 378 new cases of wheeze during the study period (1993–2003). The incidence rate was 4.3/1000 person-years. The adjusted risk was increased in relation to smoking (HR 2.1;95 % CI 1.7–2.7), ex-smoking (HR 1.4;95 % CI 1.1–1.9), young age (HR 1.7;95 % CI 1.3–2.2), chronic bronchitis (HR 2.3;95 % CI 0.96–5.7), and rhinitis (HR 1.8;95 % CI 1.4–2.2) at baseline, and body mass index ≥30 (HR 1.9;95 % CI 1.5–2.6) at follow-up.
Conclusions
This is a unique study that presents an incidence rate for new-onset wheeze in a middle-aged, general population sample previously free of adult wheeze. The results indicate that new-onset wheeze is quite common in this age group. Health care staff should bear this in mind since new-onset wheeze could be one of the earliest symptoms of severe respiratory disease. Special attention should be paid to patients with a smoking history, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis or obesity.
doi:10.1186/s12890-015-0158-0
PMCID: PMC4681169  PMID: 26673917
Wheeze; Incidence; Prospective; Predictors; Smoking; Chronic bronchitis; Rhinitis; Obesity
11.  The effect of occupational noise exposure on tinnitus and sound-induced auditory fatigue among obstetrics personnel: a cross-sectional study 
BMJ Open  2015;5(3):e005793.
Objective
There is a lack of research on effects of occupational noise exposure in traditionally female-dominated workplaces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess risk of noise-induced hearing-related symptoms among obstetrics personnel.
Design
A cross-sectional study was performed at an obstetric ward in Sweden including a questionnaire among all employees and sound level measurements in 61 work shifts at the same ward.
Participants
115 female employees responded to a questionnaire (72% of all 160 employees invited).
Main outcome measures
Self-reported hearing-related symptoms in relation to calculated occupational noise exposure dose and measured sound levels.
Results
Sound levels exceeded the 80 dB LAeq limit for protection of hearing in 46% of the measured work shifts. One or more hearing-related symptoms were reported by 55% of the personnel. In logistic regression models, a significant association was found between occupational noise exposure dose and tinnitus (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.09) and sound-induced auditory fatigue (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07). Work-related stress and noise annoyance at work were reported by almost half of the personnel. Sound-induced auditory fatigue was associated with work-related stress and noise annoyance at work, although stress slightly missed significance in a multivariable model. No significant interactions were found.
Conclusions
This study presents new results showing that obstetrics personnel are at risk of noise-induced hearing-related symptoms. Current exposure levels at the workplace are high and occupational noise exposure dose has significant effects on tinnitus and sound-induced auditory fatigue among the personnel. These results indicate that preventative action regarding noise exposure is required in obstetrics care and that risk assessments may be needed in previously unstudied non-industrial communication-intense sound environments.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005793
PMCID: PMC4386270  PMID: 25818267
OCCUPATIONAL & INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE; OBSTETRICS
12.  The association between job strain and atrial fibrillation in Swedish men 
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether psychosocial stress defined as high strain based on the job demand–control model increases risk for atrial fibrillation.
Methods
The present study comprised 6035 men born between 1915 and 1925 and free from previous coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and stroke at baseline (1974–1977). Work-related psychosocial stress was measured using a job-exposure matrix for the job demand–control model based on occupation at baseline. The participants were followed from baseline examination until death, hospital discharge or 75 years of age, using the Swedish national register on cause of death and the Swedish hospital discharge register for any registration for atrial fibrillation, resulting in the identification of 436 cases. Data were analysed with Cox regression models with atrial fibrillation as the outcome using high strain as the explanatory variable adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and socioeconomic status.
Results
There was an increased risk for atrial fibrillation in relation to high strain (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.75). When the four categories of the job-strain model were included and low strain was used as reference, the risk for high strain decreased (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.82).
Conclusions
Exposure to occupational psychosocial stress defined as high strain may be associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation. The observed increase in risk is small and residual confounding may also be present.
doi:10.1136/oemed-2014-102256
PMCID: PMC4345978  PMID: 25523937
13.  Norovirus GII.4 Detection in Environmental Samples from Patient Rooms during Nosocomial Outbreaks 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2014;52(7):2352-2358.
Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00266-14
PMCID: PMC4097690  PMID: 24759712
14.  Hymenoptera venom allergy: work disability and occupational impact of venom immunotherapy 
BMJ Open  2014;4(8):e005593.
Objectives
Little is known about the Hymenoptera venom allergy impact on work ability and the effect of venom immunotherapy (VIT) on work. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of work disability in patients treated with VIT and the effects of VIT on occupational functioning.
Methods
181 patients, aged 18–71 years, treated with VIT while working, were investigated by questionnaire. Participants were classified into employed and self-employed and, based on work exposure to Hymenoptera, into three risk categories: high risk, occasionally high risk and low risk. Work disability was defined as having to have changed jobs/tasks and/or suffered economic loss because of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Predictors of work disability were assessed in logistic regression models.
Results
31 (17%) patients reported work disability. Being self-employed and having the severe reaction at work were associated with work disability (p<0.01). Having a high-risk job for exposure to Hymenoptera was a significant predictor of work disability (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.04 to 6.75). 24% of patients referred a positive effect of VIT on work. Determinants of the positive effect of VIT on work were having a high-risk job for exposure to hymenoptera (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.52 to 8.51) and having already concluded VIT (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.30 to 6.14).
Conclusions
Hymenoptera venom allergy could determine work disability. Patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy having a high-risk job for exposure to Hymenoptera seem to have higher risk of work disability and refer more frequently a positive effect of VIT on work.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005593
PMCID: PMC4127938  PMID: 25099935
Epidemiology; Occupational & Industrial Medicine
15.  Psychosocial work environment, job mobility and gender differences in turnover behaviour: a prospective study among the Swedish general population 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:605.
Background
Throughout the literature, substantial evidence supports associations between poor psychosocial work characteristics and a variety of ill-health outcomes. Yet, few reports strategies workers carry out to improve detrimental work conditions and consequently their health, such as changing jobs. The aim of this study was to examine if adverse psychosocial work exposure, as measured with the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, could predict job mobility over a 5 years observation period.
Method
Participants were working men and women (n = 940; 54.3% women), aged 24–60 years from the population of Gothenburg and surrounding metropolitan area. Job demand-control and effort-reward variables were compared with independent t-tests and chi2-test in persons with and without job mobility. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse whether psychosocial factors could predict job mobility. All regression analyses were stratified by gender.
Results
Exposure to a combination of high demands-low control or high imbalance between effort and reward was related to increased odds of changing jobs (OR 1.63; CI 1.03-2.59 and OR 1.46; CI 1.13-1.89 respectively). When analysing men and women separately, men had a higher OR of changing jobs when exposed to either high demands-low control (OR 2.72; CI 1.24-5.98) or high effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.72) compared to reference values. The only significant associations for women was slightly decreased odds for turnover in high reward jobs (OR 0.96; CI 0.92-0.99).
Conclusions
The results indicate that workers will seek to improve poor work environment by changing jobs. There were notable gender differences, where men tended to engage in job mobility when exposed to adverse psychosocial factors, while women did not. The lack of measures for mechanisms driving job mobility was a limitation of this study, thus preventing conclusions regarding psychosocial factors as the primary source for job mobility.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-605
PMCID: PMC4073185  PMID: 24927628
Job demand-control; Effort-reward imbalance; Job mobility
16.  Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe 
European Journal of Epidemiology  2014;29(6):429-437.
Background The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Objective Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood. Methods Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989–1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945–1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000–2002 and 2010–2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration. Results Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p < 0.01). Sub-analyses showed that the protective effect was only present among subjects born after 1952 (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.11; 0.61). Conclusion This study suggests a protective effect from livestock farm living in early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.
doi:10.1007/s10654-014-9922-3
PMCID: PMC4065648  PMID: 24916994
Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; Microbial exposure; Rural/urban environments; Hygiene hypothesis
17.  Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies – patterns and implications 
Background
Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA).
Methods
Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR).
Results
Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95% CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10–20 pack years)).
Conclusions
We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-14-63
PMCID: PMC4021078  PMID: 24739530
18.  Validity of a questionnaire-based diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a general population-based study 
Background
The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on airflow obstruction. In epidemiological studies, spirometric data have often been lacking and researchers have had to rely almost solely on questionnaire answers. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of questionnaire answers to detect COPD.
Methods
A sample of the Swedish general population without physician-diagnosed asthma was randomly selected and interviewed using a respiratory questionnaire. All eligible subjects aged 25–75 years (n = 3892) performed spirometry for detection of airflow obstruction using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) or American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated to define diagnostic accuracy of questionnaire answers.
Results
The sensitivity of the question “Have you been diagnosed by a physician as having COPD or emphysema?” in detecting airflow obstruction was 5.7% using GOLD, and 9.8% using ATS/ERS, criteria; specificity was 99.7% for GOLD and 99.5% for ATS/ERS. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were higher for the question compared to self-reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis in identifying subjects with airflow obstruction.
Conclusions
The high specificity and good PPV suggest that the question “Have you been diagnosed by a physician as having COPD or emphysema?” is more likely to identify those who do not have airflow obstruction, whereas the low sensitivity of this question could underestimate the real burden of COPD in the general population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-14-49
PMCID: PMC3994476  PMID: 24650114
Airway obstruction; Spirometry; Sensitivity; Accuracy; ATS/ERS; GOLD
19.  A longitudinal general population-based study of job strain and risk for coronary heart disease and stroke in Swedish men 
BMJ Open  2014;4(3):e004355.
Objectives
The aim was to investigate whether psychosocial stress based on the job-demand-control (JDC) model increased the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke.
Setting
Swedish men.
Participants
The Primary Prevention Study (PPS) comprises 6070 men born between 1915 and 1925 free from previous history of CHD and stroke at baseline (1974–1977). Psychosocial workplace exposure was assessed using a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for the JDC model based on occupation at baseline. The participants were followed from baseline examination, until death, until hospital discharge or until 75 years of age, whichever occurred first, using the Swedish national register on cause of death and the Swedish hospital discharge register for non-fatal and fatal stroke and CHD events. Cox regression models were used with stroke or CHD as the outcome, using JDC model and age as explanatory variables, as well as stratified models with regard to smoking, self-reported stress, socioeconomic status, obesity, hypertension and diabetes.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Risk for stroke and CHD.
Results
There was an increased risk (HR) for CHD in relation to high strain (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70). The risk was further increased among ever-smokers and among blue-collar workers. There was a relation between low control and increased risk for CHD (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.35). There was no increased risk for stroke in any of the JDC categories.
Conclusions
Exposure to occupational psychosocial stress defined as job strain or low control increased the risk for CHD, especially among smokers and blue-collar workers. There was no increased risk for stroke in any of the JDC categories.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004355
PMCID: PMC3948640  PMID: 24589825
20.  Natural History of Perceived Food Hypersensitivity and IgE Sensitisation to Food Allergens in a Cohort of Adults 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85333.
Background
No longitudinal studies exist on the natural history of food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in adults.
Objective
To examine the natural history of food hypersensitivity, the natural history of IgE sensitisation to food allergens and to investigate the risk factors for new onset food hypersensitivity.
Methods
Food hypersensitivity was questionnaire-assessed in 2307 individuals (aged 20–45 years) from Iceland and Sweden during the European Community Respiratory Health Survey both at baseline and follow-up 9 years later. IgE food and aeroallergen sensitisation were assessed in a subgroup of these individuals (n = 807). Values of 0.35 kU/L and above were regarded as positive sensitisation.
Results
Food hypersensitivity was reported by 21% of the subjects and this proportion remained unchanged at follow-up (p = 0.58). Fruits, nuts and vegetables were the three most common causes of food hypersensitivity, with a similar prevalence at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in general by 56% (p<0.001) and IgE sensitisation to peanut decreased in particular by 67% (p = 0.003). The prevalence of timothy grass IgE sensitisation decreased by 15% (p = 0.003) while cat, mite and birch IgE sensitisation did not decrease significantly. Female sex, rhinitis, eczema and presence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens were independently associated with new onset food hypersensitivity.
Conclusion
The prevalence of food hypersensitivity remained unchanged while the prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in adults over a 9-year follow-up period. The decrease in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens was considerably larger than the change in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085333
PMCID: PMC3888405  PMID: 24427301
21.  Effects of smoking, gender and occupational exposure on the risk of severe pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based case-control study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(1):e004018.
Objectives
To estimate the effects of smoking, gender and occupational exposure on the risk of developing severe pulmonary fibrosis (PF), including dose-response and interaction effects.
Methods
National case–control study of 171 patients (cases) who had started a long-term oxygen therapy for PF in Sweden between February 1997 and April 2000, and 719 random control participants from the general population. Of these cases, 137 had probable idiopathic PF (IPF). The ORs for smoking, gender and occupational exposure were estimated using Mantel-Haenszel analysis and conditional logistic regression, controlling for age and year of diagnosis.
Results
The adverse effect of smoking was amplified by male gender and occupational exposure, OR 4.6 (95% CI 2.1 to 10.3) for PF, and OR 3.0 (1.3 to 6.5) for IPF, compared with in non-exposed women. Higher cumulative smoking exposure was linearly associated with increased risks. Compared with smoking less than 10 pack-years, smoking ≥20 pack-years was associated with increased risk of PF and IPF, OR 2.6 (1.4 to 4.9) and OR 2.5 (1.3 to 5.0), respectively.
Conclusions
Smoking has a dose-related association with increased risk of severe PF. Men with a history of smoking and occupational exposure is a particular risk group for developing severe PF.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004018
PMCID: PMC3902328  PMID: 24413348
22.  Incidence of chronic bronchitis in a cohort of pulp mill workers with repeated gassings to sulphur dioxide and other irritant gases 
Environmental Health  2013;12:113.
Background
Occupational exposure to irritants is associated with chronic bronchitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether repeated peak exposures with respiratory symptoms, gassings, to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other irritant gases could increase the risk of chronic bronchitis.
Methods
The study population comprised 3,060 Swedish pulp mill workers (84% males) from a cohort study, who completed a comprehensive questionnaire with items on chronic bronchitis symptoms, smoking habit, occupational history, and specific exposures, including gassings. 2,037 have worked in sulphite mills. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for the observation period, 1970–2000, in relation to exposure and the frequency of repeated gassings to SO2 and other irritant gases were calculated.
Results
The incidence rate for chronic bronchitis among workers with repeated gassings was 3.5/1,000 person-years compared with 1.5/1,000 person-years among unexposed workers (HR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.1). The risk was even higher in the subgroup with frequent gassings (HR 3.2, 95% CI 2.0-5.2), particularly among never-smokers (HR 8.7, 95% CI 3.5-22).
Conclusions
Repeated gassings to irritant gases increased the incidence of chronic bronchitis in our study population during and after work in pulp mills, supporting the hypothesis that occupational exposures to irritants negatively affect the airways. These results underscore the importance of preventive actions in this work environment.
doi:10.1186/1476-069X-12-113
PMCID: PMC3882105  PMID: 24354705
(MeSH); Bronchitis; Chronic; Irritants; Sulphur dioxide; Paper
23.  Explaining the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general working population in Sweden 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:545.
Background
Some previous studies have proposed potential explanatory factors for the social gradient in sickness absence. Yet, this research area is still in its infancy and in order to comprise the full range of socioeconomic positions there is a need for studies conducted on random population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if somatic and mental symptoms, mental wellbeing, job strain, and physical work environment could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees.
Methods
This study was conducted on one random working population sample (n = 2763) and one sample of newly sick-listed cases of employees (n = 3044), drawn from the same random general population in western Sweden. Explanatory factors were self-rated 'Somatic and mental symptoms', 'Mental well-being', 'job strain', and 'physical work conditions' (i.e. heavy lifting and awkward work postures). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used.
Results
Somatic and mental symptoms, mental well-being, and job strain, could not explain the association between socioeconomic position and sickness absence in both women and men. However, physical work conditions explained the total association in women and much of this association in men. In men the gradient between Non-skilled manual OR 1.76 (1.24;2.48) and Skilled manual OR 1.59 (1.10;2.20), both in relation to Higher non-manual, remained unexplained.
Conclusions
The present study strengthens the scientific evidence that social differences in physical work conditions seem to comprise a key element of the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Future studies should try to identify further predictors for this gradient in men.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-545
PMCID: PMC3683342  PMID: 23738703
25.  Higher Risk of Wheeze in Female than Male Smokers. Results from the Swedish GA2LEN Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54137.
Background
Women who smoke have higher risk of lung function impairment, COPD and lung cancer than smoking men. An influence of sex hormones has been demonstrated, but the mechanisms are unclear and the associations often subject to confounding. This was a study of wheeze in relation to smoking and sex with adjustment for important confounders.
Methods
In 2008 the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) questionnaire was mailed to 45.000 Swedes (age 16–75 years), and 26.851 (60%) participated. “Any wheeze”: any wheeze during the last 12 months. “Asthmatic wheeze”: wheeze with breathlessness apart from colds.
Results
Any wheeze and asthmatic wheeze was reported by 17.3% and 7.1% of women, vs. 15.8% and 6.1% of men (both p<0.001). Although smoking prevalence was similar in both sexes, men had greater cumulative exposure, 16.2 pack-years vs. 12.8 in women (p<0.001). Most other exposures and characteristics associated with wheeze were significantly overrepresented in men. Adjusted for these potential confounders and pack-years, current smoking was a stronger risk factor for any wheeze in women aged <53 years, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.85 (1.56–2.19) vs. 1.60 (1.30–1.96) in men. Cumulative smoke exposure and current smoking each interacted significantly with female sex, aOR 1.02 per pack-year (p<0.01) and aOR 1.28 (p = 0.04) respectively. Female compared to male current smokers also had greater risk of asthmatic wheeze, aOR 1.53 vs. 1.03, interaction aOR 1.52 (p = 0.02). These interactions were not seen in age ≥53 years.
Discussion
In addition to the increased risk of COPD and lung cancer female, compared to male, smokers are at greater risk of significant wheezing symptoms in younger age. This became clearer after adjustment for important confounders including cumulative smoke exposure. Estrogen has previously been shown to increase the bioactivation of several compounds in tobacco smoke, which may enhance smoke-induced airway inflammation in fertile women.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054137
PMCID: PMC3554721  PMID: 23357876

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