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1.  Real-Time Ichthyoplankton Drift in Northeast Arctic Cod and Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27367.
Background
Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1st range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations.
Conclusions/Significance
The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled distributions are already utilized during research surveys to estimate coverage success of sampled biota and immediately after spills from ships at sea.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027367
PMCID: PMC3217961  PMID: 22110633
2.  Diagnostic validity of fatal cerebral strokes and coronary deaths in mortality statistics: an autopsy study 
European Journal of Epidemiology  2010;26(3):221-228.
Mortality statistics represent important endpoints in epidemiological studies. The diagnostic validity of cerebral stroke and ischemic heart disease recorded as the underlying cause of death in Norwegian mortality statistics was assessed by using mortality data of participants in the Bergen Clinical Blood Pressure Study in Norway and autopsy records from the Gade Institute in Bergen. In the 41 years of the study (1965–2005) 4,387 subjects had died and 1,140 (26%) had undergone a post mortem examination; 548 (12%) died from cerebral stroke and 1,120 (24%) from ischemic heart disease according to the mortality statistics, compared to 113 (10%) strokes and 323 (28%) coronary events registered in the autopsy records. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of fatal cerebral strokes in the mortality statistics were 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.66, 0.83] and 0.86 [0.77, 0.92], respectively, whereas those of coronary deaths were 0.87 [0.84, 0.91] and 0.85 [0.81, 0.89] respectively. Cohen’s Kappa coefficients were 0.78 [0.72, 0.84] for stroke and 0.80 [0.76, 0.84] for coronary deaths. In addition to female gender and increasing age at death, cerebral stroke was a negative predictor of an autopsy being carried out (odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% CI [0.54, 0.87]), whereas death from coronary heart disease was not (OR 1.14, 95% CI [0.97, 1,33]), both adjusted for gender and age at death. There was substantial agreement between mortality statistics and autopsy findings for both fatal strokes and coronary deaths. Selection for post mortem examinations was associated with age, gender and cause of death.
doi:10.1007/s10654-010-9535-4
PMCID: PMC3079075  PMID: 21170572
Autopsy; Stroke; Ischemic heart disease; Death certification; Validity; Mortality statistics
3.  The HELLP syndrome: Clinical issues and management. A Review 
Background
The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. The present review highlights occurrence, diagnosis, complications, surveillance, corticosteroid treatment, mode of delivery and risk of recurrence.
Methods
Clinical reports and reviews published between 2000 and 2008 were screened using Pub Med and Cochrane databases.
Results and conclusion
About 70% of the cases develop before delivery, the majority between the 27th and 37th gestational weeks; the remainder within 48 hours after delivery. The HELLP syndrome may be complete or incomplete. In the Tennessee Classification System diagnostic criteria for HELLP are haemolysis with increased LDH (> 600 U/L), AST (≥ 70 U/L), and platelets < 100·109/L. The Mississippi Triple-class HELLP System further classifies the disorder by the nadir platelet counts. The syndrome is a progressive condition and serious complications are frequent. Conservative treatment (≥ 48 hours) is controversial but may be considered in selected cases < 34 weeks' gestation. Delivery is indicated if the HELLP syndrome occurs after the 34th gestational week or the foetal and/or maternal conditions deteriorate. Vaginal delivery is preferable. If the cervix is unfavourable, it is reasonable to induce cervical ripening and then labour. In gestational ages between 24 and 34 weeks most authors prefer a single course of corticosteroid therapy for foetal lung maturation, either 2 doses of 12 mg betamethasone 24 hours apart or 6 mg or dexamethasone 12 hours apart before delivery. Standard corticosteroid treatment is, however, of uncertain clinical value in the maternal HELLP syndrome. High-dose treatment and repeated doses should be avoided for fear of long-term adverse effects on the foetal brain. Before 34 weeks' gestation, delivery should be performed if the maternal condition worsens or signs of intrauterine foetal distress occur. Blood pressure should be kept below 155/105 mmHg. Close surveillance of the mother should be continued for at least 48 hours after delivery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-8
PMCID: PMC2654858  PMID: 19245695

Results 1-3 (3)