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1.  HPV DNA testing improves CIN2+ risk stratification and detection of CIN2+ in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL. A population-based follow-up study from Western Norway 
Cancer Medicine  2013;3(1):182-189.
In Norway, Pap smears with atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are triaged after 6 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of implementing human papillomavirus (HPV) test (2005) in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL in a cohort of women from Western Norway. After a survey of 119,469 cervical Pap smears during 2005–2007, a total of 1055 women with an index ASCUS or LSIL were included in the study and followed up for 3–6 years with respect to progression into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). Overall sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ with HPV testing and cytology was 96% and 72%, respectively. The sensitivity for detection of CIN2+ was not affected by age, but the specificity of the HPV test increased with age. Thus, for the age groups <34 years, 34–50 years, and >50 years, the specificity of a positive HPV test to detect CIN2+ was 47%, 71%, and 82%, respectively. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ in women with positive cytology, positive HPV test, negative cytology, negative HPV test, or negative HPV and cytology tests were 52%, 41%, 8%, 1.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. HPV testing resulted in a net 22% increased detection of CIN2+. Fifty-six percent of CIN2+ was detected at an earlier time point with HPV testing in triage. Implementation of HPV testing in delayed triage of ASCUS and LSIL improved the stratification of CIN2+ risk and increased CIN2+ detection and at an earlier time point than with triage by cytology alone.
PMCID: PMC3930403  PMID: 24403090
ASCUS; cervical cancer; delayed triage; HPV; LSIL
2.  Diagnostic validity of fatal cerebral strokes and coronary deaths in mortality statistics: an autopsy study 
European Journal of Epidemiology  2010;26(3):221-228.
Mortality statistics represent important endpoints in epidemiological studies. The diagnostic validity of cerebral stroke and ischemic heart disease recorded as the underlying cause of death in Norwegian mortality statistics was assessed by using mortality data of participants in the Bergen Clinical Blood Pressure Study in Norway and autopsy records from the Gade Institute in Bergen. In the 41 years of the study (1965–2005) 4,387 subjects had died and 1,140 (26%) had undergone a post mortem examination; 548 (12%) died from cerebral stroke and 1,120 (24%) from ischemic heart disease according to the mortality statistics, compared to 113 (10%) strokes and 323 (28%) coronary events registered in the autopsy records. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of fatal cerebral strokes in the mortality statistics were 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.66, 0.83] and 0.86 [0.77, 0.92], respectively, whereas those of coronary deaths were 0.87 [0.84, 0.91] and 0.85 [0.81, 0.89] respectively. Cohen’s Kappa coefficients were 0.78 [0.72, 0.84] for stroke and 0.80 [0.76, 0.84] for coronary deaths. In addition to female gender and increasing age at death, cerebral stroke was a negative predictor of an autopsy being carried out (odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% CI [0.54, 0.87]), whereas death from coronary heart disease was not (OR 1.14, 95% CI [0.97, 1,33]), both adjusted for gender and age at death. There was substantial agreement between mortality statistics and autopsy findings for both fatal strokes and coronary deaths. Selection for post mortem examinations was associated with age, gender and cause of death.
PMCID: PMC3079075  PMID: 21170572
Autopsy; Stroke; Ischemic heart disease; Death certification; Validity; Mortality statistics
3.  Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:115.
Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients.
Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3)) was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim). The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis.
Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41) from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis.
Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival.
Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC2851691  PMID: 20346122

Results 1-3 (3)