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1.  Early life environment and snoring in adulthood 
Respiratory Research  2008;9(1):63.
To our knowledge, no studies of the possible association of early life environment with snoring in adulthood have been published. We aimed to investigate whether early life environment is associated with snoring later in life.
A questionnaire including snoring frequency in adulthood and environmental factors in early life was obtained from 16,190 randomly selected men and women, aged 25–54 years, in Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Estonia (response rate 74%).
A total of 15,556 subjects answered the questions on snoring. Habitual snoring, defined as loud and disturbing snoring at least 3 nights a week, was reported by 18%. Being hospitalized for a respiratory infection before the age of two years (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.59), suffering from recurrent otitis as a child (OR = 1.18; 95%CI 1.05–1.33), growing up in a large family (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 1.002–1.07) and being exposed to a dog at home as a newborn (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.12–1.42) were independently related to snoring later in life and independent of a number of possible confounders in adulthood. The same childhood environmental factors except household size were also related with snoring and daytime sleepiness combined.
The predisposition for adult snoring may be partly established early in life. Having had severe airway infections or recurrent otitis in childhood, being exposed to a dog as a newborn and growing up in a large family are environmental factors associated with snoring in adulthood.
PMCID: PMC2536663  PMID: 18721453
2.  Gender differences in the association between C-reactive protein, lung function impairment, and COPD 
Individuals with COPD have systemic inflammation that can be assessed by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP). In this paper we evaluated whether CRP is related to COPD, lung function and rate of lung function decline.
We included 1237 randomly selected subjects (mean age 42, range 28–56 years) from three centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: Reykjavik, Uppsala and Tartu. CRP was measured at the end of the follow-up (mean 8.3 years) and the values were divided into 4 quartiles.
Fifty-three non-asthmatic subjects fulfilled spirometric criteria for COPD (FEV1/FVC < 70%). COPD occurred more often in the 4th CRP quartile (OR (95% CI) 3.21 (1.13–9.08)) after adjustment for age, gender, body weight and smoking. High CRP levels were related to lower FEV1 values in both men (−437 (−596, −279) mL) and women (−144 (−243, −44) mL). The negative association between CRP and FEV1 was significantly larger in men than women (p = 0.04). The decline in FEV1 was larger (16 (5, 27) mL) in men with high CRP levels whereas no significant association between CRP and FEV1 decline was found in women.
Higher CRP values are significantly associated with COPD and lower lung function in men and women. In men higher CRP values are related to a larger decline in FEV1.
PMCID: PMC2699969  PMID: 18268938
C-reactive protein; COPD; body mass index; spirometry; ECRHS

Results 1-2 (2)