Two recent metaanalyses of genome-wide association studies conducted by the CHARGE and SpiroMeta consortia identified novel loci yielding evidence of association at or near genome-wide significance (GWS) with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. We hypothesized that a subset of these markers would also be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. Thirty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 genes in 11 previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions were tested for association with COPD status in four COPD case-control study samples (NETT/NAS, the Norway case-control study, ECLIPSE, and the first 1,000 subjects in COPDGene; total sample size, 3,456 cases and 1,906 controls). In addition to testing the 32 spirometric GWS SNPs, we tested a dense panel of imputed HapMap2 SNP markers from the 17 genes located near the 32 GWS SNPs and in a set of 21 well studied COPD candidate genes. Of the previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions, three loci harbored SNPs associated with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate: the 4q24 locus including FLJ20184/INTS12/GSTCD/NPNT, the 6p21 locus including AGER and PPT2, and the 5q33 locus including ADAM19. In conclusion, markers previously associated at or near GWS with spirometric measures were tested for association with COPD status in data from four COPD case-control studies, and three loci showed evidence of association with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate.
Lung disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms is increasing. A greater understanding of the host immune response to MAC organisms will provide a foundation to develop novel therapies for these recalcitrant infections. IL-32 is a newly described pro-inflammatory cytokine that enhances host immunity against various microbial pathogens. Cytokines that induce IL-32 such as interferon-gamma, IL-18, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are of considerable importance to mycobacterial immunity. We performed immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis to quantify IL-32 expression in the lungs of 11 patients with MAC lung disease and 10 controls with normal lung tissues. After normalizing for basement membrane length, there was a profound increase in IL-32 expression in the airway epithelial cells of the MAC-infected lungs compared with controls. Following normalization for alveolar surface area, there was a trend toward increased IL-32 expression in type II alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages in the lungs of MAC patients. Human airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) infected with M. avium produced IL-32 by a nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent mechanism. In both BEAS-2B cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages, exogenous IL-32γ significantly reduced the growth of intracellular M. avium. This finding was corroborated by an increase in the number of intracellular M. avium recovered from THP-1 monocytes silenced for endogenous IL-32 expression. The anti-mycobacterial effect of IL-32 may be due, in part, to increased apoptosis of infected cells. These findings indicate that IL-32 facilitates host defense against MAC organisms but may also contribute to the airway inflammation associated with MAC pulmonary disease.
cytokine; immunohistochemistry; non-tuberculous mycobacteria
Recent studies in animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) suggest that antioxidant treatments may be beneficial for the disease. However, the mechanisms by which these drugs improve the course of BPD are not completely known. Alpha1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) is one of the major serine protease inhibitors in human plasma that has anti-elastase and anti-apoptotic activities. Both activities of α1-AT are dependent on its reactive site loop (RSL), which is highly susceptible to oxidative inactivation. In this study, we investigated the elastase inhibitory activity of α1-AT in two different baboon models of BPD, the “new BPD” and the “severe BPD” models, and determined the effect of treatment with a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP), on the elastase inhibitory activity of α1-AT in the severe BPD model. Our results demonstrate the presence of sufficient elastase inhibitory activity of the airway α1-AT in the new, but not the severe BPD model. Treatment of severe BPD group baboons with the catalytic antioxidant MnTE-2-PyP resulted in augmentation of the elastase inhibitory activity of α1-AT. These findings suggest that prevention of the oxidative inactivation of α1-AT may be one of the mechanisms by which antioxidant therapy improves the pulmonary outcomes in animal models of severe BPD.
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and COPD severity. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and a Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH) locus associated with smoking cessation in multiple populations.
To identify SNPs associated with lifetime average and current CPD, age at smoking initiation, and smoking cessation in COPD subjects.
GWAS were conducted in 4 independent cohorts encompassing 3,441 ever-smoking COPD subjects (GOLD stage II or higher). Untyped SNPs were imputed using HapMap (phase II) panel. Results from all cohorts were meta-analyzed.
Several SNPs near the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 and in an intergenic region on chromosome 2q21 showed associations with age at smoking initiation, both with the lowest p=2×10−7. No SNPs were associated with lifetime average CPD, current CPD or smoking cessation with p<10−6. Nominally significant associations with candidate SNPs within alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors 3/5 (CHRNA3/CHRNA5; e.g. p=0.00011 for SNP rs1051730) and Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6; e.g. p=2.78×10−5 for a nonsynonymous SNP rs1801272) regions were observed for lifetime average CPD, however only CYP2A6 showed evidence of significant association with current CPD. A candidate SNP (rs3025343) in the DBH was significantly (p=0.015) associated with smoking cessation.
We identified two candidate regions associated with age at smoking initiation in COPD subjects. Associations of CHRNA3/CHRNA5 and CYP2A6 loci with CPD and DBH with smoking cessation are also likely of importance in the smoking behaviors of COPD patients.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); Genome Wide Association study (GWAS); smoking behaviors; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
Rationale: The characterization of young adults who develop late-onset diseases may augment the detection of novel genes and promote new pathogenic insights.
Methods: We analyzed data from 2,500 individuals of African and European ancestry in the COPDGene Study. Subjects with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 70, age < 55 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted) were compared with older subjects with COPD (n = 306, age > 64 yr, FEV1 < 50% predicted).
Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with severe, early-onset COPD were predominantly females (66%), P = 0.0004. Proportionally, early-onset COPD was seen in 42% (25 of 59) of African Americans versus 14% (45 of 317) of non-Hispanic whites, P < 0.0001. Other risk factors included current smoking (56 vs. 17%, P < 0.0001) and self-report of asthma (39 vs. 25%, P = 0.008). Maternal smoking (70 vs. 44%, P = 0.0001) and maternal COPD (23 vs. 12%, P = 0.03) were reported more commonly in subjects with early-onset COPD. Multivariable regression analysis found association with African American race, odds ratio (OR), 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–24; P = 0.0007); maternal COPD, OR, 4.7 (95% CI, 1.3–17; P = 0.02); female sex, OR, 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1–8.7; P = 0.03); and each pack-year of smoking, OR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.0; P = 0.03).
Conclusions: These observations support the hypothesis that severe, early-onset COPD is prevalent in females and is influenced by maternal factors. Future genetic studies should evaluate (1) gene-by-sex interactions to address sex-specific genetic contributions and (2) gene-by-race interactions.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; female; African Americans
Severe hypoxemia is a major complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Long term oxygen therapy is beneficial in hypoxemic COPD patients. However, the clinical and radiographic predictors of hypoxemia and the use of oxygen therapy are not well described. This study aimed to find the correlates of resting hypoxemia and the pattern of oxygen use in moderate to severe COPD patients.
Subjects with GOLD stage II or higher COPD from the first 2500 COPDGene subjects were included in this analysis. All subjects were current or ex-smokers between ages 45 and 80. Severe resting hypoxemia was defined as room air oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 88%. Use of supplemental oxygen therapy was determined by questionnaire.
Eighty-two of 1060 COPD subjects (7.7%) had severe resting hypoxemia. Twenty-one of the 82 (25.6%) were not using continuous supplemental oxygen. Female sex, higher BMI, lower FEV1, and enrollment in Denver were independent risk factors for hypoxemia; emphysema severity on quantitative chest CT scan did not predict hypoxemia. 132 of 971(13.6%) subjects without severe resting hypoxemia were using continuous supplemental oxygen. In non-hypoxemic oxygen users, Denver recruitment, higher BMI, lower FEV1, and more severe dyspnea were associated with the use of continuous oxygen.
A large number of COPD patients without severe hypoxemia were using supplemental oxygen therapy and the pattern of oxygen use was affected by factors other than resting SpO2 and emphysema severity. Longitudinal data will be required to reveal the effects of oxygen therapy in this subgroup.
Hypoxemia; long-term oxygen therapy; COPD; emphysema
Rationale: A significant proportion of smokers have lung function impairment characterized by a reduced FEV1 with a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio. These smokers are a poorly characterized group due to their systematic exclusion from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) studies.
Objectives: To characterize the clinical, functional, and radiographic features of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-Unclassified (FEV1/FVC ≥ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) and lower limits of normal (LLN)-unclassified (FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN and FEV1 < LLN) subjects compared to smokers with normal lung function and subjects with COPD.
Methods: Data from the first 2,500 subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study were analyzed. All subjects had 10 or more pack-years of smoking and were between the ages of 45 and 80 years. Multivariate regression models were constructed to determine the clinical and radiological variables associated with GOLD-Unclassified (GOLD-U) and LLN-Unclassified status. Separate multivariate regressions were performed in the subgroups of subjects with complete radiologic measurement variables available.
Measurements and Main Results: GOLD-U smokers account for 9% of smokers in COPDGene and have increased body mass index (BMI), a disproportionately reduced total lung capacity, and a higher proportion of nonwhite subjects and subjects with diabetes. GOLD-U subjects exhibit increased airway wall thickness compared to smoking control subjects and decreased gas trapping and bronchodilator responsiveness compared to subjects with COPD. When LLN criteria were used to define the “unclassified” group, African American subjects were no longer overrepresented. Both GOLD-U and LLN-Unclassified subjects demonstrated a wide range of lung function impairment, BMI, and percentage of total lung emphysema.
Conclusions: Subjects with reduced FEV1 and a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio are a heterogeneous group with significant symptoms and functional limitation who likely have a variety of underlying etiologies beyond increased BMI.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT000608764).
lung diseases, classification; lung diseases, diagnosis; lung diseases, epidemiology
Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) infections, particularly those causing chronic lung diseases, are becoming more prevalent worldwide. M. abscessus infections are difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance. Thus, new treatment options are urgently needed. M. abscessus are intracellular pathogens that primarily infect macrophages and fibroblasts. Because this bacterium has only recently been identified as a separate species, very little is known about M. abscessus-host interactions and how M. abscessus growth is regulated. Oxidative stress has long been shown to inhibit growth of bacterial organisms. However, some intracellular bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, grow well in oxidizing environments. In the present study, we show that M. abscessus infection causes the host cell environment to become more oxidizing. Furthermore, we show that a more oxidizing environment leads to enhanced growth of M. abscessus inside macrophages. In the presence of the antioxidants, MnTE-2-PyP (chemical name: Manganese (II) Meso-Tetrakis-(N-Methylpyridinium-2-yl) porphryin) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), M. abscessus growth is inhibited. These results lead us to postulate that antioxidants may aid in the treatment for M. abscessus infections.
Mycobacterium abscessus; oxidation; antioxidants; MnTE-2-PyP; N-acetyl-L-cysteine; THP-1; alveolar macrophages; smoking
The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma.
We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study.
119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p = 0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p = 0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness.
Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history.
Airway hyperresponsiveness; asthma; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; emphysema; Exacerbation; Gas-trapping
Rationale: The role of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) in the development or progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is controversial.
Objectives: To evaluate the association between statin use and ILD.
Methods: We used regression analyses to evaluate the association between statin use and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in a large cohort of smokers from COPDGene. Next, we evaluated the effect of statin pretreatment on bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice and explored the mechanism behind these observations in vitro.
Measurements and Main Results: In COPDGene, 38% of subjects with ILA were taking statins compared with 27% of subjects without ILA. Statin use was positively associated in ILA (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–2.50; P = 0.04) after adjustment for covariates including a history of high cholesterol or coronary artery disease. This association was modified by the hydrophilicity of statin and the age of the subject. Next, we demonstrate that statin administration aggravates lung injury and fibrosis in bleomycin-treated mice. Statin pretreatment enhances caspase-1–mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro; the latter responses were abolished in bone marrow–derived macrophages isolated from Nlrp3−/− and Casp1−/− mice. Finally, we provide further insights by demonstrating that statins enhance NLRP3-inflammasome activation by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation in macrophages.
Conclusions: Statin use is associated with ILA among smokers in the COPDGene study and enhances bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in the mouse through a mechanism involving enhanced NLRP3-inflammasome activation. Our findings suggest that statins may influence the susceptibility to, or progression of, ILD.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00608764).
statins; interstitial lung disease; pulmonary fibrosis; inflammasome; mitochondrial reactive oxygen species
Because of reduced antioxidant defenses, β-cells are especially vulnerable to free radical and inflammatory damage. Commonly used antirejection drugs are excellent at inhibiting the adaptive immune response; however, most are harmful to islets and do not protect well from reactive oxygen species and inflammation resulting from islet isolation and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to determine whether redox modulation, using the catalytic antioxidant (CA), FBC-007, can improve in vivo islet function post-transplant.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The abilities of redox modulation to preserve islet function were analyzed using three models of ischemia-reperfusion injury: 1) streptozotocin (STZ) treatment of human islets, 2) STZ-induced murine model of diabetes, and 3) models of syngeneic, allogeneic, and xenogeneic transplantation.
Incubating human islets with catalytic antioxidant during STZ treatment protects from STZ-induced islet damage, and systemic delivery of catalytic antioxidant ablates STZ-induced diabetes in mice. Islets treated with catalytic antioxidant before syngeneic, suboptimal syngeneic, or xenogeneic transplant exhibited superior function compared with untreated controls. Diabetic murine recipients of catalytic antioxidant–treated allogeneic islets exhibited improved glycemic control post-transplant and demonstrated a delay in allograft rejection. Treating recipients systemically with catalytic antioxidant further extended the delay in allograft rejection.
Pretreating donor islets with catalytic antioxidant protects from antigen-independent ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple transplant settings. Treating systemically with catalytic antioxidant protects islets from antigen-independent ischemia-reperfusion injury and hinders the antigen-dependent alloimmune response. These results suggest that the addition of a redox modulation strategy would be a beneficial clinical approach for islet preservation in syngeneic, allogeneic, and xenogeneic transplantation.
The genetic risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still largely unknown. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of limited size have identified several novel risk loci for COPD at CHRNA3/CHRNA5/IREB2, HHIP and FAM13A; additional loci may be identified through larger studies. We performed a GWAS using a total of 3499 cases and 1922 control subjects from four cohorts: the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE); the Normative Aging Study (NAS) and National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT); Bergen, Norway (GenKOLS); and the COPDGene study. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms with additional markers imputed using 1000 Genomes data; results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified a new genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 19q13 (rs7937, OR = 0.74, P = 2.9 × 10−9). Genotyping this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and another nearby SNP in linkage disequilibrium (rs2604894) in 2859 subjects from the family-based International COPD Genetics Network study (ICGN) demonstrated supportive evidence for association for COPD (P = 0.28 and 0.11 for rs7937 and rs2604894), pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (P = 0.08 and 0.04) and severe (GOLD 3&4) COPD (P = 0.09 and 0.017). This region includes RAB4B, EGLN2, MIA and CYP2A6, and has previously been identified in association with cigarette smoking behavior.
COPDGeneis a multicenter observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD. It will also characterize chest CT phenotypes in COPD subjects, including assessment of emphysema, gas trapping, and airway wall thickening. Finally, subtypes of COPD based on these phenotypes will be used in a comprehensive genome-wide study to identify COPD susceptibility genes.
COPDGene will enroll 10,000 smokers with and without COPD across the GOLD stages. Both Non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects are included in the cohort. Inspiratory and expiratory chest CT scans will be obtained on all participants. In addition to the cross-sectional enrollment process, these subjects will be followed regularly for longitudinal studies. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) will be done on an initial group of 4000 subjects to identify genetic variants associated with case-control status and several quantitative phenotypes related to COPD. The initial findings will be verified in an additional 2000 COPD cases and 2000 smoking control subjects, and further validation association studies will be carried out.
COPDGene will provide important new information about genetic factors in COPD, and will characterize the disease process using high resolution CT scans. Understanding genetic factors and CT phenotypes that define COPD will potentially permit earlier diagnosis of this disease and may lead to the development of treatments to modify progression.
Sustained oxidative stress is a known sequel to focal cerebral ischemia. This study examined the effects of treatment with a single dose or sustained infusion of the redox-modulating MnPorphyrin MnIIITDE-2-ImP5+ on outcome from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the rat. Normothermic rats were subjected to 90 min MCAO followed by 90 min reperfusion and then were treated with a single intracerebroventricular dose of MnIIITDE-2-ImP5+. Neurologic and histologic outcomes were assessed at 1 or 8 weeks post-ischemia. A single dose of MnIIITDE-2-ImP5+ caused a dose-dependent improvement in histologic and neurologic outcome when assessed 1 week post-ischemia. MnIIITDE-2-ImP5+ afforded preservation of brain aconitase activity at 5.5 hrs after reperfusion onset, consistent with its known antioxidant properties. MnIIITDE-2-ImP5+ also attenuated post-ischemic NF-κ B activation. Evidence for effects on cerebral infarct size and neurologic function had completely dissipated when rats were allowed to survive for 8 weeks post-ischemia. In contrast, a 1-week continuous intracerebroventricular MnIIITDE-2-ImP5+ infusion caused persistent and substantive reduction in both cerebral infarct size and neurologic deficit at 8 weeks post-ischemia. Pharmacologic modulation of post-ischemic oxidative stress is likely to require sustained intervention for enduring efficacy in improving neurologic and histologic outcome from a transient focal ischemic insult.
Oxidative damage is a major cause of lung injury during systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In the present study, expression of an anti-oxidant enzyme, extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), and its protective role against pulmonary oxidative damage were investigated using mouse models of systemic inflammation. Intraperitoneal injection with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 20 mg/kg) caused oxidative damage in lungs as assessed by increased tyrosine nitration in proteins. LPS administration also resulted in a rapid and significant loss of pulmonary EC-SOD more than 80% in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but other types of SODs, cytoplasmic CuZn-SOD and mitochondrial Mn-SOD, were not affected. EC-SOD protein is most abundant in lungs but also present at high levels in other tissues such as heart and white fat; however, the LPS-mediated decrease in this enzyme was most apparent in the lungs. Intravenous injection of mice with tumor necrosis factor α (10 μg per mouse) also caused 60% decrease in EC-SOD in lungs, suggesting that the EC-SOD down-regulation is mediated by this LPS-inducible inflammatory cytokine. A protective role of EC-SOD against LPS-mediated systemic inflammation was shown by an increased survival rate (75% vs.29% in 5 days) and decreased pulmonary oxidative damage in EC-SOD transgenic mice that overexpress the human EC-SOD gene. These results demonstrate that the inflammation-mediated EC-SOD down-regulation has a major pathophysiological impact during the systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
EC-SOD; oxidative stress; nitro tyrosine; systemic inflammation; superoxide dismutase; endotoxemia
Substantial evidence suggests that there is genetic susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To identify common genetic risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study in 2940 cases and 1380 smoking controls with normal lung function. We demonstrate a novel susceptibility locus at 4q22.1 in FAM13A (rs7671167, OR=0.76, P=8.6×10−8) and provide evidence of replication in one case-control and two family-based cohorts (for all studies, combined P=1.2×10−11).
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing environmental mycobacterium that can cause severe skin, soft tissue, and lung infections. M. abscessus grows inside macrophages, and these cells release a vast number of proinflammatory cytokines in response to infections. The metalloporphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP, is a broad antioxidant that reduces inflammatory cell signaling. Macrophage-like THP-1 cells were infected with M. abscessus in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP. MnTE-2-PyP significantly decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the number of M. abscessus organisms recovered from infected THP-1 cells 4 and 8 days after infection. Furthermore, when combined with clarithromycin, MnTE-2-PyP additively reduced the number of cells associated with M. abscessus. A mechanism of bacterial growth inhibition by MnTE-2-PyP was then elucidated. It was found that MnTE-2-PyP promoted the survival of infected THP-1 cells and increased fusion of M. abscessus–containing phagosomes with lysosomes.
antioxidant mimetic; MnTE-2-PyP; Mycobacterium abscessus; THP-1 cells
Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is exploited for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Innate and acquired resistance limits treatment efficacy; however, resistance mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, using WEHI7.2 murine thymic lymphoma cells, we found that increasing the resistance to hydrogen peroxide by catalase transfection or selection for hydrogen peroxide resistance caused glucocorticoid resistance. This suggests the possibility that increasing hydrogen peroxide sensitivity could sensitize the cells to glucocorticoids. In other cell types, increasing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) can increase intracellular hydrogen peroxide. The current study demonstrated that increased expression of MnSOD sensitized WEHI7.2 cells to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis and hydrogen peroxide. Treatment of WEHI7.2 cells with the catalytic antioxidant Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP5+), a manganoporphyrin, mimicked the effects of increased MnSOD expression. MnTE-2-PyP5+ also sensitized WEHI7.2 cells to cyclophosphamide and inhibited cell growth; it had no effect on the WEHI7.2 cell response to doxorubicin or vincristine. In primary follicular lymphoma cells, MnTE-2-PyP5+ increased cell death due to dexamethasone. Treatment of H9c2 cardiomyocytes with MnTE-2-PyP5+ inhibited doxorubicin cytotoxicity. The profile of MnTE-2-PyP5+ effects suggests MnTE-2-PyP5+ has potential for use in hematologic malignancies that are treated with glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin.
SOD2; AEOL 10113
Rationale: Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in lung development and perinatal lung function, and pulmonary NO synthases (NOS) are decreased in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) following preterm birth. Fetal estradiol levels increase during late gestation and estradiol up-regulates NOS, suggesting that after preterm birth estradiol deprivation causes attenuated lung NOS resulting in impaired pulmonary function.
Objective: To test the effects of postnatal estradiol administration in a primate model of BPD over 14 days after delivery at 125 days of gestation (term = 185 d).
Methods: Cardiopulmonary function was assessed by echocardiography and whole body plethysmography. Lung morphometric and histopathologic analyses were performed, and NOS enzymatic activity and abundance were measured.
Measurements and Main Results: Estradiol caused an increase in blood pressure and ductus arteriosus closure. Expiratory resistance and lung compliance were also improved, and this occurred before spontaneous ductal closure. Furthermore, both oxygenation and ventilation indices were improved with estradiol, and the changes in lung function and ventilatory support requirements persisted throughout the study period. Whereas estradiol had negligible effect on indicators of lung inflammation and on lung structure assessed after the initial 14 days of ventilatory support, it caused an increase in lung neuronal and endothelial NOS enzymatic activity.
Conclusions: In a primate model of BPD, postnatal estradiol treatment had favorable cardiovascular impact, enhanced pulmonary function, and lowered requirements for ventilatory support in association with an up-regulation of lung NOS. Estradiol may be an efficacious postnatal therapy to improve lung function and outcome in preterm infants.
Rationale: Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a potent antioxidant that plays an important role in controlling oxidant-mediated stress and inflammation. High levels of EC-SOD are found in the lung. Acute lung injury (ALI) frequently occurs in patients with infection, and levels of EC-SOD have been shown to modulate severity of lung injury in transgenic animal models of endotoxemia-induced ALI. An R213G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been shown to alter levels of EC-SOD and patient outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease.
Objectives: To determine genetic variation in the promoter and EC-SOD gene and to examine whether EC-SOD haplotype blocks are associated with clinical outcomes.
Methods: We sequenced the EC-SOD promoter and gene to determine genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in a European American population. Two separate patient populations with infection-associated ALI were also evaluated to determine whether EC-SOD haplotypes were associated with clinical outcomes.
Measurements and Main Results: Sequencing resulted in the identification of 28 SNPs with relatively strong LD and 1 block consisting of 4691-5321-5360-5955-5982. This specific block was shown to be protective in two separate patient populations with infection associated ALI. In particular, patients with a GCCT haplotype had a reduced risk of time on the ventilator and mortality.
Conclusions: These results indicate that a GCCT haplotype may reduce inflammation in the lung, thereby decreasing the severity of lung injury and ultimately protecting patients from mortality associated with infection-induced ALI.
EC-SOD; haplotypes; acute lung injury; single nucleotide polymorphism
Rationale: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) 3 inhibits oxidative fragmentation of lung matrix components collagen I, hyaluronan, and heparan sulfate. Inherited change in SOD3 expression or function could affect lung matrix homeostasis and influence pulmonary function.
Objectives: To identify novel SOD3 polymorphisms that are associated with lung function or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Methods: Resequencing of 182 individuals identified two novel polymorphisms, E1 (rs8192287) and I1 (rs8192288), in a conserved region of the SOD3 gene of potential relationship to lung function. We next genotyped 9,093 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for the polymorphisms and recorded spirometry, and admissions and deaths due to COPD during 26-year follow-up. Finally, we validated our findings in a cross-sectional analysis of 35,635 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study.
Measurements and Main Results: Genotyping the Copenhagen City Heart Study identified 35 E1/I1 homozygotes, 1,050 heterozygotes, and 8,008 noncarriers (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: P = 0.93). Using quadruple lung function measurements, we found that E1/I1 homozygotes had 7% lower FVC % predicted (P = 0.006) and 4% lower FEV1 % predicted (P = 0.12) compared with noncarriers. In the Copenhagen General Population Study, E1/I1 homozygotes also had lower FVC % predicted than noncarriers (P = 0.03), confirming an association between E1/I1 genotype and reduced lung function. E1/I1 homozygotes had adjusted hazard ratios for COPD hospitalization and COPD mortality of 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0–5.9) and 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.9–15), respectively; the results were independent of influence from the R213G allele of the SOD3 gene.
Conclusions: We identified two novel polymorphisms in a conserved region of the SOD3 gene and show that individuals that are homozygous for these polymorphisms have reduced FVC % predicted in two large, population-based studies.
superoxide dismutase 3; genetics; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; oxidative stress
Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is involved in the defence against oxidative stress induced by the superoxide radical. The protein is a homotetramer stabilised by hydrophobic interactions within the N-terminal region. During the purification of EC-SOD from human aorta, we noticed that material with high affinity for heparin–Sepharose formed not only a tetramer but also an octamer. Analysis of the thermodynamic stability of the octamer suggested that the C-terminal region is involved in formation of the quaternary structure. In addition, we show that the octamer is composed of both aEC-SOD and iEC-SOD folding variants. The presence of the EC-SOD octamer with high affinity may represent a way to influence the local concentration of EC-SOD to protect tissues specifically sensitive to oxidative damage.
Superoxide dismutase; Quaternary structure; Tissue distribution; Oxidative stress
Rationale: The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of newborns, is paradoxically rising despite medical advances. We demonstrated elevated bombesin-like peptide levels in infants that later developed BPD. In the 140-day hyperoxic baboon model of BPD, anti-bombesin antibody 2A11 abrogated lung injury.
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that bombesin-like peptides mediate BPD in extremely premature baboons (born at Gestational Day 125 and given oxygen pro re nata [PRN], called the 125-day PRN model), similar to “modern-day BPD.”
Methods: The 125-day animals were treated with 2A11 on Postnatal Day 1 (P1), P3, and P6. On P14 and P21, lungs were inflation-fixed for histopathologic analyses of alveolarization. Regulation of angiogenesis by bombesin was evaluated using cultured pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.
Measurements and Main Results: In 125-day PRN animals, urine bombesin-like peptide levels at P2–3 are directly correlated with impaired lung function at P14. Gastrin-releasing peptide (the major pulmonary bombesin-like peptide) mRNA was elevated eightfold at P1 and remained high thereafter. At P14, 2A11 reduced alveolar wall thickness and increased the percentage of secondary septa containing endothelial cells. At P21, 2A11-treated 125-day PRN animals had improved alveolarization according to mean linear intercepts and number of branch points per millimeter squared. Bombesin promoted tubulogenesis of cultured pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, but cocultured fetal lung mesenchymal cells abrogated this effect.
Conclusions: Early bombesin-like peptide overproduction in 125-day PRN animals predicted alveolarization defects weeks later. Bombesin-like peptide blockade improved septation, with the greatest effects at P21. This could have implications for preventing BPD in premature infants.
bombesin; gastrin-releasing peptide; mechanical ventilation; prematurity; antibody treatment
Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a tetrameric metalloenzyme responsible for the removal of superoxide anions from the extracellular space. We have previously shown that the EC-SOD subunit exists in two distinct folding variants based on differences in the disulfide bridge pattern (Petersen SV, Oury TD, Valnickova Z, Thøgersen IB, Højrup P, Crapo JD, Enghild JJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100(24):13875–80). One variant is enzymatically active (aEC-SOD) while the other is inactive (iEC-SOD). The EC-SOD subunits are associated into covalently linked dimers through an inter-subunit disulfide bridge creating the theoretical possibility of 3 dimers (aa, ai or ii) with different antioxidant potentials. We have analyzed the quaternary structure of the endogenous EC-SOD disulfide-linked dimer to investigate if these dimers in fact exist.
The analyses of EC-SOD purified from human tissue show that all three dimer combinations exist including two homo-dimers (aa and ii) and a hetero-dimer (ai). Because EC-SOD is a tetramer the dimers may combine to generate 5 different mature EC-SOD molecules where the specific activity of each molecule is determined by the ratio of aEC-SOD and iEC-SOD subunits.
This finding shows that the aEC-SOD and iEC-SOD subunits combine in all 3 possible ways supporting the presence of tetrameric enzymes with variable enzymatic activity. This variation in enzymatic potency may regulate the antioxidant level in the extracellular space and represent a novel way of modulating enzymatic activity.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 240,000 new cases reported annually in the United States. Due to early detection and advances in therapies, more than 90% of patients will survive 10 years post diagnosis and treatment. Radiation is a treatment option often used to treat localized disease; however, while radiation is very effective at killing tumor cells, normal tissues are damaged as well. Potential side-effects due to prostate cancer-related radiation therapy include bowel inflammation, erectile dysfunction, urethral stricture, rectal bleeding and incontinence. Currently, radiation therapy for prostate cancer does not include the administration of therapeutic agents to reduce these side effects and protect normal tissues from radiation-induced damage. In the current study, we show that the small molecular weight antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, protects normal tissues from radiation-induced damage in the lower abdomen in rats. Specifically, MnTE-2-PyP protected skin, prostate, and testes from radiation-induced damage. MnTE-2-PyP also protected from erectile dysfunction, a persistent problem regardless of the type of radiation techniques used because the penile neurovascular bundles lay in the peripheral zones of the prostate, where most prostate cancers reside. Based on previous studies showing that MnTE-2-PyP, in combination with radiation, further reduces subcutaneous tumor growth, we believe that MnTE-2-PyP represents an excellent radioprotectant in combination radiotherapy for cancer in general and specifically for prostate cancer.