ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626.
MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis.
ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor α protein and up-regulated β protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells.
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis.
The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of acupuncture treatment on embryo implantation failure in rats. The pregnant rats were randomized into normal group (N), implantation failure group (M), acupuncture treatment group (A), and progestin treatment group (W). The embryo implantation failure model was established by mifepristone. Efficacy of acupuncture treatment was evaluated by the number of implanted embryos. The expression of CCL2 and CXCL8 and the subset of uterine natural killer cells in the endometrium were detected. We demonstrated that the number of implanted embryos was dramatically reduced after mifepristone (M group) treatment, while the acupuncture (A group) and progestin (W group) treatments significantly rescued impaired embryo implantation. The protein and mRNA expressions of CCL2 and CXCL8 were significantly reduced by mifepristone treatment, but the attenuated expression of CCL2 and CXCL8 was markedly reversed by acupuncture or progestin treatment. More importantly, acupuncture and progestin could markedly increase the subset of uNK cells in rats with embryo implantation failure. These evidences suggest that acupuncture is able to modulate the endometrial immune microenvironment and thus improve embryo implantation in pregnant rats, which provides solid experimental evidence for the curative effect of acupuncture treatment on infertility.
Hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress that could damage vascular endothelial cells, leading to cardiovascular complications. The Vgf gene was identified as a nerve growth factor-responsive gene, and its protein product, VGF, is characterized by the presence of partially cleaved products. One of the VGF-derived peptides is TLQP-21, which is composed of 21 amino acids (residues 556–576). Past studies have reported that TLQP-21 could stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic cells and protect these cells from apoptosis, which suggests that TLQP-21 has a potential function in diabetes therapy. Here, we explore the protective role of TLQP-21 against the high glucose-mediated injury of vascular endothelial cells. Using human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), we demonstrated that TLQP-21 (10 or 50 nM) dose-dependently prevented apoptosis under high-glucose (30 mmol/L) conditions (the normal glucose concentration is 5.6 mmol/L). TLQP-21 enhanced the expression of NAPDH, resulting in upregulation of glutathione (GSH) and a reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). TLQP-21 also upregulated the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which is known as the main source of NADPH. Knockdown of G6PD almost completely blocked the increase of NADPH induced by TLQP-21, indicating that TLQP-21 functions mainly through G6PD to promote NADPH generation. In conclusion, TLQP-21 could increase G6PD expression, which in turn may increase the synthesis of NADPH and GSH, thereby partially restoring the redox status of vascular endothelial cells under high glucose injury. We propose that TLQP-21 is a promising drug for diabetes therapy.
Primary carcinoid tumor arising in a mature teratoma of the horseshoe kidney is exceptionally rare and only 4 such cases have been reported in the world literature to date. The simultaneous occurrence of different subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or RCC coexistence with non-RCC neoplasms from the same kidney is unusual and infrequently reported. Herein we report a case of primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma, concurrent with a clear cell RCC in the horseshoe kidney of a 37-year-old man. Histologically, both the carcinoid tumor and clear cell RCC demonstrated the characteristic morphology in their classic forms. In addition to the carcinoid tumor, the mature teratoma consisted of variably sized, large cystic spaces lined by cytologically bland mucinous columnar epithelium, pseudostratified columnar epithelium, ciliated epithelium and mature smooth muscle fibers were also identified within the cystic wall. Furthermore, foci of round, small nodules composed of mature prostatic acinus were noted in the teratoma which was confirmed by exhibiting strong immunoreactivity for prostate specific antigen. The present case serves to expand the histologic component that may be encountered in the mature terotoma of the kidney and further broadens the spectrum of primary tumors occurring in the horseshoe kidney.
Kidney; carcinoid tumor; mature teratoma; horseshoe kidney; prostate tissue
Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV+T/NK LPD) encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders that have a common feature with excessive lymphoid proliferation of mainly T cells and/or NK cells. This disease is rare, predominantly affects children and young adults, and associated with high mortality. Herein, we report a case of EBV+T/NK LPD that occurred in an old woman with good outcome. The patient presented with fever, splenomegaly, and pancytopenia. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed splenomegaly. The clinical impression was a malignant tumor of spleen, so splenectomy was performed. Microscopically, the architecture of the spleen was preserved. The white pulp Malpighian corpuscles were atrophied. The red pulp showed intact sinusoids and pulp cords with increased cellular infiltrate. The proliferating lymphoid cells were mostly small lymphoid cells with minimal or no nuclear atypia, mixed with rare medium-sized or large cells. Immunohistochemical study and in-situ hybridization showed that the EBER-positive lymphoid cells were positive for CD3 and CD56. They were also positive for cytotoxic molecules, such as T-cell restricted intracellular antigen (TIA1), granzyme B. The case exhibited polyclonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gene (TCR) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies. Without radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient is alive and well with no evidence of disease 25 months after surgery.
Epstein-Barr virus; T/natural killer-cell; lymphoproliferative disorder
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is widely used in the treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with the injection of PMMA cement, and the controversy for PMMA damage to the osteoporotic bone tissue and to affect the fractures repairing never stops. 72 old female rabbits, each age 3.0~3.5 y, rabbits were assigned randomly to two groups of thirty-six each; PMMA cement were injected into vertebral body in rabbits via mimic PVP, sacrificed at 1 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 4 w, and 12 w. The expression VEGF and collagen type I, the tissue response, and repair reaction in the interface between PMMA and bone tissue were observed dynamically with RT-PCR and western blot technique; the osteocalcin expression were studied by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the expression of collagen I increased at 1 hour and was higher from 24 h to 3 d. From 4 weeks to 12 weeks after injection of PMMA. The expression of VEGF decreased at 1 hour and 24 hours, significantly increased at 3 days, decreased once again at 7 days, then increased significantly at 4–12 weeks. The osteocalcin expression continued to increase during 4 to 12 week. PMMA would not cause local bone permanent necrosis, and interface injury repairing cycle could be prolonged in a vertebroplasty.
Brain decoding with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) requires analysis of complex, multivariate data. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has been widely used in recent years. MVPA treats the activation of multiple voxels from fMRI data as a pattern and decodes brain states using pattern classification methods. Feature selection is a critical procedure of MVPA because it decides which features will be included in the classification analysis of fMRI data, thereby improving the performance of the classifier. Features can be selected by limiting the analysis to specific anatomical regions or by computing univariate (voxel-wise) or multivariate statistics. However, these methods either discard some informative features or select features with redundant information. This paper introduces the principal feature analysis as a novel multivariate feature selection method for fMRI data processing. This multivariate approach aims to remove features with redundant information, thereby selecting fewer features, while retaining the most information.
The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a role in the regulation of basolateral Cl channels in the thick ascending limb (TAL). The patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that application of IGF-I or insulin inhibited the basolateral 10-pS Cl channels. However, the concentration of insulin required for the inhibition of the Cl channels by 50% (K1/2) was ten times higher than those of IGF-1. The inhibitory effect of IGF-I on the 10-pS Cl channels was blocked by suppressing protein tyrosine kinase or by blocking phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). In contrast, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) failed to abolish the inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels in the TAL. Western blot analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 significantly increased the phosphorylation of phospholipid-dependent kinase (PDK) at serine residue 241 (Ser241) and AKT at Ser473 in the isolated medullary TAL. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the phosphorylation of PDK and AKT. The notion that the effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels was induced by stimulation of PDK-AKT-mTOR pathway was further suggested by the finding that rapamycin completely abolished the effect of IGF-1 on the 10-pS Cl channels in the TAL. We conclude that IGF-1 inhibits the basolateral Cl channels by activating PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. The inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the Cl channels may play a role in ameliorating the ischemia-induced renal injury through IGF-1 administration.
phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PKD; AKT; mTOR; Cl transport
A common feature of biomineralization proteins is their self-assembly to produce a surface consistent in size with the inorganic crystals that they produce. Mms6, a small protein of 60 amino acids from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 that promotes the in vitro growth of superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals, assembles in aqueous solution to form spherical micelles that could be visualized by TEM and AFM. The results reported here are consistent with the view that the N and C-terminal domains interact with each other within one polypeptide chain and across protein units in the assembly. From studies to determine the amino acid residues important for self-assembly, we identified the unique GL repeat in the N-terminal domain with additional contributions from amino acids in other positions, throughout the molecule. Analysis by CD spectroscopy identified a structural change in the iron-binding C-terminal domain in the presence of Fe3+. A change in the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in the N-terminal domain showed that this structural change is transmitted through the protein. Thus, self-assembly of Mms6 involves an interlaced structure of intra- and inter-molecular interactions that results in a coordinated structural change in the protein assembly with iron binding.
Mms6; micelle; structural rearrangement
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA) and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin required for formation of PA polymers. In Populus, ANR and LAR are encoded by at least two and three highly related genes, respectively. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized genes PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 from P. trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Populus ANR1 and LAR1 occurr in two distinct phylogenetic lineages, but both genes have little difference in their tissue distribution, preferentially expressed in roots. Overexpression of PtrANR1 in poplar resulted in a significant increase in PA levels but no impact on catechin levels. Antisense down-regulation of PtrANR1 showed reduced PA accumulation in transgenic lines, but increased levels of anthocyanin content. Ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulated the biosynthesis of PAs, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that both PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 contribute to PA biosynthesis in Populus.
Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars.
The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis.
Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components.
The rpoS mRNA, which encodes the master regulator σS of general stress response, requires Hfq-facilitated base pairing with DsrA small RNA for efficient translation at low temperatures. It has recently been proposed that one mechanism underlying Hfq action is to bridge a transient ternary complex by simultaneously binding to rpoS and DsrA. However, no structural evidence of Hfq simultaneously bound to different RNAs has been reported. We detected simultaneous binding of Hfq to rpoS and DsrA fragments. Crystal structures of AU6A•Hfq•A7 and Hfq•A7 complexes were resolved using 1.8- and 1.9-Å resolution, respectively. Ternary complex has been further verified in solution by NMR. In vivo, activation of rpoS translation requires intact Hfq, which is capable of bridging rpoS and DsrA simultaneously into ternary complex. This ternary complex possibly corresponds to a meta-stable transition state in Hfq-facilitated small RNA–mRNA annealing process.
The present study was carried out to examine the effect of valproic acid (VPA), an important histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the in vitro development and expression of the epigenetic marker histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. We found that treatment with 4 mM VPA for 24 h could significantly improve the development of bovine SCNT embryos. Compared with the no-treatment group, the cleavage rate was higher (69.79±0.99% vs. 65.11±1.02%, p<0.05), as was the blastocyst rate (39.99±1.29% vs. 34.87±1.74%, p<0.05). Moreover, the rate of apoptosis (1.91±0.48% vs. 5.67±0.40%, p<0.05) in blastocysts was greatly reduced after VPA treatment. Valproic acid treatment also increased the immunofluorescent signal for H3K9ac in SCNT embryos in a pattern similar to that of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VPA can significantly improve the in vitro developmental competence and enhance the nuclear reprogramming of bovine SCNT embryos.
Betaine is a methyl donor and has been considered as a lipotropic effect substance. But its mechanism remains unclear. Hepatic steatosis is associated with abnormal expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. DNA methylation contributes to the disregulation of gene expression. Here we hypothesized that betaine supplement and subsequent DNA methylation modifications alter the expression of genes that are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and hence alleviate hepatic triglyceride accumulation.
Male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (n = 6) were fed with the AIN-93 G diet. ApoE−/− mice (n = 12), weight-matched with the WT mice, were divided into two groups (n = 6 per group), and fed with the AIN-93 G diet and AIN-93 G supplemented with 2% betaine/100 g diet. Seven weeks after the intervention, mice were sacrificed. Liver betaine, choline, homocysteine concentration were measured by HPLC. Liver oxidants activity and triglyceride level were assessed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Finally, hepatic PPAR alpha gene and its target genes expression levels and the methylation status of the PPAR alpha gene were determined.
ApoE−/− mice had higher hepatic triglyceride and lower GSH-Px activity when compared with the WT mice. Betaine intervention reversed triglyceride deposit, enhanced SOD and GSH-Px activity in the liver. Interestingly, mice fed on betaine-supplemented diet showed a dramatic increase of hepatic choline concentration and a decrease of betaine and homocysteine concentration relative to the WT mice and the ApoE−/− mice absent with betaine intervention. Expression of PPAR alpha and CPT1 were decreased and expression of FAS was markedly increased in ApoE−/− mice. In parallel, PPAR alpha promoter methylation level were slightly increased in ApoE−/− mice though without significance. Betaine supplement upregulated expression of PPAR alpha and its target genes (CPT1, CYP2E1) and reversed hypermethylation of PPAR alpha promoter of ApoE−/− mice. Furthermore, PPAR alpha methylation was positively correlated with hepatic betaine concentration.
Our findings indicate that betaine supplement could alleviate hepatic triglyceride accumulation and improve antioxidant capacity by decreasing PPAR alpha promoter methylation and upregulating PPAR alpha and its target genes mRNA expression.
Betaine; PPAR alpha; Fatty liver; DNA methylation
The aim of this research is to optimize the cultural conditions for the conversion of glycerol to ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes S012. Taguchi method was used to screen the cultural conditions based on their signal to noise ratio (SN). Temperature (°C), agitation speed (rpm) and time (h) were found to have the highest influence on both glycerol utilization and ethanol production by the organism while pH had the lowest. Full factorial design, statistical analysis, and regression model equation were used to optimize the selected cultural parameters for maximum ethanol production. The result showed that fermentation at 38°C and 200 rpm for 48 h would be ideal for the bacteria to produce maximum amount of ethanol from glycerol. At these optimum conditions, ethanol production, yield and productivity were 25.4 g/l, 0.53 g/l/h, and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol, repectively. Ethanol production increased to 26.5 g/l while yield and productivity decreased to 1.04 mol/mol-glycerol and 0.37 g/l/h, respectively, after 72 h. Analysis of the fermentation products was performed using HPLC, while anaerobic condition was created by purging the fermentation vessel with nitrogen gas.
Enterobacter aerogenes; Ethanol; Glycerol; Metabolic pathway; Fermentation
We used the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of changing the external Ca2+ on the basolateral 50-pS K channel in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of rat kidney. Increasing the external Ca2+ concentration from 1 mM to 2 or 3 mM inhibited the basolateral 50 −pS K channels while decreasing external Ca2+ to 10 μM increased the 50-pS K channel activity. The effect of the external Ca2+ on the 50-pS K channels was observed only in cell-attached patches but not in excised patches. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of increasing external Ca2+ on the 50-pS K channels was absent in the presence of NPS2390, an antagonist of Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of the external Ca2+ was the result of stimulation of the CaSR. Application of the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue increased the 50-pS K channel activity but did not block the effect of raising the external Ca2+ on the K channels. Neither inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) nor suppression of cytochrome P450-ω-hydroxylation-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid was able to abolish the effect of raising the external Ca2+ on the 50-pS K channels. In contrast, inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) or blocking protein kinase C (PKC) completely abolished the inhibition of the basolateral 50-pS K channels induced by raising the external Ca2+. We conclude that the external Ca2+ concentration plays an important role in the regulation of the basolateral K channel activity in the TAL and that the effect of the external Ca2+ is mediated by the CaSR which stimulates PLC-PKC pathways. The regulation of the basolateral K channels by the CaSR may be the mechanism by which extracellular Ca2+ level modulates the reabsorption of divalent cations.
External Ca2+; inwardly-rectifying K channel; phospholipase C; PKC
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and determine the possible risk factors of poor sleep quality in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment.
140 type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatments were enrolled in our study. General characteristics and laboratory testing such glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) were measured. Every patient completed Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. PSQI global score>5 was defined as poor sleep quality.
Global PSQI score was significantly higher in female type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment than male (7.52 vs 6.08, P<0.05). After adjusting for age, BMI, FPG, PPG, HbA1c and duration of diabetes, female is still an independent risk factor for poor sleep quality [OR = 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24–5.27, P = 0.01].
The results suggest that we found poor sleep quality in female Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with insulin treatment and these findings may contribute to sleep disorder control in female type 2 diabetes.
MYH3 is a major contractile protein which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy through the ATP hydrolysis. MYH3 is mainly expressed in the skeletal muscle in different stages especially embryonic period, and it has a role in the development of skeletal muscle and heart. In this study, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to analyze the genetic variations of the MYH3 gene and verify the effect on growth and carcass traits in a total of 365 Qinchuan cattles. The PCR product was digested with some restriction enzyme and demonstrated the polymorphism in the population, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nucleotides g. +1215T>C, g. +3377C>T, and g. +28625C>T were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. The result of haplotype analysis showed that nineteen different haplotypes were identified among the five SNPs. The statistical analyses indicated that the five SNPs were significant association with growth and carcass traits (P < 0.05, N = 365); whereas the five SNPs were no significant association between 18 combined genotypes of MYH3 gene and growth and carcass traits. Taken together, our results provide the evidence that polymorphisms in MYH3 are associated with growth and carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle, and may be used as a possible candidate for marker-assisted selection and management in beef cattle breeding program.
Qinchuan cattle; Growth and carcass traits; Combined genotypes; Haplotype; MYH3
We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.
Quantum rings; Self-assemble; Quantum size effect; Surface diffusion
Genetic mapping and QTL detection are powerful methodologies in plant improvement and breeding. Construction of a high-density and high-quality genetic map would be of great benefit in the production of superior grapes to meet human demand. High throughput and low cost of the recently developed next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have resulted in its wide application in genome research. Sequencing restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) might be an efficient strategy to simplify genotyping. Combining NGS with RAD has proven to be powerful for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker development.
An F1 population of 100 individual plants was developed. In-silico digestion-site prediction was used to select an appropriate restriction enzyme for construction of a RAD sequencing library. Next generation RAD sequencing was applied to genotype the F1 population and its parents. Applying a cluster strategy for SNP modulation, a total of 1,814 high-quality SNP markers were developed: 1,121 of these were mapped to the female genetic map, 759 to the male map, and 1,646 to the integrated map. A comparison of the genetic maps to the published Vitis vinifera genome revealed both conservation and variations.
The applicability of next generation RAD sequencing for genotyping a grape F1 population was demonstrated, leading to the successful development of a genetic map with high density and quality using our designed SNP markers. Detailed analysis revealed that this newly developed genetic map can be used for a variety of genome investigations, such as QTL detection, sequence assembly and genome comparison.
Grape; Genetic map; Next generation sequencing (NGS); Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD)
To date, there has not been an agreement on the best methods for the characterisation of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) toxicity. The length of MWCNTs has been identified as a factor in in vitro and in vivo studies, in addition to their purity and biocompatible coating. Another unresolved issue relates to the variable toxicity of MWCNTs on different cell types. The present study addressed the effects of MWCNTs' length on mammalian immune and epithelial cancer cells RAW264.7 and MCF-7, respectively. Our data confirm that MWCNTs induce cytotoxicity in a length- and cell type-dependent manner. Whereas, longer (3 to 14 μm) MWCNTs exert high toxicity, especially to RAW264.7 cells, shorter (1.5 μm) MWCNTs are significantly less cytotoxic. These findings confirm that the degree of biocompatibility of MWCNTs is closely related to their length and that immune cells appear to be more susceptible to damage by MWCNTs. Our study also indicates that MWCNT nanotoxicity should be analysed for various components of cellular response, and cytotoxicity data should be validated by the use of more than one assay system. Results from chromogenic-based assays should be confirmed by trypan blue exclusion.
Carbon nanotube; Cytotoxicity; Length effect; Cell type
It has been proposed in the literature that Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) could be exploited to enhance or accelerate nerve regeneration and to provide guidance for regenerating axons. MNPs could create mechanical tension that stimulates the growth and elongation of axons. Particles suitable for this purpose should possess (1) high saturation magnetization, (2) a negligible cytotoxic profile, and (3) a high capacity to magnetize mammalian cells. Unfortunately, the materials currently available on the market do not satisfy these criteria; therefore, this work attempts to overcome these deficiencies.
Magnetite particles were synthesized by an oxidative hydrolysis method and characterized based on their external morphology and size distribution (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy [HR-TEM]) as well as their colloidal (Z potential) and magnetic properties (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices [SQUID]). Cell viability was assessed via Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, cell doubling time, and MTT cell proliferation assay and reactive oxygen species production. Particle uptake was monitored via Prussian blue staining, intracellular iron content quantification via a ferrozine-based assay, and direct visualization by dual-beam (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy [FIB/SEM]) analysis. Experiments were performed on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and primary Schwann cell cultures of the peripheral nervous system.
This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of polymer-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 73 ± 6 nm that are designed as magnetic actuators for neural guidance. The cells were able to incorporate quantities of iron up to 2 pg/cell. The intracellular distribution of MNPs obtained by optical and electronic microscopy showed large structures of MNPs crossing the cell membrane into the cytoplasm, thus rendering them suitable for magnetic manipulation by external magnetic fields. Specifically, migration experiments under external magnetic fields confirmed that these MNPs can effectively actuate the cells, thus inducing measurable migration towards predefined directions more effectively than commercial nanoparticles (fluidMAG-ARA supplied by Chemicell). There were no observable toxic effects from MNPs on cell viability for working concentrations of 10 μg/mL (EC25 of 20.8 μg/mL, compared to 12 μg/mL in fluidMAG-ARA). Cell proliferation assays performed with primary cell cultures of the peripheral nervous system confirmed moderate cytotoxicity (EC25 of 10.35 μg/mL).
These results indicate that loading neural cells with the proposed MNPs is likely to be an effective strategy for promoting non-invasive neural regeneration through cell magnetic actuation.
magnetic nanoparticle; actuator; migration; neural regeneration
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have increasing applications in biomedicine, however fears over long term stability of polymer coated particles have arisen. Gold coating IONPs results in particles of increased stability and robustness. The unique properties of both the iron oxide (magnetic) and gold (surface plasmon resonance) result in a multimodal platform for use as MRI contrast agents and as a nano-heater.
Here we synthesize IONPs of core diameter 30 nm and gold coat using the seeding method with a poly(ethylenimine) intermediate layer. The final particles were coated in poly(ethylene glycol) to ensure biocompatibility and increase retention times in vivo. The particle coating was monitored using FTIR, PCS, UV–vis absorption, TEM, and EDX. The particles appeared to have little cytotoxic effect when incubated with A375M cells. The resultant hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) possessed a maximal absorbance at 600 nm. After laser irradiation in agar phantom a ΔT of 32°C was achieved after only 90 s exposure (50 μgmL-1). The HNPs appeared to decrease T2 values in line with previously clinically used MRI contrast agent Feridex®.
The data highlights the potential of these HNPs as dual function MRI contrast agents and nano-heaters for therapies such as cellular hyperthermia or thermo-responsive drug delivery.
Magnetic nanoparticles; Gold nano-shells; Magnetic resonance imaging; Surface plasmon resonance; Multifunctional nanoparticles
Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPCs) are able to hydrolyze the carbapenems, which cause many bacteria resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, so the rapid dissemination of KPCs is worrisome. Laboratory identification of KPCs-harboring clinical isolates would be a key to limit the spread of the bacteria. This study would evaluate a rapid low-cost real-time PCR assay to detect KPCs.
Real-time PCR assay based on SYBR GreenIwas designed to amplify a 106bp product of the blaKPC gene from the159 clinical Gram-negative isolates resistant to several classes of -lactam antibiotics through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We confirmed the results of real-time PCR assay by the conventional PCR-sequencing. At the same time, KPCs of these clinical isolates were detected by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Then we compared the results of real-time PCR assay with those of MHT from the sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay.
The sensitivity and specificity of the results of the real-time PCR assay compared with those of MHT was 29/29(100%) and 130/130(100%), respectively. The results of the real-time PCR and the MHT were strongly consistent (Exact Sig. (2-tailed) =1. 000; McNemar test). The real-time PCR detection limit was about 0.8cfu using clinical isolates.
The real-time PCR assay could rapidly and accurately detect KPCs -harboring strains with high analytical sensitivity and specificity.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase