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1.  Short Daily versus Conventional Hemodialysis for Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Cross-Over Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97135.
Background
Treatment of end stage renal disease patients with short daily hemodialysis has been associated with an improvement in blood pressure. It is unclear from these studies if anti-hypertensive management had been optimized prior to starting short daily hemodialysis. Also, the potential mechanism(s) of blood pressure improvement remain to be fully elucidated.
Study Design, Setting and Participants
We undertook a randomized cross-over trial in adult hypertensive patients with ESRD treated with conventional hemodialysis to determine: 1) if short-daily hemodialysis is associated with a reduction in systolic blood pressure after a 3-month blood pressure optimization period and; 2) the potential mechanism(s) of blood pressure reduction. Blood pressure was measured using Canadian Hypertension Education Program guidelines. Extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) was assessed with bioimpedance. Serum catecholamines were used to assess the sympathetic nervous system. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS) were used as markers of inflammation and oxidative stress respectively.
Results
After a 3-month run-in phase in which systolic blood pressure improved, there was no significant difference in pre-dialysis systolic pressure between short-daily and conventional hemodialysis (p = 0.39). However, similar blood pressures were achieved on fewer anti-hypertensive medications with short daily hemodialysis compared to conventional hemodialysis (p = 0.01). Short daily hemodialysis, compared to conventional hemodialysis, was not associated with a difference in dry weight or ECFV (p = 0.77). Sympathetic nervous system activity as assessed by plasma epinephrine (p = 1.0) and norepinephrine (p = 0.52) was also not different. Markers of inflammation (p = 0.42) and oxidative stress (p = 0.83) were also similar between the two treatment arms.
Conclusions
Patients treated with short daily, compared to conventional hemodialysis, have similar blood pressure control on fewer anti-hypertensive medications. The mechanism(s) by which short daily hemodialysis allows for decreased anti-hypertensive medication use remains unclear but effects on sodium balance and changes in peripheral vascular resistance require further study.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00759967
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097135
PMCID: PMC4038634  PMID: 24875804
2.  Efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stromal cells in preclinical models of acute lung injury: a systematic review protocol 
Systematic Reviews  2014;3:48.
Background
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in humans is caused by an unchecked proinflammatory response that results in diffuse and severe lung injury, and it is associated with a mortality rate of 35 to 45%. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs; ‘adult stem cells’) could represent a promising new therapy for this syndrome, since preclinical evidence suggests that MSCs may ameliorate lung injury. Prior to a human clinical trial, our aim is to conduct a systematic review to compare the efficacy and safety of MSC therapy versus controls in preclinical models of acute lung injury that mimic some aspects of the human ARDS.
Methods/Design
We will include comparative preclinical studies (randomized and non-randomized) of acute lung injury in which MSCs were administered and outcomes compared to animals given a vehicle control. The primary outcome will be death. Secondary outcomes will include the four key features of preclinical acute lung injury as defined by the American Thoracic Society consensus conference (histologic evidence of lung injury, altered alveolar capillary barrier, lung inflammatory response, and physiological dysfunction) and pathogen clearance for acute lung injury models that are caused by infection. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science will be constructed and reviewed by the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS) process. Search results will be screened independently and in duplicate. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, pooled, and analyzed using random effects models. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and individual study reporting will be assessed according to the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines.
Discussion
The results of this systematic review will comprehensively summarize the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in preclinical models of acute lung injury. Our results will help translational scientists and clinical trialists to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to perform a human clinical trial. These results may also guide future acute lung injury preclinical and clinical research.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-48
PMCID: PMC4046388  PMID: 24887266
Mesenchymal stromal cells; Mesenchymal stem cells; Acute lung injury; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Preclinical; Systematic review protocol
3.  Do heart and respiratory rate variability improve prediction of extubation outcomes in critically ill patients? 
Critical Care  2014;18(2):R65.
Introduction
Prolonged ventilation and failed extubation are associated with increased harm and cost. The added value of heart and respiratory rate variability (HRV and RRV) during spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) to predict extubation failure remains unknown.
Methods
We enrolled 721 patients in a multicenter (12 sites), prospective, observational study, evaluating clinical estimates of risk of extubation failure, physiologic measures recorded during SBTs, HRV and RRV recorded before and during the last SBT prior to extubation, and extubation outcomes. We excluded 287 patients because of protocol or technical violations, or poor data quality. Measures of variability (97 HRV, 82 RRV) were calculated from electrocardiogram and capnography waveforms followed by automated cleaning and variability analysis using Continuous Individualized Multiorgan Variability Analysis (CIMVA™) software. Repeated randomized subsampling with training, validation, and testing were used to derive and compare predictive models.
Results
Of 434 patients with high-quality data, 51 (12%) failed extubation. Two HRV and eight RRV measures showed statistically significant association with extubation failure (P <0.0041, 5% false discovery rate). An ensemble average of five univariate logistic regression models using RRV during SBT, yielding a probability of extubation failure (called WAVE score), demonstrated optimal predictive capacity. With repeated random subsampling and testing, the model showed mean receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.69, higher than heart rate (0.51), rapid shallow breathing index (RBSI; 0.61) and respiratory rate (0.63). After deriving a WAVE model based on all data, training-set performance demonstrated that the model increased its predictive power when applied to patients conventionally considered high risk: a WAVE score >0.5 in patients with RSBI >105 and perceived high risk of failure yielded a fold increase in risk of extubation failure of 3.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 5.2) and 3.5 (95% CI 1.9 to 5.4), respectively.
Conclusions
Altered HRV and RRV (during the SBT prior to extubation) are significantly associated with extubation failure. A predictive model using RRV during the last SBT provided optimal accuracy of prediction in all patients, with improved accuracy when combined with clinical impression or RSBI. This model requires a validation cohort to evaluate accuracy and generalizability.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237886. Registered 13 October 2010.
doi:10.1186/cc13822
PMCID: PMC4057494  PMID: 24713049
4.  Effect of blood donor characteristics on transfusion outcomes: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis 
Systematic Reviews  2014;3:28.
Background
Optimal selection of blood donors is of paramount importance in ensuring the safety of blood products. The current selection process is concerned principally with the safety of the blood donor and the safety of the patient that receives the blood. Recent evidence suggests that the characteristics of the donor may affect transfusion outcomes for the recipient.
Methods
We will conduct a systematic review of the association between major blood donor characteristics and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion outcomes. The primary objective is to assess the association of blood donor characteristics and the risk of adverse short-term and long-term clinical outcomes after RBC transfusion. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central databases, as well as perform manual searches of top transfusion medical journals for prospective and retrospective studies. Study characteristics will be reported and the methodological quality of studies will be assessed. When appropriate, we will provide pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals of the effect estimates, study clinical heterogeneity using pre-defined sensitivity and subgroup analyses, and study statistical heterogeneity using the I2 test.
Discussion
The results of this systematic review will provide an evidence base regarding the potential clinical effects of donor characteristics on transfusion recipients to better guide policy and clinical practice. The evidence gathered from this review will also identify strengths and weaknesses of published studies regarding donor characteristics and transfusion outcomes and will identify knowledge gaps to inform future research in this field of transfusion medicine.
Trial registration
PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013006726
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-28
PMCID: PMC3998188  PMID: 24650633
6.  Checking whether there is an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other cancers with specific modern immunosuppression regimens in renal transplantation: Protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies 
Systematic Reviews  2014;3:16.
Background
Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There are several drug classes and agents for immunosuppression. Use of these agents may increase the risk of different harms including not only infections, but also malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is a need to identify which regimens minimize the risk of such outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies is to explore whether certain modern regimens of immunosuppression used to prevent organ rejection in renal transplant patients are associated with an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other malignancies.
Methods/design
‘Modern’ regimens were defined to be those evaluated in controlled studies beginning in 1990 or later. An electronic literature search of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials has been designed by an experienced information specialist and peer reviewed by a second information specialist. Study selection and data collection will be performed by two reviewers. The outcomes of interest will include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other incident forms of malignancy occurring in adult renal transplant patients. Network meta-analyses of data from randomized and observational studies will be performed where judged appropriate based on a review of the clinical and methodological features of included studies. A sequential approach to meta-analysis will be used to combine data from different designs.
Discussion
Our systematic review will include both single-agent and multi-agent modern pharmacotherapy regimens in patients undergoing renal transplantation. It will synthesize malignancy outcomes. Our work will also add to the development of methods for network meta-analysis across study designs to assess treatment safety.
Trial registration
PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013006951
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-16
PMCID: PMC3936935  PMID: 24559430
Renal transplant; malignancy; post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; systematic review; network meta-analysis
7.  Micronutrient Deficiency and Treatment Adherence in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Micronutrient Supplementation in ART-Naïve Persons with HIV 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85607.
Introduction
The MAINTAIN study is an on-going RCT comparing high-dose micronutrient and anti-oxidant supplementation versus recommended daily allowance (RDA) vitamins in slowing HIV immune deficiency progression in ART-naïve people with HIV infection.
Objective
We planned analysis of the first 127 participants to determine the baseline prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies and correlates, as well as tolerance and adherence to study interventions.
Methods
Participants receive eight capsules twice daily of 1) high-dose or 2) RDA supplements for two years and are followed-up quarterly for measures of immune deficiency progression, safety and tolerability. Regression analysis was used to identify correlates of micronutrient levels at baseline. Adherence was measured by residual pill count, self-report using the General Treatment Scale (GTS) and short-term recall HIV Adherence Treatment Scale (HATS).
Results
Prior micronutrient supplementation (within 30 days) was 27% at screening and 10% of study population, and was not correlated with baseline micronutrient levels. Low levels were frequent for carotene (24%<1 nmol/L), vitamin D (24%<40 nmol/L) and serum folate (20%<15 nmol/L). The proportion with B12 deficiency (<133 pmol/L) was 2.4%. Lower baseline levels of B12 correlated lower baseline CD4 count (r = 0.21, p = 0.02) with a 21 pmol/L reduction in B12 per 100 cells/µL CD4. Vitamin D levels were higher in men (p<0.001). After a median follow-up of 1.63 years, there were 19 (15%) early withdrawals from the study treatment. Mean treatment adherence using pill count was 88%. Subjective adherence by the GTS was 81% and was moderately but significantly correlated with pill count (r = 0.29, p<0.001). Adherence based on short-term recall (HATS) was >80% in 75% of participants.
Conclusion
Micronutrient levels in asymptomatic HIV+ persons are in keeping with population norms, but micronutrient deficiencies are frequent. Adherence levels are high, and will permit a valid evaluation of treatment effects.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00798772
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085607
PMCID: PMC3897458  PMID: 24465617
8.  Soy, Red Clover, and Isoflavones and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e81968.
Background
Soy and red clover isoflavones are controversial due to purported estrogenic activity and possible effects on breast cancer. We conducted a systematic review of soy and red clover for efficacy in improving menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer, and for potential impact on risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence.
Methods
We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and AMED from inception to March 2013 for human interventional or observational data pertaining to the safety and efficacy of soy and red clover isoflavones in patients with or at risk of breast cancer.
Results
Of 4179 records, we included a total of 131 articles: 40 RCTs, 11 uncontrolled trials, and 80 observational studies. Five RCTs reported on the efficacy of soy for hot flashes, showing no significant reductions in hot flashes compared to placebo. There is lack of evidence showing harm from use of soy with respect to risk of breast cancer or recurrence, based on long term observational data. Soy intake consistent with that of a traditional Japanese diet (2-3 servings daily, containing 25-50mg isoflavones) may be protective against breast cancer and recurrence. Human trials show that soy does not increase circulating estradiol or affect estrogen-responsive target tissues. Prospective data of soy use in women taking tamoxifen does not indicate increased risk of recurrence. Evidence on red clover is limited, however existing studies suggest that it may not possess breast cancer-promoting effects.
Conclusion
Soy consumption may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer incidence, recurrence, and mortality. Soy does not have estrogenic effects in humans. Soy intake consistent with a traditional Japanese diet appears safe for breast cancer survivors. While there is no clear evidence of harm, better evidence confirming safety is required before use of high dose (≥100mg) isoflavones can be recommended for breast cancer patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081968
PMCID: PMC3842968  PMID: 24312387
9.  Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study 
Journal of Pregnancy  2013;2013:294312.
Preeclampsia (PE) is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT) aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.
doi:10.1155/2013/294312
PMCID: PMC3852577  PMID: 24349782
10.  Ancillary testing for diagnosis of brain death: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Systematic Reviews  2013;2:100.
Background
The essential clinical diagnostic components of brain death must include evidence for an established etiology capable of causing brain death, two independent clinical confirmations of the absence of all brainstem reflexes and an apnea test, and exclude confounders that can mimic brain death. Numerous confounders can render the clinical neurological determination of death (NDD) virtually impossible. As such, clinicians must rely on additional ancillary testing.
Methods/design
We will conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of ancillary testing for the neurological determination of death. The primary objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the accuracy of these ancillary tests compared to the three accepted reference standards: (1) clinical diagnosis, (2) four-vessel angiography and (3) radionuclide imaging. This objective will be investigated using two different populations with different baseline risks of brain death: comatose patients and patients with a neurological determination of death. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central databases for retrospective and prospective diagnostic test studies and interventional studies. We will report study characteristics and assess methodological quality using QUADAS-2, which is used to assess the quality of diagnostic tests. If pooling is appropriate, we will compute parameter estimates using a bivariate model to produce summary receiver operating curves, summary operating points (pooled sensitivity and specificity), and 95% confidence regions around the summary operating point. Clinical and methodological subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be performed to explore heterogeneity.
Discussion
The results of this project will provide a critical evidence base for the neurological determination of death. The results will help clinicians to select ancillary tests based on the best available evidence. Our systematic review will also identify the strengths and weaknesses in the current evidence for the use of ancillary tests in diagnosing brain death. It will serve as a foundation for further research and the development of prospective studies on currently used or novel techniques for NDD.
Protocol registration
PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013005907
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-2-100
PMCID: PMC3828391  PMID: 24206574
11.  Radiotherapy after Radical Prostatectomy: Treatment Recommendations Differ between Urologists and Radiation Oncologists 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79773.
Purpose
There is no consensus on optimal use of radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this study was to describe opinions of urologists and radiation oncologists regarding adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy.
Methods
Urologists and genitourinary radiation oncologists were solicited to participate in an online survey. Respondent characteristics included demographics, training, practice setting, patient volume/experience, and access to radiotherapy. Participant practice patterns and attitudes towards use of adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy in standardized clinical scenarios were assessed.
Results
One hundred and forty-six staff physicians participated in the survey (104 urologists and 42 genitourinary radiation oncologists). Overall, high Gleason score (Gleason 7 vs. 6, RR 1.37 95% CI 1.19-1.56, p<0.0001 and Gleason 8-10 vs. 6, RR 1.56 95% CI 1.37-1.78, p<0.0001), positive surgical margin (RR 1.43 95% CI 1.26-1.62, p<0.0001), and extraprostatic tumour extension (RR 1.16 95% CI 1.05-1.28, p<0.002) conferred an increased probability of recommending adjuvant radiotherapy. Radiation oncologists were more likely to recommend adjuvant radiotherapy across all clinical scenarios (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.39, 1.60, p <0.001). Major differences were found for patients with Gleason 6 and isolated positive surgical margin (radiotherapy selected by 21% of urologists vs. 70% of radiation oncologists), and patients with extraprostatic extension and negative surgical margins (radiotherapy selected by 18% of urologist vs. 57% of radiation oncologists).
Conclusions
Urologists and radiation oncologists frequently disagree about recommendation for post-prostatectomy adjuvant radiotherapy. Since clinical equipoise exists between adjuvant versus early salvage post-operative radiotherapy, support of clinical trials comparing these approaches is strongly encouraged.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079773
PMCID: PMC3817258  PMID: 24224003
12.  Threats to Validity in the Design and Conduct of Preclinical Efficacy Studies: A Systematic Review of Guidelines for In Vivo Animal Experiments 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(7):e1001489.
Background
The vast majority of medical interventions introduced into clinical development prove unsafe or ineffective. One prominent explanation for the dismal success rate is flawed preclinical research. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical research guidelines and organized recommendations according to the type of validity threat (internal, construct, or external) or programmatic research activity they primarily address.
Methods and Findings
We searched MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Google, and the EQUATOR Network website for all preclinical guideline documents published up to April 9, 2013 that addressed the design and conduct of in vivo animal experiments aimed at supporting clinical translation. To be eligible, documents had to provide guidance on the design or execution of preclinical animal experiments and represent the aggregated consensus of four or more investigators. Data from included guidelines were independently extracted by two individuals for discrete recommendations on the design and implementation of preclinical efficacy studies. These recommendations were then organized according to the type of validity threat they addressed. A total of 2,029 citations were identified through our search strategy. From these, we identified 26 guidelines that met our eligibility criteria—most of which were directed at neurological or cerebrovascular drug development. Together, these guidelines offered 55 different recommendations. Some of the most common recommendations included performance of a power calculation to determine sample size, randomized treatment allocation, and characterization of disease phenotype in the animal model prior to experimentation.
Conclusions
By identifying the most recurrent recommendations among preclinical guidelines, we provide a starting point for developing preclinical guidelines in other disease domains. We also provide a basis for the study and evaluation of preclinical research practice.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
The development process for new drugs is lengthy and complex. It begins in the laboratory, where scientists investigate the causes of diseases and identify potential new treatments. Next, promising interventions undergo preclinical research in cells and in animals (in vivo animal experiments) to test whether the intervention has the expected effect and to support the generalization (extension) of this treatment–effect relationship to patients. Drugs that pass these tests then enter clinical trials, where their safety and efficacy is tested in selected groups of patients under strictly controlled conditions. Finally, the government bodies responsible for drug approval review the results of the clinical trials, and successful drugs receive a marketing license, usually a decade or more after the initial laboratory work. Notably, only 11% of agents that enter clinical testing (investigational drugs) are ultimately licensed.
Why Was This Study Done?
The frequent failure of investigational drugs during clinical translation is potentially harmful to trial participants. Moreover, the costs of these failures are passed onto healthcare systems in the form of higher drug prices. It would be good, therefore, to reduce the attrition rate of investigational drugs. One possible explanation for the dismal success rate of clinical translation is that preclinical research, the key resource for justifying clinical development, is flawed. To address this possibility, several groups of preclinical researchers have issued guidelines intended to improve the design and execution of in vivo animal studies. In this systematic review (a study that uses predefined criteria to identify all the research on a given topic), the authors identify the experimental practices that are commonly recommended in these guidelines and organize these recommendations according to the type of threat to validity (internal, construct, or external) that they address. Internal threats to validity are factors that confound reliable inferences about treatment–effect relationships in preclinical research. For example, experimenter expectation may bias outcome assessment. Construct threats to validity arise when researchers mischaracterize the relationship between an experimental system and the clinical disease it is intended to represent. For example, researchers may use an animal model for a complex multifaceted clinical disease that only includes one characteristic of the disease. External threats to validity are unseen factors that frustrate the transfer of treatment–effect relationships from animal models to patients.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified 26 preclinical guidelines that met their predefined eligibility criteria. Twelve guidelines addressed preclinical research for neurological and cerebrovascular drug development; other disorders covered by guidelines included cardiac and circulatory disorders, sepsis, pain, and arthritis. Together, the guidelines offered 55 different recommendations for the design and execution of preclinical in vivo animal studies. Nineteen recommendations addressed threats to internal validity. The most commonly included recommendations of this type called for the use of power calculations to ensure that sample sizes are large enough to yield statistically meaningful results, random allocation of animals to treatment groups, and “blinding” of researchers who assess outcomes to treatment allocation. Among the 25 recommendations that addressed threats to construct validity, the most commonly included recommendations called for characterization of the properties of the animal model before experimentation and matching of the animal model to the human manifestation of the disease. Finally, six recommendations addressed threats to external validity. The most commonly included of these recommendations suggested that preclinical research should be replicated in different models of the same disease and in different species, and should also be replicated independently.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This systematic review identifies a range of investigational recommendations that preclinical researchers believe address threats to the validity of preclinical efficacy studies. Many of these recommendations are not widely implemented in preclinical research at present. Whether the failure to implement them explains the frequent discordance between the results on drug safety and efficacy obtained in preclinical research and in clinical trials is currently unclear. These findings provide a starting point, however, for the improvement of existing preclinical research guidelines for specific diseases, and for the development of similar guidelines for other diseases. They also provide an evidence-based platform for the analysis of preclinical evidence and for the study and evaluation of preclinical research practice. These findings should, therefore, be considered by investigators, institutional review bodies, journals, and funding agents when designing, evaluating, and sponsoring translational research.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001489.
The US Food and Drug Administration provides information about drug approval in the US for consumers and for health professionals; its Patient Network provides a step-by-step description of the drug development process that includes information on preclinical research
The UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) provides information about all aspects of the scientific evaluation and approval of new medicines in the UK; its My Medicine: From Laboratory to Pharmacy Shelf web pages describe the drug development process from scientific discovery, through preclinical and clinical research, to licensing and ongoing monitoring
The STREAM website provides ongoing information about policy, ethics, and practices used in clinical translation of new drugs
The CAMARADES collaboration offers a “supporting framework for groups involved in the systematic review of animal studies” in stroke and other neurological diseases
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001489
PMCID: PMC3720257  PMID: 23935460
13.  Comparative effectiveness of monotherapies and combination therapies for patients with hypertension: protocol for a systematic review with network meta-analyses 
Systematic Reviews  2013;2:44.
Background
Hypertension has been cited as the most common attributable risk factor for death worldwide, and in Canada more than one of every five adults had this diagnosis in 2007. In addition to different lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise, there exist many pharmaco-therapies from different drug classes which can be used to lower blood pressure, thereby reducing the risk of serious clinical outcomes. In moderate and severe cases, more than one agent may be used. The optimal mono- and combination therapies for mild hypertension and moderate/severe hypertension are unclear, and clinical guidelines provide different recommendations for first line therapy. The objective of this review is to explore the relative benefits and safety of different pharmacotherapies for management of non-diabetic patients with hypertension, whether of a mild or moderate to severe nature.
Methods/Design
Searches involving MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews will be used to identify related systematic reviews and relevant randomized trials. The outcomes of interest include myocardial infarction, stroke, incident diabetes, heart failure, overall and cardiovascular related death, and important side effects (cancers, depression, syncopal episodes/falls and sexual dysfunction). Randomized controlled trials will be sought. Two reviewers will independently screen relevant reviews, titles and abstracts resulting from the literature search, and also potentially relevant full-text articles in duplicate. Data will be abstracted and quality will be appraised by two team members independently. Conflicts at all levels of screening and abstraction will be resolved through team discussion. Random effect pairwise meta-analyses and network meta-analyses will be conducted where deemed appropriate. Analyses will be geared toward studying treatment of mild hypertension and moderate/severe hypertension separately.
Discussion
Our systematic review results will assess the extent of currently available evidence for single agent and multi-agent pharmacotherapies in patients with mild, moderate and severe hypertension, and will provide a rigorous and updated synthesis of a range of important clinical outcomes for clinicians, decision makers and patients.
Trial registration
PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013004459
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-2-44
PMCID: PMC3701495  PMID: 23809864
Hypertension; Pharmacotherapy; Systematic Review; Network Meta-analysis
14.  Quinolone prophylaxis for the prevention of BK virus infection in kidney transplantation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2013;14:185.
Background
BK virus infection has emerged as a major complication in kidney transplantation leading to a significant reduction in graft survival. There are currently no proven strategies to prevent or treat BK virus infection. Quinolone antibiotics, such as levofloxacin, have demonstrated activity against BK virus. We hypothesize that administration of a quinolone antibiotic, when given early post-transplantation, will prevent the establishment of BK viral replication in the urine and thus prevent systemic BK virus infection.
Methods/design
The aim of this pilot trial is to assess the efficacy, safety and feasibility of a 3-month course of levofloxacin in the kidney transplant population. This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel arms conducted in 11 Canadian kidney transplant centers. A total of 154 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing kidney transplantation will be randomized to receive a 3-month course of levofloxacin or placebo starting in the early post-transplant period. Levofloxacin will be administered at 500 mg po daily with dose adjustments based on kidney function. The primary outcome will be the time to occurrence of BK viruria within the first year post-transplantation. Secondary outcomes include BK viremia, measures of safety (adverse events, resistant infections,Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea), measures of feasibility (proportion of transplanted patients recruited into the trial), proportion of patients adherent to the protocol, patient drop-out and loss to follow-up,and use of quinolone antibiotics outside of the trial protocol.
Discussion
Results from this pilot study will provide vital information to design and conduct a large, multicenter trial to determine if quinolone therapy decreases clinically meaningful outcomes in kidney transplantation. If levofloxacin significantly reduces BK viruria and urine viral loads in kidney transplantation, it will provide important justification to progress to the larger trial. If the full trial shows that levofloxacin significantly reduces BK infection and improves outcomes, its use in kidney transplantation will be strongly endorsed given the lack of proven therapies for this condition.
Trial registration
This trial was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant number:222493) and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01353339).
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-185
PMCID: PMC3691619  PMID: 23800312
Kidney transplantation; BK virus; Polyomavirus; Quinolone; Levofloxacin; Randomized controlled trial
15.  Transfusion-related acute lung injury in the Canadian paediatric population 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2012;17(5):235-239.
BACKGROUND:
The incidence of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in adults is approximately one per 5000 transfusions. The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program undertook the present study to determine the incidence of TRALI in the paediatric population and to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children with TRALI.
METHODS:
The present surveillance study was conducted over a three-year period.
RESULTS:
Four TRALI cases were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 1.8 per 100,000 transfusions. The degree of severity varied: in two patients, only supplemental oxygen was necessary, while the other two required mechanical ventilation.
CONCLUSION:
TRALI was reported much less often in the present study compared with adult studies; therefore, it needs to be determined whether TRALI occurs less frequently in children, or alternatively, whether TRALI is recognized less often in children. The possibility that neonates who undergo cardiac surgery are at greater risk of TRALI than other patients should be addressed in future studies.
PMCID: PMC3381913  PMID: 23633895
Acute lung injury; Blood transfusion; Child; Paediatrics; TRALI
16.  Blood transfusion and hemostatic agents used during radical cystectomy 
Background:
Radical cystectomy may result in significant blood loss necessitating transfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine what intra-operative techniques and hemostatic agents are currently used by uro-oncologists to prevent and control blood loss during radical cystectomy.
Methods:
In August 2011, members of the Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO) were solicited to complete an online survey. Residents, fellows and non-urologists were excluded. Canadian members received a personal email invitation. Respondents were asked to provide demographic information and opinions regarding blood loss and transfusion. Participants were also asked to report techniques used to reduce blood loss.
Results:
Of the 34 Canadian SUO members with registered email addresses, 27 (79%) completed the survey and met inclusion criteria as staff urologists who perform radical cystectomy. In addition, 52 non-Canadian SUO members were included in the analysis. Among all SUO respondents, a high proportion (73; 88%) reported using topical hemostatic agents during cystectomy. Thirty-six (46%) surgeons reported occasionally using procedural techniques and 9 (11%) using systemic hemostatic agents. Number of years since training was associated with decreased use of topical agents and increased use of procedural techniques (p < 0.01). Number of cystectomies per year was associated with decreased use of topical hemostatic agents (p < 0.01).
Interpretation:
Based on a survey of practice, there is significant risk of blood loss requiring transfusion during radical cystectomy. Surgeons frequently use topical hemostatic agents and rarely use systemic drugs to prevent or control blood loss. Trials evaluating agents and techniques to reduce blood loss during radical cystectomy are needed.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.1002
PMCID: PMC3668410  PMID: 23766829
17.  Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Is Simple Oral Hydration Similar To Intravenous? A Systematic Review of the Evidence 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e60009.
Background
Pre-procedural intravenous fluid administration is an effective prophylaxis measure for contrast-induced acute kidney injury. For logistical ease, the oral route is an alternative to the intravenous. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of the oral to the intravenous route in prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury.
Study Design
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials with a stratified analysis and metaregression. Databases included MEDLINE (1950 to November 23 2011), EMBASE (1947 to week 47 2011), Cochrane CENTRAL (3rd quarter 2011). Two reviewers identified relevant trials and abstracted data.
Settings and Population
Trials including patients undergoing a contrast enhanced procedure.
Selection Criteria
Randomised controlled trial; adult (>18 years) population; comparison of oral versus intravenous volume expansion.
Intervention
Oral route of volume expansion compared to the intravenous route.
Outcomes
Any measure of acute kidney injury, need for renal replacement therapy, hospitalization and death.
Results
Six trials including 513 patients met inclusion criteria. The summary odds ratio was 1.19 (95% CI 0.46, 3.10, p = 0.73) suggesting no difference between the two routes of volume expansion. There was significant heterogeneity (Cochran’s Q = 11.65, p = 0.04; I2 = 57). In the stratified analysis, inclusion of the five studies with a prespecified oral volume expansion protocol resulted in a shift towards oral volume expansion (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.37, 1.50, p = 0.42) and also resolved the heterogeneity (Q = 3.19, P = 0.53; I2 = 0).
Limitations
Small number of studies identified; lack of hard clinical outcomes.
Conclusion
The oral route may be as effective as the intravenous route for volume expansion for contrast-induced acute kidney injury prevention. Adequately powered trials with hard endpoints should be done given the potential advantages of oral (e.g. reduced patient burden and cost) over intravenous volume expansion.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060009
PMCID: PMC3608617  PMID: 23555863
18.  The association between renal tumour scoring systems and ischemia time during open partial nephrectomy 
Objective:
To evaluate the association between renal tumour scoring systems and open partial nephrectomy ischemia time.
Methods:
A historical cohort of open partial nephrectomy patients at The Ottawa Hospital between 2002 and 2009 was reviewed. Preoperative patient characteristics (age, gender, preoperative renal function, diabetes, hypertension, smoking history, heart disease) and ischemia time were abstracted from medical records. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed and tumours were characterized using three scoring systems: (1) R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumour to the collecting system or sinus in millimetres, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines); (2) preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic (PADUA) classification; and (3) Centrality index (C index). Patients without preoperative CT and patients treated with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy were excluded.
Results:
During the study period, 78 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median R.E.N.A.L. score was 7 (interquartile range [IQR] 5–8), median PADUA score was 8 (IQR 7–10), and mean C index was 3.9 (standard deviation [SD] 2.1). Mean ischemia time was 23.4 (SD 10.8) minutes. Five individual tumour characteristics (diameter, nearness to collecting system, anterior/posterior location, medial/lateral location, and collecting system involvement) were strongly associated with ischemia time (p < 0.05). Increased R.E.N.A.L. score (1.5 minutes per unit 95%CI 0.08, 2.9, p = 0.04) and PADUA score (2.0 minutes per unit 95%CI 0.5, 3.5, p = 0.009) were significantly associated with ischemia time. An increasing C index score was also associated with ischemia time (−1.1 minutes per unit 95%CI −2.2, 0.04, p = 0.06), but the association was not statistically significant.
Conclusion:
Renal tumour characteristics are associated with ischemia time. The proposed scoring systems are useful descriptors of surgical complexity and should be used when describing partial nephrectomy patients. Prospective evaluation and refinement of scoring systems are required to create an optimized model prior to widespread application.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.11202
PMCID: PMC3650784  PMID: 22630339
19.  Clinical review: Canadian National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products - Massive Transfusion Consensus Conference 2011: report of the panel 
Critical Care  2011;15(6):242.
In June 2011 the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products sponsored an international consensus conference on transfusion and trauma. A panel of 10 experts and two external advisors reviewed the current medical literature and information presented at the conference by invited international speakers and attendees. The Consensus Panel addressed six specific questions on the topic of blood transfusion in trauma. The questions focused on: ratio-based blood resuscitation in trauma patients; the impact of survivorship bias in current research conclusions; the value of nonplasma coagulation products; the role of protocols for delivery of urgent transfusion; the merits of traditional laboratory monitoring compared with measures of clot viscoelasticity; and opportunities for future research. Key findings include a lack of evidence to support the use of 1:1:1 blood component ratios as the standard of care, the importance of early use of tranexamic acid, the expected value of an organized response plan, and the recommendation for an integrated approach that includes antifibrinolytics, rapid release of red blood cells, and a foundation ratio of blood components adjusted by results from either traditional coagulation tests or clot viscoelasticity or both. The present report is intended to provide guidance to practitioners, hospitals, and policy-makers.
doi:10.1186/cc10498
PMCID: PMC3388668  PMID: 22188866
20.  Safety of Cell Therapy with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (SafeCell): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47559.
Background
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, “adult stem cells”) have been widely used experimentally in a variety of clinical contexts. There is interest in using these cells in critical illness, however, the safety profile of these cells is not well known. We thus conducted a systematic review of clinical trials that examined the use MSCs to evaluate their safety.
Methods and Findings
MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (to June 2011), were searched. Prospective clinical trials that used intravascular delivery of MSCs (intravenously or intra-arterially) in adult populations or mixed adult and pediatric populations were identified. Studies using differentiated MSCs or additional cell types were excluded. The primary outcome adverse events were grouped according to immediate events (acute infusional toxicity, fever), organ system complications, infection, and longer term adverse events (death, malignancy). 2347 citations were reviewed and 36 studies met inclusion criteria. A total of 1012 participants with clinical conditions of ischemic stroke, Crohn's disease, cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, graft versus host disease, and healthy volunteers were included. Eight studies were randomized control trials (RCTs) and enrolled 321 participants. Meta-analysis of the RCTs did not detect an association between acute infusional toxicity, organ system complications, infection, death or malignancy. There was a significant association between MSCs and transient fever.
Conclusions
Based on the current clinical trials, MSC therapy appears safe. However, further larger scale controlled clinical trials with rigorous reporting of adverse events are required to further define the safety profile of MSCs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047559
PMCID: PMC3485008  PMID: 23133515
21.  Diagnostic randomized controlled trials: the final frontier 
Trials  2012;13:137.
Clinicians, patients, governments, third-party payers, and the public take for granted that diagnostic tests are accurate, safe and effective. However, we may be seriously misled if we are relying on robust study design to ensure accurate, safe, and effective diagnostic tests. Properly conducted, randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for assessing the effectiveness and safety of interventions, yet are rarely conducted in the assessment of diagnostic tests. Instead, diagnostic cohort studies are commonly performed to assess the characteristics of a diagnostic test including sensitivity and specificity. While diagnostic cohort studies can inform us about the relative accuracy of an experimental diagnostic intervention compared to a reference standard, they do not inform us about whether the differences in accuracy are clinically important, or the degree of clinical importance (in other words, the impact on patient outcomes). In this commentary we provide the advantages of the diagnostic randomized controlled trial and suggest a greater awareness and uptake in their conduct. Doing so will better ensure that patients are offered diagnostic procedures that will make a clinical difference.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-137
PMCID: PMC3495679  PMID: 22897974
Clinical trials; diagnostic tests; randomization
22.  Increased Urinary Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Renal Transplant Patients with Diabetes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37649.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is expressed in the kidney and may be a renoprotective enzyme, since it converts angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7). ACE2 has been detected in urine from patients with chronic kidney disease. We measured urinary ACE2 activity and protein levels in renal transplant patients (age 54 yrs, 65% male, 38% diabetes, n = 100) and healthy controls (age 45 yrs, 26% male, n = 50), and determined factors associated with elevated urinary ACE2 in the patients. Urine from transplant subjects was also assayed for ACE mRNA and protein. No subjects were taking inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. Urinary ACE2 levels were significantly higher in transplant patients compared to controls (p = 0.003 for ACE2 activity, and p≤0.001 for ACE2 protein by ELISA or western analysis). Transplant patients with diabetes mellitus had significantly increased urinary ACE2 activity and protein levels compared to non-diabetics (p<0.001), while ACE2 mRNA levels did not differ. Urinary ACE activity and protein were significantly increased in diabetic transplant subjects, while ACE mRNA levels did not differ from non-diabetic subjects. After adjusting for confounding variables, diabetes was significantly associated with urinary ACE2 activity (p = 0.003) and protein levels (p<0.001), while female gender was associated with urinary mRNA levels for both ACE2 and ACE. These data indicate that urinary ACE2 is increased in renal transplant recipients with diabetes, possibly due to increased shedding from tubular cells. Urinary ACE2 could be a marker of renal renin-angiotensin system activation in these patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037649
PMCID: PMC3358292  PMID: 22629438
23.  Expert Opinion on Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer Parallels Evidence from a Cumulative Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e35292.
Background
This study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence.
Study Design
A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews, guidelines, and textbook chapters) on the acceptability of laparoscopic colorectal cancer was graded using a 7-point scale. Pooled survival data were correlated in time with accumulating expert opinion scores.
Results
A total of 5,800 citations were screened. Of these, 39 publications pertaining to 23 individual trials were retained. As well, 414 reviews were included (28 guidelines, 30 textbook chapters, 20 systematic reviews, 336 narrative reviews). In total, 5,782 patients were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 3,031) and open (n = 2,751) colorectal surgery. Survival data were presented in 16 publications. Laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.09). Expert opinion in the literature pertaining to the oncologic acceptability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer correlated most closely with the publication of large RCTs in 2002–2004. Although increasingly accepted since 2006, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial.
Conclusions
Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is non-inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival, and has been so since 2004. The majority expert opinion in the literature has considered these two techniques to be equivalent since 2002–2004. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been increasingly accepted since 2006, but remains controversial. Knowledge translation efforts in this field appear to have paralleled the accumulation of clinical trial evidence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035292
PMCID: PMC3332109  PMID: 22532846
24.  Hemoglobin levels and transfusions in neurocritically ill patients: a systematic review of comparative studies 
Critical Care  2012;16(2):R54.
Introduction
Accumulating evidence suggests that, in critically ill patients, a lower hemoglobin transfusion threshold is safe. However, the optimal hemoglobin level and associated transfusion threshold remain unknown in neurocritically ill patients.
Methods
We conducted a systematic review of comparative studies (randomized and nonrandomized) to evaluate the effect of hemoglobin levels on mortality, neurologic function, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and multiple organ failure in adult and pediatric neurocritically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar. Studies focusing on any neurocritical care conditions were included. Data are presented by using odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes.
Results
Among 4,310 retrieved records, six studies met inclusion criteria (n = 537). Four studies were conducted in traumatic brain injury (TBI), one in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and one in a mixed population of neurocritically ill patients. The minimal hemoglobin levels or transfusion thresholds ranged from 7 to 10 g/dl in the lower-Hb groups and from 9.3 to 11.5 g/dl in the higher-Hb groups. Three studies had a low risk of bias, and three had a high risk of bias. No effect was observed on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, or multiple organ failure. In studies reporting on length of stay (n = 4), one reported a significant shorter ICU stay (mean, -11.4 days (95% confidence interval, -16.1 to -6.7)), and one, a shorter hospital stay (mean, -5.7 days (-10.3 to -1.1)) in the lower-Hb groups, whereas the other two found no significant association.
Conclusions
We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute a difference in effect between lower- and higher-Hb groups in neurocritically ill patients. Considering the lack of evidence regarding long-term neurologic functional outcomes and the high risk of bias of half the studies, no recommendation can be made regarding which hemoglobin level to target and which associated transfusion strategy (restrictive or liberal) to favor in neurocritically ill patients.
doi:10.1186/cc11293
PMCID: PMC3681381  PMID: 22471943

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