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1.  Diagnostic Imaging Guidelines Implementation Study for Spinal Disorders 
Implementation strategies of imaging guidelines can assist in reducing the number of radiographic examinations. This study aimed to compare the perceived need for diagnostic imaging before and after an educational intervention strategy.
One hundred sixty Swiss chiropractors attending a conference were randomized to either receive a radiology workshop, reviewing appropriate indications for diagnostic imaging for adult spine disorders (n = 80), or be in a control group (CG). One group of 40 individuals dropped out from the CG due to logistic reasons. Participants in the intervention group were randomly assigned to three subgroups to evaluate the effect of an online reminder at midpoint. All participants underwent a pretest and a final test at 14–16 weeks. A posttest was administered to two subgroups at 8–10 weeks.
There was no difference between baseline scores, and overall scores for the pretest and the final tests for all four groups were not significantly different. However, the subgroup provided with access to a reminder performed significantly better than the subgroup with whom they were compared (F = 4.486; df = 1 and 30; p = .043). Guideline adherence was 50.5% (95% CI, 39.1–61.8) for the intervention group and 43.7% (95% CI, 23.7–63.6) for the CG at baseline. Adherence at follow-up was lower, but mean group differences remained insignificant.
Online access to specific recommendations while making a clinical decision may favorably influence the intention to either order or not order imaging studies. However, a didactic presentation alone did not appear to change the perception for the need of diagnostic imaging studies.
PMCID: PMC2870986  PMID: 20480010
Diagnostic Imaging; Diagnostic X-Ray; Education, Continuing; Guidelines; Knowledge Acquisitions (Computer); Radiology; Randomized Controlled Trial
2.  Fast tracking the design of theory-based KT interventions through a consensus process 
Despite available evidence for optimal management of spinal pain, poor adherence to guidelines and wide variations in healthcare services persist. One of the objectives of the Canadian Chiropractic Guideline Initiative is to develop and evaluate targeted theory- and evidence-informed interventions to improve the management of non-specific neck pain by chiropractors. In order to systematically develop a knowledge translation (KT) intervention underpinned by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), we explored the factors perceived to influence the use of multimodal care to manage non-specific neck pain, and mapped behaviour change techniques to key theoretical domains.
Individual telephone interviews exploring beliefs about managing neck pain were conducted with a purposive sample of 13 chiropractors. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis. A 15-member expert panel formally met to design a KT intervention.
Nine TDF domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs (and relevant domains of the TDF) included the following: influence of formal training, colleagues and patients on clinicians (Social Influences); availability of educational material (Environmental Context and Resources); and better clinical outcomes reinforcing the use of multimodal care (Reinforcement). Facilitating factors considered important included better communication (Skills); audits of patients’ treatment-related outcomes (Behavioural Regulation); awareness and agreement with guidelines (Knowledge); and tailoring of multimodal care (Memory, Attention and Decision Processes). Clinicians conveyed conflicting beliefs about perceived threats to professional autonomy (Social/Professional Role and Identity) and speed of recovery from either applying or ignoring the practice recommendations (Beliefs about Consequences). The expert panel mapped behaviour change techniques to key theoretical domains and identified relevant KT strategies and modes of delivery to increase the use of multimodal care among chiropractors.
A multifaceted KT educational intervention targeting chiropractors’ management of neck pain was developed. The KT intervention consisted of an online education webinar series, clinical vignettes and a video underpinned by the Brief Action Planning model. The intervention was designed to reflect key theoretical domains, behaviour change techniques and intervention components. The effectiveness of the proposed intervention remains to be tested.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13012-015-0213-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4330935
Theoretical domains framework; Knowledge translation; Interviews; Content analysis; Intervention design; Multifaceted intervention; Chiropractic; Neck pain; Self-management
3.  Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework 
The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays.
Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF.
Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences); beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity); the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences); conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients without x-rays ( belief about capabilities); and guideline awareness and agreements ( knowledge).
Chiropractors’ use of diagnostic imaging appears to be influenced by a number of factors. Five key domains may be important considering the presence of conflicting beliefs, evidence of strong beliefs likely to impact the behavior of interest, and high frequency of beliefs. The results will inform the development of a theory-based survey to help identify potential targets for behavioral-change strategies.
PMCID: PMC3444898  PMID: 22938135
Theoretical domains framework; Focus groups; Content analysis; Social/professional role and identity; Social influence; Chiropractors; Radiography; X-ray guidelines; Back pain

Results 1-6 (6)