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3.  Health-related quality of life of young adults with Turner syndrome following a long-term randomized controlled trial of recombinant human growth hormone 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:49.
Background
There are limited long-term randomized controlled trials of growth hormone (GH) supplementation to adult height and few published reports of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following treatment. The present follow-up study of young adults from a long-term controlled trial of GH treatment in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) yielded data to examine whether GH supplementation resulted in a higher HRQOL (either due to taller stature or from the knowledge that active treatment and not placebo had been received) or alternatively a lower HRQOL (due to medicalization from years of injections).
Methods
The original trial randomized 154 Canadian girls with TS aged 7-13 years from 13 centres to receive either long-term GH injections at the pharmacologic dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week or to receive no injections; estrogen prescription for induction of puberty was standardized. Patients were eligible for the follow-up study if they were at least 16 years old at the time of follow-up. The instrument used to study HRQOL was the SF-36, summarized into physical and mental component scales (PCS and MCS); higher scores indicate better HRQOL.
Results
Thirty-four of the 48 eligible participants (71%) consented to participate; data were missing for one patient. Both groups (GH and no treatment) had normal HRQOL at this post-treatment assessment. The GH group had a (mean ± SD) PCS score of 56 ± 5; the untreated group 58 ± 4; mean score for 16-24 year old females in the general population 53.5 ± 6.9. The GH group had a mean MCS score of 52 ± 6; the untreated group 49 ± 13; mean score for 16-24 year old females in the general population 49.6 ± 9.8. Secondary analyses showed no relationship between HRQOL and height.
Conclusions
We found no benefit or adverse effect on HRQOL either from receiving or not receiving growth hormone injections in a long-term randomized controlled trial, confirming larger observational studies. We suggest that it remains ethically acceptable as well as necessary to maintain a long-term untreated control group to estimate the effects of pharmacological agents to manipulate adult height. Young adult women with TS have normal HRQOL suggesting that they adjust well to their challenges in life.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00191113.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-49
PMCID: PMC3125334  PMID: 21619701
4.  Follow-Up Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Data Identifies Novel Loci for Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):290-295.
OBJECTIVE—Two recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have revealed novel loci for type 1 diabetes, a common multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. To fully utilize the GWA data that we had obtained by genotyping 563 type 1 diabetes probands and 1,146 control subjects, as well as 483 case subject–parent trios, using the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip, we designed a full stage 2 study to capture other possible association signals.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—From our existing datasets, we selected 982 markers with P < 0.05 in both GWA cohorts. Genotyping these in an independent set of 636 nuclear families with 974 affected offspring revealed 75 markers that also had P < 0.05 in this third cohort. Among these, six single nucleotide polymorphisms in five novel loci also had P < 0.05 in the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium dataset and were further tested in 1,303 type 1 diabetes probands from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) plus 1,673 control subjects.
RESULTS—Two markers (rs9976767 and rs3757247) remained significant after adjusting for the number of tests in this last cohort; they reside in UBASH3A (OR 1.16; combined P = 2.33 × 10−8) and BACH2 (1.13; combined P = 1.25 × 10−6).
CONCLUSIONS—Evaluation of a large number of statistical GWA candidates in several independent cohorts has revealed additional loci that are associated with type 1 diabetes. The two genes at these respective loci, UBASH3A and BACH2, are both biologically relevant to autoimmunity.
doi:10.2337/db08-1022
PMCID: PMC2606889  PMID: 18840781
5.  Management of short stature 
Western Journal of Medicine  2002;176(3):169-172.
PMCID: PMC1071706  PMID: 12016239

Results 1-5 (5)