Previous reports suggested that abnormalities of INI1 could be detected in 70–75% of malignant rhabdoid tumors. The mechanism of inactivation in the other 25% remained unclear. The goal of this study was to perform a high-resolution genomic analysis of a large series of rhabdoid tumors with the expectation of identifying additional loci related to the initiation or progression of these malignancies. We also developed a comprehensive set of assays, including a new MLPA assay, to interrogate the INI1 locus in 22q11.2. Intragenic deletions could be detected using the Illumina 550K Beadchip, whereas single exon deletions could be detected using MLPA. The current study demonstrates that with a multi-platform approach, alterations at the INI1 locus can be detected in almost all cases. Thus, appropriate molecular genetic testing can be used as an aid in the diagnosis and for treatment planning for most patients.
A high-resolution genomic profiling and comprehensive targeted analysis of INI1/SMARCB1 of a large series of pediatric rhabdoid tumors was performed. The aim was to identify regions of copy number change and loss of heterozygosity that might pinpoint additional loci involved in the development or progression of rhabdoid tumors, and define the spectrum of genomic alterations of INI1 in this malignancy.
A multi-platform approach, utilizing Illumina single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based oligonucleotide arrays, multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and coding sequence analysis was used to characterize genome wide copy number changes, loss of heterozygosity, and genomic alterations of INI1/SMARCB1 in a series of pediatric rhabdoid tumors.
The bi-allelic alterations of INI1 that led to inactivation were elucidated in 50 of 51 tumors. INI1 inactivation was demonstrated by a variety of mechanisms, including deletions, mutations, and loss of heterozygosity. The results from the array studies highlighted the complexity of rearrangements of chromosome 22, compared to the low frequency of alterations involving the other chromosomes.
The results from the genome wide SNP-array analysis suggest that INI1 is the primary tumor suppressor gene involved in the development of rhabdoid tumors with no second locus identified. In addition, we did not identify hot spots for the breakpoints in sporadic tumors with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. By employing a multimodality approach, the wide spectrum of alterations of INI1 can be identified in the majority of patients, which increases the clinical utility of molecular diagnostic testing.