Mice have proved to be a powerful model organism for understanding obesity in humans. Single gene mutants and genetically modified mice have been used to identify obesity genes, and the discovery of loci for polygenic forms of obesity in the mouse is an important next step. To pursue this goal, the inbred mouse strains 129P3/J (129) and C57BL/6ByJ (B6), which differ in body weight, body length, and adiposity, were used in an F2 cross to identify loci affecting these phenotypes. Linkages were determined in a two-phase process. In the first phase, 169 randomly selected F2 mice were genotyped for 134 markers that covered all autosomes and the X Chromosome (Chr). Significant linkages were found for body weight and body length on Chr 2. In addition, we detected several suggestive linkages on Chr 2 (adiposity), 9 (body weight, body length, and adiposity), and 16 (adiposity), as well as two suggestive sex-dependent linkages for body length on Chrs 4 and 9. In the second phase, 288 additional F2 mice were genotyped for markers near these regions of linkage. In the combined set of 457 F2 mice, six significant linkages were found: Chr 2 (Bwq5, body weight and Bdln3, body length), Chr 4 (Bdln6, body length, males only), Chr 9 (Bwq6, body weight and Adip5, adiposity), and Chr 16 (Adip9, adiposity), as well as several suggestive linkages (Adip2, adiposity on Chr 2; Bdln4 and Bdln5, body length on Chr 9). In addition, there was a suggestive linkage to body length in males on Chr 9 (Bdln4). For adiposity, there was evidence for epistatic interactions between loci on Chr 9 (Adip5) and 16 (Adip9). These results reinforce the concept that obesity is a complex trait. Genetic loci and their interactions, in conjunction with sex, age, and diet, determine body size and adiposity in mice.