The association between QT interval and mortality has been demonstrated in large, prospective population-based studies, but the strength of the association varies considerably based on the method of heart rate correction. We examined the QT-mortality relationship in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS).
Participants in the first (original cohort, n = 2,365) and second generation (offspring cohort, n = 4,530) cohorts were included in this study with a mean follow up of 27.5 years. QT interval measurements were obtained manually using a highly reproducible digital caliper technique.
Using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for age and sex, a 20 msec increase in QTC (using Bazett’s correction; QT/RR1/2 interval) was associated with a modest increase in risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.18, p<0.0001), coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05–1.26, p = 0.003), and sudden cardiac death (SCD, HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03–1.37, p = 0.02). However, adjustment for heart rate using RR interval in linear regression attenuated this association. The association of QT interval with all-cause mortality persisted after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, but associations with CHD mortality and SCD were no longer significant.
In FHS, there is evidence of a graded relation between QTC and all-cause mortality, CHD death, and SCD; however, this association is attenuated by adjustment for RR interval. These data confirm that using Bazett’s heart rate correction, QTC, overestimates the association with mortality. An association with all-cause mortality persists despite a more complete adjustment for heart rate and known cardiovascular risk factors.
Heart rate; Mortality; QT interval; Sudden cardiac death
Perivascular adipose tissue may be associated with the amount of local atherosclerosis. We developed a novel and reproducible method to standardize volumetric quantification of periaortic adipose tissue by computed tomography (CT) and determined the association with anthropometric measures of obesity, and abdominal adipose tissue.
Measurements of adipose tissue were performed in a random subset of participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n=100) who underwent multidetector CT of the thorax (ECG triggering, 2.5 mm slice thickness) and the abdomen (helical CT acquisition, 2.5 mm slice thickness). Abdominal periaortic adipose tissue (AAT) was defined by a 5 mm cylindrical region of interest around the aortic wall; thoracic periaortic adipose tissue (TAT) was defined by anatomic landmarks. TAT and AAT were defined as any voxel between −195 HU to −45HU and volumes were measured using dedicated semiautomatic software. Measurement reproducibility and association with anthropometric measures of obesity, and abdominal adipose tissue were determined.
The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility for both AAT and TAT was excellent (ICC: 0.97, 0.97; 0.99, and 0.98, respectively). Similarly, the relative intra-and inter-observer difference was small for both AAT (−1.85±1.28% and 7.85±6.08%; respectively) and TAT (3.56±0.83% and −4.56±0.85%, respectively). Both AAT and TAT were highly correlated with visceral abdominal fat (r=0.65 and 0.77, p<0.0001 for both) and moderately correlated with subcutaneous abdominal fat (r=0.39 and 0.42, p<0.0001 and p=0.009), waist circumference (r=0.49 and 0.57, p<0.0001 for both), and body mass index (r=0.47 and 0.58, p<0.0001 for both).
Standardized semiautomatic CT-based volumetric quantification of periaortic adipose tissue is feasible and highly reproducible. Further investigation is warranted regarding associations of periaortic adipose tissue with other body fat deposits, cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical outcomes.
Adipose Tissue; Intra-Abdominal Fat; Tomography; Spiral Computed; Framingham Heart Study; Metabolic Risk Factors
Improvements in metabolite-profiling techniques are providing increased breadth of coverage of the human metabolome and may highlight biomarkers and pathways in common diseases such as diabetes. Using a metabolomics platform that analyzes intermediary organic acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other compounds, we performed a nested case-control study of 188 individuals who developed diabetes and 188 propensity-matched controls from 2,422 normoglycemic participants followed for 12 years in the Framingham Heart Study. The metabolite 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) was most strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes. Individuals with 2-AAA concentrations in the top quartile had greater than a 4-fold risk of developing diabetes. Levels of 2-AAA were not well correlated with other metabolite biomarkers of diabetes, such as branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, suggesting they report on a distinct pathophysiological pathway. In experimental studies, administration of 2-AAA lowered fasting plasma glucose levels in mice fed both standard chow and high-fat diets. Further, 2-AAA treatment enhanced insulin secretion from a pancreatic β cell line as well as murine and human islets. These data highlight a metabolite not previously associated with diabetes risk that is increased up to 12 years before the onset of overt disease. Our findings suggest that 2-AAA is a marker of diabetes risk and a potential modulator of glucose homeostasis in humans.
Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (<45, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75 years). The prevalence and burden of AAC increased monotonically and supralinearly with age in both sexes but was greater in men than women in each age group. Below age 45 <16% of referent-subsample participants had any quantifiable AAC, while above age 65 nearly 90% of referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort.
atherosclerosis; aorta; calcification; computed tomography; epidemiology
The suppression of tumorigenicity 2/IL-33 (ST2/IL-33) pathway has been implicated in several immune and inflammatory diseases. ST2 is produced as 2 isoforms. The membrane-bound isoform (ST2L) induces an immune response when bound to its ligand, IL-33. The other isoform is a soluble protein (sST2) that is thought to be a decoy receptor for IL-33 signaling. Elevated sST2 levels in serum are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the determinants of sST2 plasma concentrations in 2,991 Framingham Offspring Cohort participants. While clinical and environmental factors explained some variation in sST2 levels, much of the variation in sST2 production was driven by genetic factors. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), multiple SNPs within IL1RL1 (the gene encoding ST2) demonstrated associations with sST2 concentrations. Five missense variants of IL1RL1 correlated with higher sST2 levels in the GWAS and mapped to the intracellular domain of ST2, which is absent in sST2. In a cell culture model, IL1RL1 missense variants increased sST2 expression by inducing IL-33 expression and enhancing IL-33 responsiveness (via ST2L). Our data suggest that genetic variation in IL1RL1 can result in increased levels of sST2 and alter immune and inflammatory signaling through the ST2/IL-33 pathway.
Our objective was to assess whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and obesity are independently related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a community-based population.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We assessed CAC using multidetector computed tomography in 3,054 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean [SD] age was 50  years, 49% were women, 29% had IFG, and 25% were obese) free from known vascular disease or diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that IFG (5.6–6.9 mmol/L) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were independently associated with high CAC (>90th percentile for age and sex) after adjusting for hypertension, lipids, smoking, and medication.
High CAC was significantly related to IFG in an age- and sex-adjusted model (odds ratio 1.4 [95% CI 1.1–1.7], P = 0.002; referent: normal fasting glucose) and after further adjustment for obesity (1.3 [1.0–1.6], P = 0.045). However, IFG was not associated with high CAC in multivariable-adjusted models before (1.2 [0.9–1.4], P = 0.20) or after adjustment for obesity. Obesity was associated with high CAC in age- and sex-adjusted models (1.6 [1.3–2.0], P < 0.001) and in multivariable models that included IFG (1.4 [1.1–1.7], P = 0.005). Multivariable-adjusted spline regression models suggested nonlinear relationships linking high CAC with BMI (J-shaped), waist circumference (J-shaped), and fasting glucose.
In this community-based cohort, CAC was associated with obesity, but not IFG, after adjusting for important confounders. With the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and nondiabetic hyperglycemia, these data underscore the importance of obesity in the pathogenesis of CAC.
We sought to determine whether depressed myocardial contraction fraction (MCF, the ratio of left ventricular (LV) stroke volume to myocardial volume) predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in initially healthy adults. A subset (N=318, 60±9 yrs, 158 men) of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort free of clinical CVD underwent volumetric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in 1998–1999. LV ejection fraction (EF), mass and MCF were determined. “Hard” CVD events comprised cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or new heart failure. A Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS) was used to estimate hazard ratios for incident hard CVD events for sex-specific quartiles of MCF, LV mass and LVEF. The lowest quartile of LV mass and highest quartiles of MCF and EF served as referent. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and the log rank test were used to compare event-free survival. MCF was greater in women (0.58±0.13) than men (0.52±0.11), p<0.01. Nearly all (99%) participants had EF ≥ 0.55. Over up to 9-year (median 5.2) follow-up, 31 participants (10%) experienced an incident hard CVD event. Lowest-quartile MCF was 7 times more likely to develop hard CVD (hazard ratio 7.11, p=0.010) compared to the lowest quartile, and the elevated hazards persisted even after adjustment for LV mass (hazard ratio=6.09, p=0.020). The highest-quartile LV mass/height2.7 had nearly five-fold risk (hazard ratio 4.68, p=0.016). Event-free survival was shorter in lowest-quartile MCF, p = 0.0006, but not in lowest-quartile LVEF. Conclusion: In a cohort of adults initially without clinical CVD, lowest-quartile MCF conferred an increased hazard for hard CVD events after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors and LV mass.
magnetic resonance imaging; myocardial contraction fraction; risk factors; left ventricular function
Exercise blood pressure (BP) is an important marker of left ventricular hypertrophy, incident hypertension and future cardiovascular events. Although impaired vascular function is hypothesized to influence the BP response during exercise, limited data exist on the association of vascular function with exercise BP in the community.
Methods and Results
Framingham Offspring cohort participants (n=2115, 53% women, mean age 59 years) underwent a submaximal exercise test (first 2 stages of the Bruce protocol), applanation tonometry and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) testing. We related exercise systolic and diastolic BP at second stage of the Bruce protocol to standard cardiovascular risk factors and to vascular function measures. In multivariable linear regression models, exercise systolic BP was positively related to age, standing BP, standing heart rate, smoking, body mass index, and the total cholesterol-to-high-density cholesterol (HDL) ratio (p≤0.01 for all). Similar associations were observed for exercise diastolic BP. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (p=0.02), central pulse pressure (p<0.0001), mean arterial pressure (p=0.04) and baseline brachial flow (p=0.002) were positively associated with exercise systolic BP, whereas FMD was negatively associated (P<0.001). For exercise diastolic BP, forward pressure wave amplitude was negatively related (p<0.0001) whereas mean arterial pressure was positively related (p<0.0001).
Increased arterial stiffness and impaired endothelial function are significant correlates of a higher exercise systolic BP response. Our findings suggest that impaired vascular function may contribute to exaggerated BP responses during daily living, resulting in repetitive increments in load on the heart and vessels and increased cardiovascular disease risk.
blood pressure; endothelial function; exercise; vascular function; vascular stiffness
Prevention; Healthcare delivery; Outcomes
Quantitative analysis of short-axis functional cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images can be performed using automatic contour detection methods. The resulting myocardial contours must be reviewed and possibly corrected, which can be time-consuming, particularly when performed across all cardiac phases. We quantified the impact of manual contour corrections on both analysis time and quantitative measurements obtained from left ventricular (LV) short-axis cine images acquired from 1555 participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort using computer aided contour detection methods. The total analysis time for a single case was 7.6±1.7 minutes for an average of 221±36 myocardial contours per participant. This included 4.8±1.6 minutes for manual contour correction of 2% of all automatically-detected endocardial contours and 8% of all automatically-detected epicardial contours. However, the impact of these corrections on global LV parameters was limited, introducing differences of 0.4±4.1ml for end-diastolic volume, −0.3±2.9ml for end-systolic volume, 0.7±3.1 ml for stroke volume and 0.3±1.8% for ejection fraction. We conclude that LV functional parameters can be obtained under 5 minutes from short-axis functional CMR images using automatic contour detection methods. Manual correction more than doubles analysis time, with minimal impact on LV volumes and ejection fraction.
Earlier studies have suggested that a common genetic architecture underlies the clinically heterogeneous polygenic Fredrickson hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) phenotypes defined by hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Here, we comprehensively analyzed 504 HLP-HTG patients and 1213 normotriglyceridemic controls and confirmed that a spectrum of common and rare lipid-associated variants underlies this heterogeneity.
Methods and Results
First, we demonstrated that genetic determinants of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, including common variants associated with plasma triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium were associated with multiple HLP-HTG phenotypes. Second, we demonstrated that weighted risk scores composed of common TG-associated variants were distinctly increased across all HLP-HTG phenotypes compared with controls; weighted HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores were also increased, although to a less pronounced degree with some HLP-HTG phenotypes. Interestingly, decomposition of HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores revealed that pleiotropic variants (those jointly associated with TG) accounted for the greatest difference in HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores. The APOE E2/E2 genotype was significantly overrepresented in HLP type 3 versus other phenotypes. Finally, rare variants in 4 genes accumulated equally across HLP-HTG phenotypes.
HTG susceptibility and phenotypic heterogeneity are both influenced by accumulation of common and rare TG-associated variants.
lipoproteins; genetic risk scores; genetic variation; hypertriglyceridemia; pleiotropy
Main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA) and ratio of mPA to ascending aorta diameter (ratio PA) derived from chest CT are commonly reported in clinical practice. We determined the age and sex-specific distribution and normal reference values for mPA and ratio PA by CT in an asymptomatic community-based population.
Methods and Results
In 3171 men and women (mean age 51 ± 10 years, 51% men) from the Framingham Heart Study, a non-contrast ECG gated eight-slice cardiac multi-detector CT was performed. We measured the mPA and transverse axial diameter of the ascending aorta at the level of the bifurcation of the right pulmonary artery and calculated the ratio PA. We defined the healthy referent cohort (n=706) as those without obesity, hypertension, current and past smokers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of pulmonary embolism, diabetics, cardiovascular disease, and heart valvular surgery. The mean mPA diameter in the overall cohort was 25.1 ± 2.8mm and mean ratio PA was 0.77 ± 0.09. The sex-specific 90th percentile cutoff value for mPA diameter was 28.9 mm in men and 26.9 mm in women and was associated with increase risk for self-reported dyspnea (adjusted odds ratio 1.31, p=0.02). The 90th percentile cutoff value for ratio PA of the healthy referent group was 0.91, similar between gender, but decreased with increasing age (range 0.82 to 0.94), though not associated with dyspnea.
For simplicity, we established 29 mm in men and 27 mm in women as sex-specific normative reference values for mPA and 0.9 for ratio PA.
pulmonary artery; Framingham Heart Study; computed tomography
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by computed tomography is a non-invasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, that underlies most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to identify common genetic variants associated with CAC and further investigate their associations with MI.
Methods and Results
Computed tomography was used to assess quantity of CAC. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for CAC was carried out in 9,961 men and women from five independent community-based cohorts, with replication in three additional independent cohorts (n=6,032). We examined the top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CAC quantity for association with MI in multiple large genome-wide association studies of MI. Genome-wide significant associations with CAC for SNPs on chromosome 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B (top SNP: rs1333049, P=7.58×10−19) and 6p24 (top SNP: rs9349379, within the PHACTR1 gene, P=2.65×10−11) replicated for CAC and for MI. Additionally, there is evidence for concordance of SNP associations with both CAC and with MI at a number of other loci, including 3q22 (MRAS gene), 13q34 (COL4A1/COL4A2 genes), and 1p13 (SORT1 gene).
SNPs in the 9p21 and PHACTR1 gene loci were strongly associated with CAC and MI, and there are suggestive associations with both CAC and MI of SNPs in additional loci. Multiple genetic loci are associated with development of both underlying coronary atherosclerosis and clinical events.
cardiac computed tomography; coronary artery calcification; coronary atherosclerosis; genome-wide association studies; myocardial infarction
After age, gender is the most important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The mechanism through which women are protected from CAD is still largely unknown, but the observed gender difference suggests the involvement of the reproductive steroid hormone signaling system. Genetic association studies of the gene encoding Estrogen Receptor alpha (ESR1) have shown conflicting results, although only a limited range of variation in the gene has been investigated.
Methods and Results
We exploited information made available by advanced new methods and resources in complex disease genetics to revisit the question of ESR1's role in risk of CAD. We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies (CARDIoGRAM discovery analysis, N~87,000) to search for population-wide and gender-specific associations between CAD risk and common genetic variants throughout the coding, non-coding and flanking regions of ESR1. In additional samples from the MIGen (N~6,000), WTCCC (N~7,400) and Framingham (N~3,700) studies, we extended this search to a larger number of common and uncommon variants by imputation into a panel of haplotypes constructed using data from the 1000 Genomes project. Despite the widespread expression of ER alpha in vascular tissues, we find no evidence for involvement of common or low-frequency genetic variation throughout the ESR1 gene in modifying risk of CAD, either in the general population or as a function of gender.
We suggest that future research on the genetic basis of gender-related differences in CAD risk should initially prioritize other genes in the reproductive steroid hormone biosynthesis system.
coronary artery disease; estrogen receptor alpha; menopause; polymorphism, single nucleotide; genetic association studies; meta-analysis
Periaortic fat, because of its contiguity with the aorta, may promote vascular remodeling and aortic dilatation. However, the relations between perioartic fat depots and aortic dimensions have not been previously described.
Methods and Results
A total of 3001 individuals (mean age 50±10 years, 49% women) from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent computed tomography for quantification of periaortic fat and aortic dimensions. We estimated the association between quantitative periaortic and visceral adipose tissue volumes (per standard deviation [SD] increment of volume) with aortic dimensions in both the thorax and abdomen. Thoracic periaortic fat was associated with higher thoracic aortic dimensions (β coefficient per SD of fat volume 0.67 mm, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.76 mm; P<0.001). The association persisted after adjustment for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index and visceral adipose tissue volume. Results for the association of periaortic fat and abdominal aortic dimensions were similar. Further adjustment for adipokines (resistin and adiponectin) had no significant impact on these associations.
Periaortic fat volume was associated with aortic dimensions in both the thorax and abdomen, supporting the notion that local fat depots may contribute to aortic remodeling. Further work to understand the mechanisms underlying this association is warranted.
adipose tissue; aneurysm; aorta; peripheral vascular disease
Heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease. In the absence of heart failure, we hypothesized that left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), an indicator of cardiac dysfunction, would be associated with pre-clinical brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological markers of ischemia and AD in the community. Brain MRI, cardiac MRI, neuropsychological, and laboratory data were collected on 1114 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants free from clinical stroke or dementia (40–89 years, 67±9; 54% women). Neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers of brain aging were related to cardiac MRI-assessed LVEF. In multivariable-adjusted linear regressions, LVEF was not associated with any brain aging variable (p-values>0.15). However, LVEF quintile analyses yielded several U-shape associations. Compared to the referent (Q2–Q4), the lowest quintile (Q1) LVEF was associated with a lower mean cognitive performance, including Visual Reproduction Delayed Recall (β= −0.27, p<0.001) and Hooper Visual Organization Test (β= −0.27, p<0.001). Compared to the referent, the highest quintile (Q5) LVEF values also were associated with lower mean cognitive performances, including Logical Memory Delayed Recall (β= −0.18, p=0.03), Visual Reproduction Delayed Recall (β= −0.17, p=0.03), Trail Making Test Part B-Part A (β= −0.22, p=0.02) and Hooper Visual Organization Test (Q5 β= −0.20, p=0.02). Findings were similar when analyses were repeated excluding prevalent cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, although our observational cross-sectional data cannot establish causality, they suggest a non-linear association between LVEF and measures of accelerated cognitive aging.
γ′ fibrinogen is a newly-emerging biomarker that is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the genetic determinants of γ′ fibrinogen levels are unknown. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study on 3,042 participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.
Methods and Results
A genome-wide association study with 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was carried out for γ′ fibrinogen levels from the cycle 7 exam. 54 SNPs in or near the fibrinogen gene locus demonstrated genome-wide significance (P<5.0×10−8) for association with γ′ fibrinogen levels. The top-signal SNP was rs7681423 (P=9.97×10−110) in the fibrinogen gene locus near FGG, which encodes the γ chain. Conditional on the top SNP, the only other SNP that remained genome-wide significant was rs1049636. Associations between SNPs, γ′ fibrinogen levels, and prevalent CVD events were examined using multiple logistic regression. γ′ fibrinogen levels were associated with prevalent CVD (P=0.02), although the top two SNPs associated with γ′ fibrinogen levels were not associated with CVD. These findings contrast those for total fibrinogen levels, which are associated with different genetic loci, particularly FGB, which encodes the Bβ chain.
γ′ fibrinogen is associated with prevalent CVD and with SNPs exclusively in and near the fibrinogen gene locus.
cardiovascular disease; gamma′ fibrinogen; genetics; polymorphisms; risk factors
Natriuretic peptides have important roles in the regulation of vasomotor tone, salt homeostasis, and ventricular remodeling. Lower natriuretic peptide levels observed in obese individuals may underlie the greater cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether lower natriuretic peptide levels in obesity are attributable to differences in regional fat distribution. We investigated the relationship of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) with regional adiposity in 1,873 community-based individuals (46% women; mean age 45 years). Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. In sex-specific, multivariable analyses adjusting for age and blood pressure, log N-BNP was inversely associated with VAT in both men (β −0.11, P<0.001) and women (β −0.19, P<0.001). Log N-BNP was inversely associated with SAT in women only (β −0.14, P<0.001). In models containing both VAT and SAT, only VAT was significantly associated with log N-BNP (men, β −0.137, P<0.001; women, β −0.184, P<0.001). VAT remained associated with log N-BNP even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (β −0.119, P<0.001), and in analyses restricted to non-obese individuals (β −0.114; P<0.001). Adjustment for insulin resistance attenuated the associations of N-BNP with both VAT and SAT. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that circulating N-BNP is related to variation in regional and particularly visceral adiposity. These findings suggest that excess visceral adiposity and concomitant hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the natriuretic peptide “deficiency” observed in obesity.
adiposity; natriuretic peptides; cardiovascular risk
Polymorphisms in several distinct genomic regions, including the F7 gene, were recently associated with factor VII (FVII) levels in European Americans (EAs). The genetic determinants of FVII in African Americans (AAs) are unknown. We used a 50 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) gene-centric array having dense coverage of over 2 000 candidate genes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathways in a community-based sample of 16 324 EA and 3898 AA participants from the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium. Our aim was the discovery of new genomic loci and more detailed characterization of existing loci associated with FVII levels. In EAs, we identified three new loci associated with FVII, of which APOA5 on chromosome 11q23 and HNF4A on chromosome 20q12–13 were replicated in a sample of 4289 participants from the Whitehall II study. We confirmed four previously reported FVII-associated loci (GCKR, MS4A6A, F7 and PROCR) in CARe EA samples. In AAs, the F7 and PROCR regions were significantly associated with FVII. Several of the FVII-associated regions are known to be associated with lipids and other cardiovascular-related traits. At the F7 locus, there was evidence of at least five independently associated SNPs in EAs and three independent signals in AAs. Though the variance in FVII explained by the existing loci is substantial (20% in EA and 10% in AA), larger sample sizes and investigation of lower frequency variants may be required to identify additional FVII-associated loci in EAs and AAs and further clarify the relationship between FVII and other CVD risk factors.
Motivation: The concept of pleiotropy was proposed a century ago, though up to now there have been insufficient efforts to design robust statistics and software aimed at visualizing and evaluating pleiotropy at a regional level. The Pleiotropic Region Identification Method (PRIMe) was developed to evaluate potentially pleiotropic loci based upon data from multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
Methods: We first provide a software tool to systematically identify and characterize genomic regions where low association P-values are observed with multiple traits. We use the term Pleiotropy Index to denote the number of traits with low association P-values at a particular genomic region. For GWAS assumed to be uncorrelated, we adopted the binomial distribution to approximate the statistical significance of the Pleiotropy Index. For GWAS conducted on traits with known correlation coefficients, simulations are performed to derive the statistical distribution of the Pleiotropy Index under the null hypothesis of no genotype–phenotype association. For six hematologic and three blood pressure traits where full GWAS results were available from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium, we estimated the trait correlations and applied the simulation approach to examine genomic regions with statistical evidence of pleiotropy. We then applied the approximation approach to explore GWAS summarized in the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS Catalog.
Results: By simulation, we identified pleiotropic regions including SH2B3 and BRAP (12q24.12) for hematologic and blood pressure traits. By approximation, we confirmed the genome-wide significant pleiotropy of these two regions based on the GWAS Catalog data, together with an exploration on other regions which highlights the FTO, GCKR and ABO regions.
Availability and Implementation: The Perl and R scripts are available at http://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/research/gwas_pleiotropictool.html.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
The rapid and continuing progress in gene discovery for complex diseases is fuelling interest in the potential application of genetic risk models for clinical and public health practice.The number of studies assessing the predictive ability is steadily increasing, but they vary widely in completeness of reporting and apparent quality.Transparent reporting of the strengths and weaknesses of these studies is important to facilitate the accumulation of evidence on genetic risk prediction.A multidisciplinary workshop sponsored by the Human Genome Epidemiology Network developed a checklist of 25 items recommended for strengthening the reporting of Genetic RIsk Prediction Studies (GRIPS), building on the principles established by prior reporting guidelines.These recommendations aim to enhance the transparency, quality and completeness of study reporting, and thereby to improve the synthesis and application of information from multiple studies that might differ in design, conduct or analysis.