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1.  Pathologic Lower Extremity Fractures in Children with Alagille Syndrome 
In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the incidence and distribution of fractures in patients with Alagille syndrome, one of the leading inherited causes of pediatric cholestatic liver disease.
Surveys regarding growth, nutrition, and organ involvement were distributed to patient families in the Alagille Syndrome Alliance or The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia research database. Patients with a history of fracture were identified by their response to one question, and details characterizing each patient’s medical, growth, and fracture history were obtained through chart review and telephone contact.
Twelve of 42 patients (28%) reported a total of 27 fractures. Patients experienced fractures at a mean age of 5 years, which contrasts with healthy children, in whom fracture incidence peaks in adolescence. Fractures occurred primarily in the lower extremity long bones (70%) and with little or no trauma (84%). Estimated incidence rate calculations yielded 399.6 total fractures/10,000 person years (95% CI = 206.5, 698.0) and 127.6 femur fractures/10,000 person-years (95% CI = 42.4, 297.7). There were no differences in gender, age distribution or organ system involvement between the fracture and no-fracture groups.
Children with Alagille syndrome may be at risk for pathologic fractures, which manifest at an early age and in a unique distribution favoring the lower extremity long bones. While this preliminary study is limited by small sample size and potential ascertainment bias, the data suggest that larger studies are warranted to further characterize fracture risk and to explore factors contributing to bone fragility in these children.
PMCID: PMC2893241  PMID: 20453673
Alagille syndrome; fracture; osteomalacia
2.  A Longitudinal Study to Identify Laboratory Predictors of Liver Disease Outcome in Alagille Syndrome 
Liver disease in Alagille syndrome is highly variable ranging from biochemical abnormalities only to end-stage disease. It is not possible to predict whether a child with cholestasis will have improvement or progression of liver disease. This poses a challenge to the clinician in terms of timing therapies. The study aim was to identify laboratory markers present under the age of 5 years that could predict the ultimate outcome of liver disease in Alagille syndrome.
A retrospective review of laboratory data from 33 Alagille syndrome subjects was performed. Patients greater than 10 years of age were stratified into mild (22) and severe (11) hepatic outcome groups. Non-parametric analysis was performed on longitudinal data from birth-5years to determine association with hepatic outcome. JAGGED1 mutational analysis was performed on available samples.
The following variables were statistically different between severe and mild outcome groups; total bilirubin (p= 0.0001), conjugated bilirubin (p =0.0066), and cholesterol (p =0.0022). Further analysis revealed cutoff values that differentiated between severe and mild outcomes; total bilirubin 6.5mg/dL(111micromol/L), conjugated bilirubin 4.5mg/dL(77micromol/L) and cholesterol 520mg/dL(13.5mmol/L). Genetic analysis of JAGGED1 mutations did not reveal genotype-phenotype correlation.
Total bilirubin above 6.5mg/dL, conjugated bilirubin above 4.5mg/dL and cholesterol above 520mg/dL under the age of 5 years are likely to be associated with severe liver disease in later life. These data represent cutoff values below which a child is likely to have a benign outcome and above which more aggressive therapy may be warranted, and can thus be used to guide management.
PMCID: PMC2861305  PMID: 20421762
Alagille; liver; cholestasis; transplantation
3.  SNP array mapping of 20p deletions: Genotypes, Phenotypes and Copy Number Variation 
Human mutation  2009;30(3):371-378.
The use of array technology to define chromosome deletions and duplications is bringing us closer to establishing a genotype/phenotype map of genomic copy number alterations. We studied 21 patients and 5 relatives with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 20 using the Illumina HumanHap550 SNP array to 1) more accurately determine the deletion sizes, 2) identify and compare breakpoints, 3) establish genotype/phenotype correlations and 4) investigate the use of the HumanHap550 platform for analysis of chromosome deletions. Deletions ranged from 95kb to 14.62Mb, and all of the breakpoints were unique. Eleven patients had deletions between 95kb and 4Mb and these individuals had normal development, with no anomalies outside of those associated with Alagille syndrome. The proximal and distal boundaries of these eleven deletions constitute a 5.4MB region, and we propose that haploinsufficiency for only 1 of the 12 genes in this region causes phenotypic abnormalities. This defines the JAG1 associated critical region, in which deletions do not confer findings other than those associated with Alagille syndrome. The other 10 patients had deletions between 3.28Mb and 14.62Mb, which extended outside the critical region, and notably, all of these patients, had developmental delay. This group had other findings such as autism, scoliosis and bifid uvula. We identified 47 additional polymorphic genome-wide copy number variants (>20 SNPs), with 0–5 variants called per patient. Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 20 are associated with relatively mild and limited clinical anomalies. The use of SNP arrays provides accurate high-resolution definition of genomic abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC2650004  PMID: 19058200
SNP array analysis; 20p deletion; copy number variants; Alagille syndrome; haploinsufficiency; JAG1

Results 1-3 (3)