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1.  A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape 
Ried, Janina S. | Jeff M., Janina | Chu, Audrey Y. | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | van Dongen, Jenny | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. | Cadby, Gemma | Eklund, Niina | Eriksson, Joel | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Goel, Anuj | Gorski, Mathias | Hayward, Caroline | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Jackson, Anne U. | Jokinen, Eero | Kanoni, Stavroula | Kristiansson, Kati | Kutalik, Zoltán | Lahti, Jari | Luan, Jian'an | Mägi, Reedik | Mahajan, Anubha | Mangino, Massimo | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Monda, Keri L. | Nolte, Ilja M. | Pérusse, Louis | Prokopenko, Inga | Qi, Lu | Rose, Lynda M. | Salvi, Erika | Smith, Megan T. | Snieder, Harold | Stančáková, Alena | Ju Sung, Yun | Tachmazidou, Ioanna | Teumer, Alexander | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | van der Harst, Pim | Walker, Ryan W. | Wang, Sophie R. | Wild, Sarah H. | Willems, Sara M. | Wong, Andrew | Zhang, Weihua | Albrecht, Eva | Couto Alves, Alexessander | Bakker, Stephan J. L. | Barlassina, Cristina | Bartz, Traci M. | Beilby, John | Bellis, Claire | Bergman, Richard N. | Bergmann, Sven | Blangero, John | Blüher, Matthias | Boerwinkle, Eric | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Campbell, Harry | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chiang, Charleston W. K. | Chines, Peter S. | Collins, Francis S | Cucca, Fracensco | Cupples, L Adrienne | D'Avila, Francesca | de Geus, Eco J .C. | Dedoussis, George | Dimitriou, Maria | Döring, Angela | Eriksson, Johan G. | Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni | Farrall, Martin | Ferreira, Teresa | Fischer, Krista | Forouhi, Nita G. | Friedrich, Nele | Gjesing, Anette Prior | Glorioso, Nicola | Graff, Mariaelisa | Grallert, Harald | Grarup, Niels | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grewal, Jagvir | Hamsten, Anders | Harder, Marie Neergaard | Hartman, Catharina A. | Hassinen, Maija | Hastie, Nicholas | Hattersley, Andrew Tym | Havulinna, Aki S. | Heliövaara, Markku | Hillege, Hans | Hofman, Albert | Holmen, Oddgeir | Homuth, Georg | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Hui, Jennie | Husemoen, Lise Lotte | Hysi, Pirro G. | Isaacs, Aaron | Ittermann, Till | Jalilzadeh, Shapour | James, Alan L. | Jørgensen, Torben | Jousilahti, Pekka | Jula, Antti | Marie Justesen, Johanne | Justice, Anne E. | Kähönen, Mika | Karaleftheri, Maria | Tee Khaw, Kay | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M. | Kinnunen, Leena | Knekt, Paul B. | Koistinen, Heikki A. | Kolcic, Ivana | Kooner, Ishminder K. | Koskinen, Seppo | Kovacs, Peter | Kyriakou, Theodosios | Laitinen, Tomi | Langenberg, Claudia | Lewin, Alexandra M. | Lichtner, Peter | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Lindström, Jaana | Linneberg, Allan | Lorbeer, Roberto | Lorentzon, Mattias | Luben, Robert | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | Manunta, Paolo | Leach, Irene Mateo | McArdle, Wendy L. | Mcknight, Barbara | Mohlke, Karen L. | Mihailov, Evelin | Milani, Lili | Mills, Rebecca | Montasser, May E. | Morris, Andrew P. | Müller, Gabriele | Musk, Arthur W. | Narisu, Narisu | Ong, Ken K. | Oostra, Ben A. | Osmond, Clive | Palotie, Aarno | Pankow, James S. | Paternoster, Lavinia | Penninx, Brenda W. | Pichler, Irene | Pilia, Maria G. | Polašek, Ozren | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Raitakari, Olli T | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rao, D. C. | Rayner, Nigel W. | Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus | Rice, Treva K. | Richards, Marcus | Ridker, Paul M. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Ryan, Kathy A. | Sanna, Serena | Sarzynski, Mark A. | Scholtens, Salome | Scott, Robert A. | Sebert, Sylvain | Southam, Lorraine | Sparsø, Thomas Hempel | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stolk, Ronald P. | Strauch, Konstantin | Stringham, Heather M. | Swertz, Morris A. | Swift, Amy J. | Tönjes, Anke | Tsafantakis, Emmanouil | van der Most, Peter J. | Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. | Vandenput, Liesbeth | Vartiainen, Erkki | Venturini, Cristina | Verweij, Niek | Viikari, Jorma S. | Vitart, Veronique | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Vonk, Judith M. | Waeber, Gérard | Widén, Elisabeth | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Winkler, Thomas W. | Wright, Alan F. | Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. | Hua Zhao, Jing | Carola Zillikens, M. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Bouchard, Claude | Chambers, John C. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Cusi, Daniele | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Gieger, Christian | Hansen, Torben | Hicks, Andrew A. | Hu, Frank | Hveem, Kristian | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Kajantie, Eero | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Kuh, Diana | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Metspalu, Andres | Njølstad, Inger | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Palmer, Lyle J. | Pedersen, Oluf | Perola, Markus | Peters, Annette | Psaty, Bruce M. | Puolijoki, Hannu | Rauramaa, Rainer | Rudan, Igor | Salomaa, Veikko | Schwarz, Peter E. H. | Shudiner, Alan R. | Smit, Jan H. | Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. | Spector, Timothy D. | Stefansson, Kari | Stumvoll, Michael | Tremblay, Angelo | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G. | Uusitupa, Matti | Völker, Uwe | Vollenweider, Peter | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Watkins, Hugh | Wilson, James F. | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Boehnke, Michael | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Deloukas, Panos | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Fox, Caroline | Groop, Leif C. | Heid, Iris M. | Hunter, David J. | Kaplan, Robert C. | McCarthy, Mark I. | North, Kari E. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Schlessinger, David | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Strachan, David P. | Frayling, Timothy | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Loos, Ruth J. F.
Nature Communications  2016;7:13357.
Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways.
Past genome-wide associate studies have identified hundreds of genetic loci that influence body size and shape when examined one trait at a time. Here, Jeff and colleagues develop an aggregate score of various body traits, and use meta-analysis to find new loci linked to body shape.
doi:10.1038/ncomms13357
PMCID: PMC5114527  PMID: 27876822
2.  Impact of the TCF7L2 genotype on risk of hypoglycaemia and glucagon secretion during hypoglycaemia 
Endocrine Connections  2016;5(6):53-60.
Introduction
In healthy carriers of the T allele of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), fasting plasma glucagon concentrations are lower compared with those with the C allele. We hypothesised that presence of the T allele is associated with a diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and a higher frequency of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM).
Material and methods
This is a post hoc study of an earlier prospective observational study of SH and four mechanistic studies of physiological responses to hypoglycaemia. 269 patients with T1DM were followed in a one-year observational study. A log-linear negative binomial model was applied with events of SH as dependent variable and TCF7L2 alleles as explanatory variable. In four experimental studies including 65 people, TCF7L2 genotyping was done and plasma glucagon concentration during experimental hypoglycaemia was determined.
Results
Incidences of SH were TT 0.54, TC 0.98 and CC 1.01 episodes per patient-year with no significant difference between groups. During experimental hypoglycaemia, the TCF7L2 polymorphism did not influence glucagon secretion.
Discussion
Patients with T1DM carrying the T allele of the TCF7L2 polymorphism do not exhibit diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and are not at increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia compared with carriers of the C allele.
doi:10.1530/EC-16-0050
PMCID: PMC5097143  PMID: 27758844
type 1 diabetes; severe hypoglycaemia; TCF7L2; glucagon; epidemiology; experimental hypoglycaemia
3.  Correction: The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study 
Winkler, Thomas W. | Justice, Anne E. | Graff, Mariaelisa | Barata, Llilda | Feitosa, Mary F. | Chu, Su | Czajkowski, Jacek | Esko, Tõnu | Fall, Tove | Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. | Lu, Yingchang | Mägi, Reedik | Mihailov, Evelin | Pers, Tune H. | Rüeger, Sina | Teumer, Alexander | Ehret, Georg B. | Ferreira, Teresa | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Karjalainen, Juha | Lagou, Vasiliki | Mahajan, Anubha | Neinast, Michael D. | Prokopenko, Inga | Simino, Jeannette | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Jansen, Rick | Westra, Harm-Jan | White, Charles C. | Absher, Devin | Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. | Ahmad, Shafqat | Albrecht, Eva | Alves, Alexessander Couto | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | de Craen, Anton J. M. | Bis, Joshua C. | Bonnefond, Amélie | Boucher, Gabrielle | Cadby, Gemma | Cheng, Yu-Ching | Chiang, Charleston W. K. | Delgado, Graciela | Demirkan, Ayse | Dueker, Nicole | Eklund, Niina | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Eriksson, Joel | Feenstra, Bjarke | Fischer, Krista | Frau, Francesca | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Geller, Frank | Goel, Anuj | Gorski, Mathias | Grammer, Tanja B. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Haitjema, Saskia | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Jackson, Anne U. | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Johansson, Åsa | Kaakinen, Marika | Kleber, Marcus E. | Lahti, Jari | Mateo Leach, Irene | Lehne, Benjamin | Liu, Youfang | Lo, Ken Sin | Lorentzon, Mattias | Luan, Jian'an | Madden, Pamela A. F. | Mangino, Massimo | McKnight, Barbara | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Monda, Keri L. | Montasser, May E. | Müller, Gabriele | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope | Pascoe, Laura | Paternoster, Lavinia | Rayner, Nigel W. | Renström, Frida | Rizzi, Federica | Rose, Lynda M. | Ryan, Kathy A. | Salo, Perttu | Sanna, Serena | Scharnagl, Hubert | Shi, Jianxin | Smith, Albert Vernon | Southam, Lorraine | Stančáková, Alena | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Sung, Yun Ju | Tachmazidou, Ioanna | Tanaka, Toshiko | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Trompet, Stella | Pervjakova, Natalia | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | Vandenput, Liesbeth | van der Laan, Sander W | van der Velde, Nathalie | van Setten, Jessica | van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. | Verweij, Niek | Vlachopoulou, Efthymia | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wang, Sophie R. | Wang, Zhaoming | Wild, Sarah H. | Willenborg, Christina | Wilson, James F. | Wong, Andrew | Yang, Jian | Yengo, Loïc | Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. | Yu, Lei | Zhang, Weihua | Zhao, Jing Hua | Andersson, Ehm A. | Bakker, Stephan J. L. | Baldassarre, Damiano | Banasik, Karina | Barcella, Matteo | Barlassina, Cristina | Bellis, Claire | Benaglio, Paola | Blangero, John | Blüher, Matthias | Bonnet, Fabrice | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Boyd, Heather A. | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Buchman, Aron S | Campbell, Harry | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter S. | Claudi-Boehm, Simone | Cole, John | Collins, Francis S. | de Geus, Eco J. C. | de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M. | Dimitriou, Maria | Duan, Jubao | Enroth, Stefan | Eury, Elodie | Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni | Forouhi, Nita G. | Friedrich, Nele | Gejman, Pablo V. | Gigante, Bruna | Glorioso, Nicola | Go, Alan S. | Gottesman, Omri | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grallert, Harald | Grarup, Niels | Gu, Yu-Mei | Broer, Linda | Ham, Annelies C. | Hansen, Torben | Harris, Tamara B. | Hartman, Catharina A. | Hassinen, Maija | Hastie, Nicholas | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Heath, Andrew C. | Henders, Anjali K. | Hernandez, Dena | Hillege, Hans | Holmen, Oddgeir | Hovingh, Kees G | Hui, Jennie | Husemoen, Lise L. | Hutri-Kähönen, Nina | Hysi, Pirro G. | Illig, Thomas | De Jager, Philip L. | Jalilzadeh, Shapour | Jørgensen, Torben | Jukema, J. Wouter | Juonala, Markus | Kanoni, Stavroula | Karaleftheri, Maria | Khaw, Kay Tee | Kinnunen, Leena | Kittner, Steven J. | Koenig, Wolfgang | Kolcic, Ivana | Kovacs, Peter | Krarup, Nikolaj T. | Kratzer, Wolfgang | Krüger, Janine | Kuh, Diana | Kumari, Meena | Kyriakou, Theodosios | Langenberg, Claudia | Lannfelt, Lars | Lanzani, Chiara | Lotay, Vaneet | Launer, Lenore J. | Leander, Karin | Lindström, Jaana | Linneberg, Allan | Liu, Yan-Ping | Lobbens, Stéphane | Luben, Robert | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | Magnusson, Patrik K. | McArdle, Wendy L. | Menni, Cristina | Merger, Sigrun | Milani, Lili | Montgomery, Grant W. | Morris, Andrew P. | Narisu, Narisu | Nelis, Mari | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Pérusse, Louis | Pichler, Irene | Pilia, Maria G. | Pouta, Anneli | Rheinberger, Myriam | Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus | Richards, Marcus | Rice, Kenneth M. | Rice, Treva K. | Rivolta, Carlo | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanders, Alan R. | Sarzynski, Mark A. | Scholtens, Salome | Scott, Robert A. | Scott, William R. | Sebert, Sylvain | Sengupta, Sebanti | Sennblad, Bengt | Seufferlein, Thomas | Silveira, Angela | Slagboom, P. Eline | Smit, Jan H. | Sparsø, Thomas H. | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stolk, Ronald P. | Stringham, Heather M. | Swertz, Morris A | Swift, Amy J. | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tan, Sian-Tsung | Thorand, Barbara | Tönjes, Anke | Tremblay, Angelo | Tsafantakis, Emmanouil | van der Most, Peter J. | Völker, Uwe | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Vonk, Judith M. | Waldenberger, Melanie | Walker, Ryan W. | Wennauer, Roman | Widén, Elisabeth | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wright, Alan F. | Zillikens, M. Carola | van Dijk, Suzanne C. | van Schoor, Natasja M. | Asselbergs, Folkert W. | de Bakker, Paul I. W. | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Beilby, John | Bennett, David A. | Bergman, Richard N. | Bergmann, Sven | Böger, Carsten A. | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bottinger, Erwin P. | Bouchard, Claude | Chambers, John C. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Cucca, Francesco | Cusi, Daniele | Dedoussis, George | Erdmann, Jeanette | Eriksson, Johan G. | Evans, Denis A. | de Faire, Ulf | Farrall, Martin | Ferrucci, Luigi | Ford, Ian | Franke, Lude | Franks, Paul W. | Froguel, Philippe | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Gieger, Christian | Grönberg, Henrik | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hall, Per | Hamsten, Anders | van der Harst, Pim | Hayward, Caroline | Heliövaara, Markku | Hengstenberg, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A | Hingorani, Aroon | Hofman, Albert | Hu, Frank | Huikuri, Heikki V. | Hveem, Kristian | James, Alan L. | Jordan, Joanne M. | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kajantie, Eero | Kathiresan, Sekar | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M. | Kivimaki, Mika | Knekt, Paul B. | Koistinen, Heikki A. | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koskinen, Seppo | Kuusisto, Johanna | Maerz, Winfried | Martin, Nicholas G | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lettre, Guillaume | Levinson, Douglas F. | Lind, Lars | Lokki, Marja-Liisa | Mäntyselkä, Pekka | Melbye, Mads | Metspalu, Andres | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Moll, Frans L. | Murray, Jeffrey C. | Musk, Arthur W. | Nieminen, Markku S. | Njølstad, Inger | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Oostra, Ben A. | Palmer, Lyle J | Pankow, James S. | Pasterkamp, Gerard | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Pedersen, Oluf | Penninx, Brenda W. | Perola, Markus | Peters, Annette | Polašek, Ozren | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Qi, Lu | Quertermous, Thomas | Raitakari, Olli T. | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rauramaa, Rainer | Ridker, Paul M. | Rioux, John D. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rotter, Jerome I. | Rudan, Igor | den Ruijter, Hester M. | Saltevo, Juha | Sattar, Naveed | Schunkert, Heribert | Schwarz, Peter E. H. | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Sinisalo, Juha | Snieder, Harold | Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. | Spector, Tim D. | Staessen, Jan A. | Stefania, Bandinelli | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stumvoll, Michael | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G. | Uusitupa, Matti | Verbeek, André L. M. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Viikari, Jorma S. | Vitart, Veronique | Völzke, Henry | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Walker, Mark | Wallaschofski, Henri | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Watkins, Hugh | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Clegg, Deborah J. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Gordon-Larsen, Penny | Jaquish, Cashell E. | Rao, D. C. | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Barroso, Inês | Berndt, Sonja I. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Fox, Caroline S. | Groop, Leif C. | Hunter, David J. | Ingelsson, Erik | Kaplan, Robert C. | McCarthy, Mark I. | Mohlke, Karen L. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P. | Stefansson, Kari | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Heid, Iris M. | North, Kari E. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Kutalik, Zoltán | Loos, Ruth J. F.
PLoS Genetics  2016;12(6):e1006166.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006166
PMCID: PMC4927064  PMID: 27355579
4.  A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(6):e0157776.
Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs) in cis and 5,342 SNP-CpG pairs in trans showing significant associations between genotype and DNA methylation in adipose tissue after correction for multiple testing, where cis is defined as distance less than 500 kb between a SNP and CpG site. These mQTLs include reported obesity, lipid and type 2 diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY3/POMC, APOA5, CETP, FADS2, GCKR, SORT1 and LEPR. Significant mQTLs were overrepresented in intergenic regions meanwhile underrepresented in promoter regions and CpG islands. We further identified 635 SNPs in significant cis-mQTLs associated with expression of 86 genes in adipose tissue including CHRNA5, G6PC2, GPX7, RPL27A, THNSL2 and ZFP57. SNPs in significant mQTLs were also associated with body mass index (BMI), lipid traits and glucose and insulin levels in our study cohort and public available consortia data. Importantly, the Causal Inference Test (CIT) demonstrates how genetic variants mediate their effects on metabolic traits (e.g. BMI, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) via altered DNA methylation in human adipose tissue. This study identifies genome-wide interactions between genetic and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dys)metabolic traits associated with the development of obesity and diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157776
PMCID: PMC4913906  PMID: 27322064
5.  A Syntenic Cross Species Aneuploidy Genetic Screen Links RCAN1 Expression to β-Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes 
PLoS Genetics  2016;12(5):e1006033.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21). To identify regions of chromosome 21 that may be associated with perturbed glucose homeostasis we profiled the glycaemic status of different DS mouse models. The Ts65Dn and Dp16 DS mouse lines were hyperglycemic, while Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mice were not, providing us with a region of chromosome 21 containing genes that cause hyperglycemia. We then examined whether any of these genes were upregulated in a set of ~5,000 gene expression changes we had identified in a large gene expression analysis of human T2D β-cells. This approach produced a single gene, RCAN1, as a candidate gene linking hyperglycemia and functional changes in T2D β-cells. Further investigations demonstrated that RCAN1 methylation is reduced in human T2D islets at multiple sites, correlating with increased expression. RCAN1 protein expression was also increased in db/db mouse islets and in human and mouse islets exposed to high glucose. Mice overexpressing RCAN1 had reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and their β-cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction including hyperpolarised membrane potential, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and low ATP production. This lack of β-cell ATP had functional consequences by negatively affecting both glucose-stimulated membrane depolarisation and ATP-dependent insulin granule exocytosis. Thus, from amongst the myriad of gene expression changes occurring in T2D β-cells where we had little knowledge of which changes cause β-cell dysfunction, we applied a trisomy 21 screening approach which linked RCAN1 to β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D.
Author Summary
Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are key features of β-cell dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 that also displays β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion in humans. Given these similarities in β-cell dysfunction in T2D and DS, we developed a trisomy 21 screening method to identify genes that may be important in T2D. This approach used different DS mouse models combined with human gene expression data from T2D β-cells. From this we identified a single candidate, Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1). High RCAN1 expression occurs in human and mouse T2D islets. Increased RCAN1 expression in mice reduced β-cell mitochondrial function and ATP availability, and this has negative implications for multiple ATP-dependent steps in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006033
PMCID: PMC4873152  PMID: 27195491
6.  Genetic fine-mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci 
Gaulton, Kyle J | Ferreira, Teresa | Lee, Yeji | Raimondo, Anne | Mägi, Reedik | Reschen, Michael E | Mahajan, Anubha | Locke, Adam | Rayner, N William | Robertson, Neil | Scott, Robert A | Prokopenko, Inga | Scott, Laura J | Green, Todd | Sparso, Thomas | Thuillier, Dorothee | Yengo, Loic | Grallert, Harald | Wahl, Simone | Frånberg, Mattias | Strawbridge, Rona J | Kestler, Hans | Chheda, Himanshu | Eisele, Lewin | Gustafsson, Stefan | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Qi, Lu | Karssen, Lennart C | van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M | Willems, Sara M | Li, Man | Chen, Han | Fuchsberger, Christian | Kwan, Phoenix | Ma, Clement | Linderman, Michael | Lu, Yingchang | Thomsen, Soren K | Rundle, Jana K | Beer, Nicola L | van de Bunt, Martijn | Chalisey, Anil | Kang, Hyun Min | Voight, Benjamin F | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Almgren, Peter | Baldassarre, Damiano | Balkau, Beverley | Benediktsson, Rafn | Blüher, Matthias | Boeing, Heiner | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Borringer, Erwin P | Burtt, Noël P | Carey, Jason | Charpentier, Guillaume | Chines, Peter S | Cornelis, Marilyn C | Couper, David J | Crenshaw, Andrew T | van Dam, Rob M | Doney, Alex SF | Dorkhan, Mozhgan | Edkins, Sarah | Eriksson, Johan G | Esko, Tonu | Eury, Elodie | Fadista, João | Flannick, Jason | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fox, Caroline | Franks, Paul W | Gertow, Karl | Gieger, Christian | Gigante, Bruna | Gottesman, Omri | Grant, George B | Grarup, Niels | Groves, Christopher J | Hassinen, Maija | Have, Christian T | Herder, Christian | Holmen, Oddgeir L | Hreidarsson, Astradur B | Humphries, Steve E | Hunter, David J | Jackson, Anne U | Jonsson, Anna | Jørgensen, Marit E | Jørgensen, Torben | Kao, Wen-Hong L | Kerrison, Nicola D | Kinnunen, Leena | Klopp, Norman | Kong, Augustine | Kovacs, Peter | Kraft, Peter | Kravic, Jasmina | Langford, Cordelia | Leander, Karin | Liang, Liming | Lichtner, Peter | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Lindholm, Eero | Linneberg, Allan | Liu, Ching-Ti | Lobbens, Stéphane | Luan, Jian’an | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Mӓnnistö, Satu | McLeod, Olga | Meyer, Julia | Mihailov, Evelin | Mirza, Ghazala | Mühleisen, Thomas W | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Navarro, Carmen | Nöthen, Markus M | Oskolkov, Nikolay N | Owen, Katharine R | Palli, Domenico | Pechlivanis, Sonali | Peltonen, Leena | Perry, John RB | Platou, Carl GP | Roden, Michael | Ruderfer, Douglas | Rybin, Denis | van der Schouw, Yvonne T | Sennblad, Bengt | Sigurđsson, Gunnar | Stančáková, Alena | Steinbach, Gerald | Storm, Petter | Strauch, Konstantin | Stringham, Heather M | Sun, Qi | Thorand, Barbara | Tikkanen, Emmi | Tonjes, Anke | Trakalo, Joseph | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | Wennauer, Roman | Wiltshire, Steven | Wood, Andrew R | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Dunham, Ian | Birney, Ewan | Pasquali, Lorenzo | Ferrer, Jorge | Loos, Ruth JF | Dupuis, Josée | Florez, Jose C | Boerwinkle, Eric | Pankow, James S | van Duijn, Cornelia | Sijbrands, Eric | Meigs, James B | Hu, Frank B | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari | Lakka, Timo A | Rauramaa, Rainer | Stumvoll, Michael | Pedersen, Nancy L | Lind, Lars | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M | Korpi-Hyövӓlti, Eeva | Saaristo, Timo E | Saltevo, Juha | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Metspalu, Andres | Erbel, Raimund | Jöckel, Karl-Heinz | Moebus, Susanne | Ripatti, Samuli | Salomaa, Veikko | Ingelsson, Erik | Boehm, Bernhard O | Bergman, Richard N | Collins, Francis S | Mohlke, Karen L | Koistinen, Heikki | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Hveem, Kristian | Njølstad, Inger | Deloukas, Panagiotis | Donnelly, Peter J | Frayling, Timothy M | Hattersley, Andrew T | de Faire, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Illig, Thomas | Peters, Annette | Cauchi, Stephane | Sladek, Rob | Froguel, Philippe | Hansen, Torben | Pedersen, Oluf | Morris, Andrew D | Palmer, Collin NA | Kathiresan, Sekar | Melander, Olle | Nilsson, Peter M | Groop, Leif C | Barroso, Inês | Langenberg, Claudia | Wareham, Nicholas J | O’Callaghan, Christopher A | Gloyn, Anna L | Altshuler, David | Boehnke, Michael | Teslovich, Tanya M | McCarthy, Mark I | Morris, Andrew P
Nature genetics  2015;47(12):1415-1425.
We performed fine-mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in/near KCNQ1. “Credible sets” of variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to non-coding sequence, implying that T2D association is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine-mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that this T2D-risk allele increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D-risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease.
doi:10.1038/ng.3437
PMCID: PMC4666734  PMID: 26551672
7.  Genetic fine-mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci 
Gaulton, Kyle J | Ferreira, Teresa | Lee, Yeji | Raimondo, Anne | Mägi, Reedik | Reschen, Michael E | Mahajan, Anubha | Locke, Adam | Rayner, N William | Robertson, Neil | Scott, Robert A | Prokopenko, Inga | Scott, Laura J | Green, Todd | Sparso, Thomas | Thuillier, Dorothee | Yengo, Loic | Grallert, Harald | Wahl, Simone | Frånberg, Mattias | Strawbridge, Rona J | Kestler, Hans | Chheda, Himanshu | Eisele, Lewin | Gustafsson, Stefan | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Qi, Lu | Karssen, Lennart C | van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M | Willems, Sara M | Li, Man | Chen, Han | Fuchsberger, Christian | Kwan, Phoenix | Ma, Clement | Linderman, Michael | Lu, Yingchang | Thomsen, Soren K | Rundle, Jana K | Beer, Nicola L | van de Bunt, Martijn | Chalisey, Anil | Kang, Hyun Min | Voight, Benjamin F | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Almgren, Peter | Baldassarre, Damiano | Balkau, Beverley | Benediktsson, Rafn | Blüher, Matthias | Boeing, Heiner | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Borringer, Erwin P | Burtt, Noël P | Carey, Jason | Charpentier, Guillaume | Chines, Peter S | Cornelis, Marilyn C | Couper, David J | Crenshaw, Andrew T | van Dam, Rob M | Doney, Alex SF | Dorkhan, Mozhgan | Edkins, Sarah | Eriksson, Johan G | Esko, Tonu | Eury, Elodie | Fadista, João | Flannick, Jason | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fox, Caroline | Franks, Paul W | Gertow, Karl | Gieger, Christian | Gigante, Bruna | Gottesman, Omri | Grant, George B | Grarup, Niels | Groves, Christopher J | Hassinen, Maija | Have, Christian T | Herder, Christian | Holmen, Oddgeir L | Hreidarsson, Astradur B | Humphries, Steve E | Hunter, David J | Jackson, Anne U | Jonsson, Anna | Jørgensen, Marit E | Jørgensen, Torben | Kao, Wen-Hong L | Kerrison, Nicola D | Kinnunen, Leena | Klopp, Norman | Kong, Augustine | Kovacs, Peter | Kraft, Peter | Kravic, Jasmina | Langford, Cordelia | Leander, Karin | Liang, Liming | Lichtner, Peter | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Lindholm, Eero | Linneberg, Allan | Liu, Ching-Ti | Lobbens, Stéphane | Luan, Jian’an | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | McLeod, Olga | Meyer, Julia | Mihailov, Evelin | Mirza, Ghazala | Mühleisen, Thomas W | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Navarro, Carmen | Nöthen, Markus M | Oskolkov, Nikolay N | Owen, Katharine R | Palli, Domenico | Pechlivanis, Sonali | Peltonen, Leena | Perry, John RB | Platou, Carl GP | Roden, Michael | Ruderfer, Douglas | Rybin, Denis | van der Schouw, Yvonne T | Sennblad, Bengt | Sigurðsson, Gunnar | Stančáková, Alena | Steinbach, Gerald | Storm, Petter | Strauch, Konstantin | Stringham, Heather M | Sun, Qi | Thorand, Barbara | Tikkanen, Emmi | Tonjes, Anke | Trakalo, Joseph | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | Wennauer, Roman | Wiltshire, Steven | Wood, Andrew R | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Dunham, Ian | Birney, Ewan | Pasquali, Lorenzo | Ferrer, Jorge | Loos, Ruth JF | Dupuis, Josée | Florez, Jose C | Boerwinkle, Eric | Pankow, James S | van Duijn, Cornelia | Sijbrands, Eric | Meigs, James B | Hu, Frank B | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari | Lakka, Timo A | Rauramaa, Rainer | Stumvoll, Michael | Pedersen, Nancy L | Lind, Lars | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M | Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva | Saaristo, Timo E | Saltevo, Juha | Kuusisto, Johanna | Laakso, Markku | Metspalu, Andres | Erbel, Raimund | Jöckel, Karl-Heinz | Moebus, Susanne | Ripatti, Samuli | Salomaa, Veikko | Ingelsson, Erik | Boehm, Bernhard O | Bergman, Richard N | Collins, Francis S | Mohlke, Karen L | Koistinen, Heikki | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Hveem, Kristian | Njølstad, Inger | Deloukas, Panagiotis | Donnelly, Peter J | Frayling, Timothy M | Hattersley, Andrew T | de Faire, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Illig, Thomas | Peters, Annette | Cauchi, Stephane | Sladek, Rob | Froguel, Philippe | Hansen, Torben | Pedersen, Oluf | Morris, Andrew D | Palmer, Collin NA | Kathiresan, Sekar | Melander, Olle | Nilsson, Peter M | Groop, Leif C | Barroso, Inês | Langenberg, Claudia | Wareham, Nicholas J | O’Callaghan, Christopher A | Gloyn, Anna L | Altshuler, David | Boehnke, Michael | Teslovich, Tanya M | McCarthy, Mark I | Morris, Andrew P
Nature genetics  2015;47(12):1415-1425.
We performed fine-mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in/near KCNQ1. “Credible sets” of variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to non-coding sequence, implying that T2D association is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine-mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that this T2D-risk allele increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D-risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease.
doi:10.1038/ng.3437
PMCID: PMC4666734  PMID: 26551672
8.  EPMA-World Congress 2015 
Abraham, Jella-Andrea | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Akhmetov, Ildar | Andrews, Russell J. | Quintana, Leonidas | Andrews, Russell J. | Baban, Babak | Liu, Jun Yao | Qin, Xu | Wang, Tailing | Mozaffari, Mahmood S. | Bati, Viktoriia V. | Meleshko, Tamara V. | Levchuk, Olga B. | Boyko, Nadiya V. | Bauer, Joanna | Boerner, Ewa | Podbielska, Halina | Bomba, Alojz | Petrov, Viktor O. | Drobnych, Volodymyr G. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Bykova, Oksana M. | Boyko, Nadiya V. | Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter | Fleischhacker, Lutz | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Heemskerk, Frank | Helms, Thomas | Jaarsma, Tiny | Kinkorová, Judita | Ramaekers, Jan | Ruff, Peter | Schnur, Ivana | Vanoli, Emilio | Verdu, Jose | Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Grabovetskyi, Sergiy A. | Mykhalchenko, Olena M. | Tymoshok, Natalia O. | Shcherbakov, Oleksandr B. | Semeniv, Igor P. | Spivak, Mykola Y. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Ostapenko, Tetyana V. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Kobyliak, Nazarii M. | Zholobak, Nadiya M. | Spivak, Mykola Ya. | Cauchi, John Paul | Cherepakhin, Dmitrii | Bakay, Marina | Borovikov, Artem | Suchkov, Sergey | Cieślik, Barbara | Migasiewicz, Agnieszka | Podbielska, Maria-Luiza | Pelleter, Markus | Giemza, Agnieszka | Podbielska, Halina | Cirak, Sebahattin | Del Re, Marzia | Bordi, Paola | Citi, Valentina | Palombi, Marta | Pinto, Carmine | Tiseo, Marcello | Danesi, Romano | Einhorn, Lukas | Fazekas, Judit | Muhr, Martina | Schoos, Alexandra | Panakova, Lucia | Herrmann, Ina | Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina | Oida, Kumiko | Fiebiger, Edda | Singer, Josef | Jensen-Jarolim, Erika | Elnar, Arpiné A. | Ouamara, Nadia | Boyko, Nadiya | Coumoul, Xavier | Antignac, Jean-Philippe | Le Bizec, Bruno | Eppe, Gauthier | Renaut, Jenny | Bonn, Torsten | Guignard, Cédric | Ferrante, Margherita | Chiusano, Maria Liusa | Cuzzocrea, Salvatore | O’Keeffe, Gerard | Cryan, John | Bisson, Michelle | Barakat, Amina | Hmamouchi, Ihsane | Zawia, Nasser | Kanthasamy, Anumantha | Kisby, Glen E. | Alves, Rui | Pérez, Oscar Villacañas | Burgard, Kim | Spencer, Peter | Bomba, Norbert | Haranta, Martin | Zaitseva, Nina | May, Irina | Grojean, Stéphanie | Body-Malapel, Mathilde | Harari, Florencia | Harari, Raul | Yeghiazaryan, Kristina | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Calabrese, Vittorio | Nemos, Christophe | Soulimani, Rachid | Evsevyeva, Maria E. | Mishenko, Elena A. | Kumukova, Zurida V. | Chudnovsky, Evgeniy V. | Smirnova, Tatyana A. | Evsevyeva, Maria E. | Ivanova, Ludmila V. | Eremin, Michail V. | Rostovtseva, Maria V. | Evsevyeva, Maria E. | Eremin, Michail V. | Koshel, Vladimir I. | Sergeeva, Oksana V. | Konovalova, Nadesgda M. | Girotra, Shantanu | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Debald, Manuel | Kuhn, Walther | Yeghiazaryan, Kristina | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Lushchyk, Ulyana | Grech, Godfrey | Konieczka, Katarzyna | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Erwich, Jan Jaap | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Yeghiazaryan, Kristina | Gembruch, Ulrich | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Beniuk, Vasyl O. | Kalenska, Olga V. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Beniuk, Vasyl O. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Melnychuk, Olga | Gorbacheva, Irina A. | Orekhova, Lyudmila Y. | Tachalov, Vadim V. | Grechanyk, Olena I. | Abdullaiev, Rizvan Ya. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Hagan, Suzanne | Martin, Eilidh | Pearce, Ian | Oliver, Katherine | Haytac, Cenk | Salimov, Fariz | Yoksul, Servin | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo | del Río-González, Sergio | Lara, Maria Fernanda | Angulo, Antonia | Machuca Santa-Cruz, Francisco Javier | Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo | del Río-González, Sergio | Lara, Maria Fernanda | Ionescu, John | Isamulaeva, Alfiya Z. | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Magomedov, Shamil Sh. | Isamulaeva, Aida I. | Josifova, Tatjana | Kapalla, Marko | Kubáň, Juraj | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Kapalla, Marko | Kubáň, Juraj | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Kent, Anthony | Fisher, Tom | Dias, Tilak | Kinkorová, Judita | Topolčan, Ondřej | Kohl, Matthias | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Kurchenko, Andrii I. | Beniuk, Vasyl A. | Goncharenko, Vadym M. | Bubnov, Rostyslav V. | Boyko, Nadiya V. | Strokan, Andriy M. | Kzhyshkowska, Julia | Gudima, Alexandru | Stankevich, Ksenia S. | Filimonov, Victor D. | Klüter, Harald | Mamontova, Evgeniya M. | Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I. | Lushchyk, Ulyana B. | Novytskyy, Viktor V. | Babii, Igor P. | Lushchyk, Nadiya G. | Riabets, Lyudmyla S. | Legka, Ivanna I. | Marcus-Kalish, Mira | Mitelpunkt, Alexis | Galili, Tal | Shachar, Neta | Benjamini, Yoav | Migasiewicz, Agnieszka | Pelleter, Markus | Bauer, Joanna | Dereń, Ewelina | Podbielska, Halina | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Kunin, Dmitry A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Ippolitov, Yury A. | Kunin, Dmitry A. | Morozov, Alexei N. | Chirkova, Natalia V. | Aliev, Nakhid T. | Mozaffari, Mahmood S. | Liu, Jun Yao | Baban, Babak | Mozaffari, Mahmood S. | Liu, Jun Yao | Abdelsayed, Rafik | Shi, Xing-Ming | Baban, Babak | Novák, Jaroslav | Štork, Milan | Zeman, Václav | Oosterhuis, Wytze P. | Theodorsson, Elvar | Orekhova, Lyudmila Y. | Kudryavtseva, Tatyana V. | Isaeva, Elena R. | Tachalov, Vadim V. | Loboda, Ekaterina S. | Pazzagli, Mario | Malentacchi, Francesca | Mancini, Irene | Brandslund, Ivan | Vermeersch, Pieter | Schwab, Matthias | Marc, Janja | van Schaik, Ron H. N. | Siest, Gerard | Theodorsson, Elvar | Di Resta, Chiara | Pleva, Matus | Juhar, Jozef | Pleva, Matus | Juhar, Jozef | Polívka jr., Jiří | Janků, Filip | Pešta, Martin | Doležal, Jan | Králíčková, Milena | Polívka, Jiří | Polívka, Jiří | Lukešová, Alena | Müllerová, Nina | Ševčík, Petr | Rohan, Vladimír | Richter, Kneginja | Miloseva, Lence | Niklewski, Günter | Richter, Kneginja | Acker, Jens | Niklewski, Guenter | Safonicheva, Olga | Costigliola, Vincenzo | Safonicheva, Olga | Sautin, Maxim | Sinelnikova, Janna | Suchkov, Sergey | Secer, Songül | von Bandemer, Stephan | Shapira, Niva | Shcherbakov, Aleksandr | Kunin, Anatoly A. | Moiseeva, Natalia S. | Shumilovich, Bogdan R. | Lipkind, Zhanna | Vorobieva, Yulia | Kunin, Dmitry A. | Sudareva, Anastasiia V. | Smokovski, Ivica | Milenkovic, Tatjana | Solís-Herrera, Arturo | Arias-Esparza, María del Carmen | Suchkov, Sergey | Sridhar, Krishna Chander | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Studneva, Maria | Song, Sihong | Creeden, James | Мandrik, Мark | Suchkov, Sergey | Theodorsson, Elvar | Tofail, Syed A. M. | Topolčan, Ondřej | Kinkorová, Judita | Fiala, Ondřej | Karlíková, Marie | Svobodová, Šárka | Kučera, Radek | Fuchsová, Radka | Třeška, Vladislav | Šimánek, Václav | Pecen, Ladislav | Šoupal, Jan | Svačina, Štěpán | Tretyak, Evgeniya | Studneva, Maria | Suchkov, Sergey | Trovato, Francesca M. | Martines, Giuseppe Fabio | Brischetto, Daniela | Catalano, Daniela | Musumeci, Giuseppe | Trovato, Guglielmo M. | Tsangaris, George Th. | Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K. | Tsangaris, George Th. | Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K. | Verdú, José | Gutiérrez, German | Rovira, Jordi | Martinez, Marta | Fleischhacker, Lutz | Green, Donna | Garson, Arthur | Tamburini, Elena | Cuomo, Stefano | Martinez-Leon, Juan | Abrisqueta, Teresa | Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter | Jaarsma, Tiny | Arredondo, Teresa | Vera, Cecilia | Fico, Giuseppe | Golubnitschaja, Olga | Arribas, Fernando | Onderco, Martina | Vara, Isabel | Verdú, José | Sambo, Francesco | Di Camillo, Barbara | Cobelli, Claudio | Facchinetti, Andrea | Fico, Giuseppe | Bellazzi, Riccardo | Sacchi, Lucia | Dagliati, Arianna | Segnani, Daniele | Tibollo, Valentina | Ottaviano, Manuel | Gabriel, Rafael | Groop, Leif | Postma, Jacqueline | Martinez, Antonio | Hakaste, Liisa | Tuomi, Tiinamaija | Zarkogianni, Konstantia | Volchek, Igor | Pototskaya, Nina | Petrov, Andrey | Volchek, Igor | Pototskaya, Nadezhda | Petrov, Andrey | Voog-Oras, Ülle | Jagur, Oksana | Leibur, Edvitar | Niibo, Priit | Jagomägi, Triin | Nguyen, Minh Son | Pruunsild, Chris | Piikov, Dagmar | Saag, Mare | Wang, Wei | Wang, Wei | Weinhäusel, Andreas | Pulverer, Walter | Wielscher, Matthias | Hofner, Manuela | Noehammer, Christa | Soldo, Regina | Hettegger, Peter | Gyurjan, Istvan | Kulovics, Ronald | Schönthaler, Silvia | Beikircher, Gabriel | Kriegner, Albert | Pabinger, Stephan | Vierlinger, Klemens | Yüzbaşıoğlu, Ayşe | Özgüç, Meral
The EPMA Journal  2016;7(Suppl 1):9.
Table of contents
A1 Predictive and prognostic biomarker panel for targeted application of radioembolisation improving individual outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma
Jella-Andrea Abraham, Olga Golubnitschaja
A2 Integrated market access approach amplifying value of “Rx-CDx”
Ildar Akhmetov
A3 Disaster response: an opportunity to improve global healthcare
Russell J. Andrews, Leonidas Quintana
A4 USA PPPM: proscriptive, profligate, profiteering medicine-good for 1 % wealthy, not for 99 % unhealthy
Russell J. Andrews
A5 The role of IDO in a murine model of gingivitis: predictive and therapeutic potentials
Babak Baban, Jun Yao Liu, Xu Qin, Tailing Wang, Mahmood S. Mozaffari
A6 Specific diets for personalised treatment of diabetes type 2
Viktoriia V. Bati, Tamara V. Meleshko, Olga B. Levchuk, Nadiya V. Boyko
A7 Towards personalized physiotherapeutic approach
Joanna Bauer, Ewa Boerner, Halina Podbielska
A8 Cells, animal, SHIME and in silico models for detection and verification of specific biomarkers of non-communicable chronic diseases
Alojz Bomba, Viktor O. Petrov, Volodymyr G. Drobnych, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Oksana M. Bykova, Nadiya V. Boyko
A9 INTERACT-chronic care model: Self-treatment by patients with decision support e-Health solution
Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Lutz Fleischhacker, Olga Golubnitschaja, Frank Heemskerk, Thomas Helms, Tiny Jaarsma, Judita Kinkorova, Jan Ramaekers, Peter Ruff, Ivana Schnur, Emilio Vanoli, Jose Verdu
A10 PPPM in cardiovascular medicine in 2015
Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca
A11 Magnetic resonance imaging of nanoparticles in mice, potential for theranostic and contrast media development – pilot results
Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Sergiy A. Grabovetskyi, Olena M. Mykhalchenko, Natalia O. Tymoshok, Oleksandr B. Shcherbakov, Igor P. Semeniv, Mykola Y. Spivak
A12 Ultrasound diagnosis for diabetic neuropathy - comparative study
Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Tetyana V. Ostapenko
A13 Ultrasound for stratification patients with diabetic foot ulcers for prevention and personalized treatment - pilot results
Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Nazarii M. Kobyliak, Nadiya M. Zholobak, Mykola Ya. Spivak
A14 Project ImaGenX – designing and executing a questionnaire on environment and lifestyle risk of breast cancer
John Paul Cauchi
A15 Genomics – a new structural brand of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine or the new driver as well?
Dmitrii Cherepakhin, Marina Bakay, Artem Borovikov, Sergey Suchkov
A16 Survey of questionnaires for evaluation of the quality of life in various medical fields
Barbara Cieślik, Agnieszka Migasiewicz, Maria-Luiza Podbielska, Markus Pelleter, Agnieszka Giemza, Halina Podbielska
A17 Personalized molecular treatment for muscular dystrophies
Sebahattin Cirak
A18 Secondary mutations in circulating tumour DNA for acquired drug resistance in patients with advanced ALK + NSCLC
Marzia Del Re, Paola Bordi, Valentina Citi, Marta Palombi, Carmine Pinto, Marcello Tiseo, Romano Danesi
A19 Recombinant species-specific FcεRI alpha proteins for diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergies in dogs, cats and horses
Lukas Einhorn, Judit Fazekas, Martina Muhr, Alexandra Schoos, Lucia Panakova, Ina Herrmann, Krisztina Manzano-Szalai, Kumiko Oida, Edda Fiebiger, Josef Singer, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
A20 Global methodology for developmental neurotoxicity testing in humans and animals early and chronically exposed to chemical contaminants
Arpiné A. Elnar, Nadia Ouamara, Nadiya Boyko, Xavier Coumoul, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Gauthier Eppe, Jenny Renaut, Torsten Bonn, Cédric Guignard, Margherita Ferrante, Maria Liusa Chiusano, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Gerard O'Keeffe, John Cryan, Michelle Bisson, Amina Barakat, Ihsane Hmamouchi, Nasser Zawia, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Glen E. Kisby, Rui Alves, Oscar Villacañas Pérez, Kim Burgard, Peter Spencer, Norbert Bomba, Martin Haranta, Nina Zaitseva, Irina May, Stéphanie Grojean, Mathilde Body-Malapel, Florencia Harari, Raul Harari, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Olga Golubnitschaja, Vittorio Calabrese, Christophe Nemos, Rachid Soulimani
A21 Mental indicators at young people with attributes hypertension and pre-hypertension
Maria E. Evsevyeva, Elena A. Mishenko, Zurida V. Kumukova, Evgeniy V. Chudnovsky, Tatyana A. Smirnova
A22 On the approaches to the early diagnosis of stress-induced hypertension in young employees of State law enforcement agencies
Maria E. Evsevyeva, Ludmila V. Ivanova, Michail V. Eremin, Maria V. Rostovtseva
A23 Сentral aortic pressure and indexes of augmentation in young persons in view of risk factors
Maria E. Evsevyeva, Michail V. Eremin, Vladimir I. Koshel, Oksana V. Sergeeva, Nadesgda M. Konovalova
A24 Breast cancer prediction and prevention: Are reliable biomarkers in horizon?
Shantanu Girotra, Olga Golubnitschaja
A25 Flammer Syndrome and potential formation of pre-metastatic niches: A multi-centred study on phenotyping, patient stratification, prediction and potential prevention of aggressive breast cancer and metastatic disease
Olga Golubnitschaja, Manuel Debald, Walther Kuhn, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Vadym M. Goncharenko, Ulyana Lushchyk, Godfrey Grech, Katarzyna Konieczka
A26 Innovative tools for prenatal diagnostics and monitoring: improving individual pregnancy outcomes and health-economy in EU
Olga Golubnitschaja, Jan Jaap Erwich, Vincenzo Costigliola, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Ulrich Gembruch
A27 Immunohistochemical assessment of APUD cells in endometriosis
Vadym M. Goncharenko, Vasyl O. Beniuk, Olga V. Kalenska, Rostyslav V. Bubnov
A28 Updating personalized management algorithm of endometrial hyperplasia in pre-menopause women
Vadym M. Goncharenko, Vasyl O. Beniuk, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Olga Melnychuk
A29 The personified treatment approach of polimorbid patients with periodontal inflammatory diseases
Irina A. Gorbacheva, Lyudmila Y. Orekhova, Vadim V. Tachalov
A30 Ukrainian experience in hybrid war – the challenge to update algorithms for personalized care and early prevention of different military injuries
Olena I. Grechanyk, Rizvan Ya. Abdullaiev, Rostyslav V. Bubnov
A31 Tear fluid biomarkers: a comparison of tear fluid sampling and storage protocols
Suzanne Hagan, Eilidh Martin, Ian Pearce, Katherine Oliver
A32 The correlation of dietary habits with gingival problems during menstruation
Cenk Haytac, Fariz Salimov, Servin Yoksul, Anatoly A. Kunin, Natalia S. Moiseeva
A33 Genomic medicine in a contemporary Spanish population of prostate cancer: our experience
Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, Sergio del Río-González, Maria Fernanda Lara, Antonia Angulo, Francisco Javier Machuca Santa-Cruz
A34 Challenges, opportunities and collaborations for personalized medicine applicability in uro-oncological disease
Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, Sergio del Río-González, Maria Fernanda Lara
A35 Metabolic hallmarks of cancer as targets for a personalized therapy
John Ionescu
A36 Influence of genetic polymorphism as a predictor of the development of periodontal disease in patients with gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer
Alfiya Z. Isamulaeva, Anatoly A. Kunin, Shamil Sh. Magomedov, Aida I. Isamulaeva
A37 Challenges in diabetic macular edema
Tatjana Josifova
A38 Overview of the EPMA strategies in laboratory medicine relevant for PPPM
Marko Kapalla, Juraj Kubáň, Olga Golubnitschaja, Vincenzo Costigliola
A39 EPMA initiative for effective organization of medical travel: European concepts and criteria
Vincenzo Costigliola, Marko Kapalla, Juraj Kubáň, Olga Golubnitschaja
A40 Design and innovation in e-textiles: implications for PPPM
Anthony Kent, Tom Fisher, Tilak Dias
A41 Biobank in Pilsen as a member of national node BBMRI_CZ
Judita Kinkorová, Ondřej Topolčan
A42 Big data in personalized medicine: hype and hope
Matthias Kohl
A43 The 3P approach as the platform of the European Dentistry Department (DPPPD)
Anatoly A. Kunin, Natalia S. Moiseeva
A44 The endometrium cytokine patterns for predictive diagnosis of proliferation severity and cancer prevention
Andrii I. Kurchenko, Vasyl A. Beniuk, Vadym M. Goncharenko, Rostyslav V. Bubnov, Nadiya V. Boyko, Andriy M. Strokan
A45 A monocyte-based in-vitro system for testing individual responses to the implanted material: future for personalized implant construction
Julia Kzhyshkowska, Alexandru Gudima, Ksenia S. Stankevich, Victor D. Filimonov4, Harald Klüter, Evgeniya M. Mamontova, Sergei I. Tverdokhlebov
A46 Prediction and prevention of adverse health effects by meteorological factors: Biomarker patterns and creation of a device for self-monitoring and integrated care
Ulyana B. Lushchyk, Viktor V. Novytskyy, Igor P. Babii, Nadiya G. Lushchyk, Lyudmyla S. Riabets, Ivanna I. Legka
A47 Targeting "disease signatures" towards personalized healthcare
Mira Marcus-Kalish, Alexis Mitelpunkt, Tal Galili, Neta Shachar, Yoav Benjamini
A48 Influence of the skin imperfection on the personal quality of life and possible tools for objective diagnosis
Agnieszka Migasiewicz, Markus Pelleter, Joanna Bauer, Ewelina Dereń, Halina Podbielska
A49 The new direction in caries prevention based on the ultrastructure of dental hard tissues and filling materials
Natalia S. Moiseeva, Anatoly A. Kunin, Dmitry A. Kunin
A50 The use of LED radiation in prevention of dental diseases
Natalia S. Moiseeva, Yury A. Ippolitov, Dmitry A. Kunin, Alexei N. Morozov, Natalia V. Chirkova, Nakhid T. Aliev
A51 Status of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic nephropathy: predictive and preventive potentials
Mahmood S. Mozaffari, Jun Yao Liu, Babak Baban
A52 The status of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein in salivary gland in Sjögren’s syndrome: predictive and personalized treatment potentials
Mahmood S. Mozaffari, Jun Yao Liu, Rafik Abdelsayed, Xing-Ming Shi, Babak Baban
A53 Maximal aerobic capacity - important quality marker of health
Jaroslav Novák, Milan Štork, Václav Zeman
A54 The EMPOWER project: laboratory medicine and Horizon 2020
Wytze P. Oosterhuis, Elvar Theodorsson
A55 Personality profile manifestations in patient’s attitude to oral care and adherence to doctor’s prescriptions
Lyudmila Y. Orekhova, Tatyana V. Kudryavtseva, Elena R. Isaeva, Vadim V. Tachalov, Ekaterina S. Loboda
A56 Results of an European survey on personalized medicine addressed to directions of laboratory medicine
Mario Pazzagli, Francesca Malentacchi, Irene Mancini, Ivan Brandslund, Pieter Vermeersch, Matthias Schwab, Janja Marc, Ron H.N. van Schaik, Gerard Siest, Elvar Theodorsson, Chiara Di Resta
A57 MCI or early dementia predictive speech based diagnosis techniques
Matus Pleva, Jozef Juhar
A58 Personalized speech based mobile application for eHealth
Matus Pleva, Jozef Juhar
A59 Circulating tumor cell-free DNA as the biomarker in the management of cancer patients
Jiří Polívka jr., Filip Janků, Martin Pešta, Jan Doležal, Milena Králíčková, Jiří Polívka
A60 Complex stroke care – educational programme in Stroke Centre University Hospital Plzen
Jiří Polívka, Alena Lukešová, Nina Müllerová, Petr Ševčík, Vladimír Rohan
A61 Sleep apnea and sleep fragmentation contribute to brain aging
Kneginja Richter, Lence Miloseva, Günter Niklewski
A62 Personalised approach for sleep disturbances in shift workers
Kneginja Richter, Jens Acker, Guenter Niklewski
A63 Medical travel and innovative PPPM clusters: new concept of integration
Olga Safonicheva, Vincenzo Costigliola
A64 Medical travel and women health
Olga Safonicheva
A65 Continuity of generations in the training of specialists in the field of reconstructive microsurgery
Maxim Sautin, Janna Sinelnikova, Sergey Suchkov
A66 Telemonitoring of stroke patients – empirical evidence of individual risk management results from an observational study in Germany
Songül Secer, Stephan von Bandemer
A67 Women’s increasing breast cancer risk with n-6 fatty acid intake explained by estrogen-fatty acid interactive effect on DNA damage: implications for gender-specific nutrition within personalized medicine
Niva Shapira
A68 Cytobacterioscopy of the gingival crevicular fluid as a method for preventive diagnosis of periodontal diseases
Aleksandr Shcherbakov, Anatoly A. Kunin, Natalia S. Moiseeva
A69 Use of specially treated composites in dentistry to avoid violations of aesthetics
Bogdan R. Shumilovich, Zhanna Lipkind, Yulia Vorobieva, Dmitry A. Kunin, Anastasiia V. Sudareva
A70 National eHealth system – platform for preventive, predictive and personalized diabetes care
Ivica Smokovski, Tatjana Milenkovic
A72 The common energy levels of Prof. Szent-Györgyi, the intrinsic chemistry of melanin, and the muscle physiopathology. Implications in the context of Preventive, Predictive, and Personalized Medicine
Arturo Solís-Herrera, María del Carmen Arias-Esparza, Sergey Suchkov
A73 Plurality and individuality of hepatocellular carcinoma: PPPM perspectives
Krishna Chander Sridhar, Olga Golubnitschaja
A74 Strategic aspects of higher medical education reforms to secure newer educational platforms for getting biopharma professionals matures
Maria Studneva, Sihong Song, James Creeden, Мark Мandrik, Sergey Suchkov
A75 Overview of the strategies and activities of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, (EFLM)
Elvar Theodorsson, EFLM
A76 New spectroscopic techniques for point of care label free diagnostics
Syed A. M. Tofail
A77 Tumor markers for personalized medicine and oncology - the role of Laboratory Medicine
Ondřej Topolčan, Judita Kinkorová, Ondřej Fiala, Marie Karlíková, Šárka Svobodová, Radek Kučera, Radka Fuchsová, Vladislav Třeška, Václav Šimánek, Ladislav Pecen, Jan Šoupal, Štěpán Svačina2
A78 Modern medical terminology (MMT) as a driver of the global educational reforms
Evgeniya Tretyak, Maria Studneva, Sergey Suchkov
A79 Juvenile hypertension; the relevance of novel predictive, preventive and personalized assessment of its determinants
Francesca M. Trovato, G. Fabio Martines, Daniela Brischetto, Daniela Catalano, Giuseppe Musumeci, Guglielmo M. Trovato
A80 Proteomarkers Biotech
George Th. Tsangaris, Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos
A81 Proteomics and mass spectrometry based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal health and pregnancy complications
George Th. Tsangaris, Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos
A82 Integrated Ecosystem for an Integrated Care model for Heart Failure (HF) patients including related comorbidities (ZENITH)
José Verdú, German Gutiérrez, Jordi Rovira, Marta Martinez, Lutz Fleischhacker, Donna Green, Arthur Garson, Elena Tamburini, Stefano Cuomo, Juan Martinez-Leon, Teresa Abrisqueta, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Tiny Jaarsma, Teresa Arredondo, Cecilia Vera, Giuseppe Fico, Olga Golubnitschaja, Fernando Arribas, Martina Onderco, Isabel Vara, on behalf of ZENITH consortium
A83 Predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diabetes onset and complication (MOSAIC project)
José Verdú, Francesco Sambo, Barbara Di Camillo, Claudio Cobelli, Andrea Facchinetti, Giuseppe Fico, Riccardo Bellazzi, Lucia Sacchi, Arianna Dagliati, Daniele Segnani, Valentina Tibollo, Manuel Ottaviano, Rafael Gabriel, Leif Groop, Jacqueline Postma, Antonio Martinez, Liisa Hakaste, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Konstantia Zarkogianni, on behalf of MOSAIC consortium
A84 Possibilities for personalized therapy of diabetes using in vitro screening of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents
Igor Volchek, Nina Pototskaya, Andrey Petrov
A85 The innovative technology for personalized therapy of human diseases based on in vitro drug screening
Igor Volchek, Nadezhda Pototskaya, Andrey Petrov
A86 Bone destruction and temporomandibular joint: predictive markers, pathogenetic aspects and quality of life
Ülle Voog-Oras, Oksana Jagur, Edvitar Leibur, Priit Niibo, Triin Jagomägi, Minh Son Nguyen, Chris Pruunsild, Dagmar Piikov, Mare Saag
A87 Sub-optimal health management – global vision for concepts in medical travel
Wei Wang
A88 Sub-optimal health management: synergic PPPM-TCAM approach
Wei Wang
A89 Innovative technologies for minimal invasive diagnostics
Andreas Weinhäusel, Walter Pulverer, Matthias Wielscher, Manuela Hofner, Christa Noehammer, Regina Soldo, Peter Hettegger, Istvan Gyurjan, Ronald Kulovics, Silvia Schönthaler, Gabriel Beikircher, Albert Kriegner, Stephan Pabinger, Klemens Vierlinger
A90 Rare disease diobanks for personalized medicine
Ayşe Yüzbaşıoğlu, Meral Özgüç, Member of EuroBioBank - European Network of DNA, Cell and Tissue Banks for Rare Diseases
doi:10.1186/s13167-016-0054-6
PMCID: PMC4896262
9.  DNA methylation of loci within ABCG1 and PHOSPHO1 in blood DNA is associated with future type 2 diabetes risk 
Epigenetics  2016;11(7):482-488.
ABSTRACT
Identification of subjects with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is fundamental for prevention of the disease. Consequently, it is essential to search for new biomarkers that can improve the prediction of T2D. The aim of this study was to examine whether 5 DNA methylation loci in blood DNA (ABCG1, PHOSPHO1, SOCS3, SREBF1, and TXNIP), recently reported to be associated with T2D, might predict future T2D in subjects from the Botnia prospective study. We also tested if these CpG sites exhibit altered DNA methylation in human pancreatic islets, liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic subjects. DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA was associated with an increased risk for future T2D (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02–1.16, P-value = 0.007, Q-value = 0.018), while DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood DNA was associated with a decreased risk for future T2D (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75–0.95, P-value = 0.006, Q-value = 0.018) after adjustment for age, gender, fasting glucose, and family relation. Furthermore, the level of DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA correlated positively with BMI, HbA1c, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels, and was increased in adipose tissue and blood from the diabetic twin among monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood correlated positively with HDL levels, and was decreased in skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic monozygotic twins. DNA methylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3), cg11024682 (SREBF1), and cg19693031 (TXNIP) was not associated with future T2D risk in subjects from the Botnia prospective study.
doi:10.1080/15592294.2016.1178418
PMCID: PMC4939923  PMID: 27148772
ABCG1; adipose tissue; blood; DNA methylation; epigenetics; liver; pancreatic islets; PHOSPHO1; skeletal muscle; type 2 diabetes
10.  A common variant in the Melatonin Receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) is associated with increased risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in obese youth 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2015;23(5):1022-1029.
Objective
To explore the role of MTNR1B rs10830963 and G6PC2 rs560887 variants in the pathogenesis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in obese adolescents.
Design and Methods
346 Caucasians, 218 African Americans and 217 Hispanics obese children and adolescents underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 518 underwent the evaluation of insulin secretion by the oral minimal model (OMM). Also, 274 subjects underwent a second OGTT after 3.0±2.1 years.
Results
The MTNR1B rs10830963 variant was associated with higher fasting glucose levels and lower dynamic beta cell response in Caucasians and Hispanics (p<0.05) and conferred an increased risk of showing IFG to Caucasians (p=0.05), African Americans (p=0.0066) and Hispanics (p=0.024). Despite the association between the G6PC2 rs560887 and higher fasting glucose levels (p<0.05), there was no association between this variant and IFG at baseline or at follow-up (all p>0.10).
Conclusions
We show for the first time in obese youth that the MTNR1B variant is associated with an increased risk of IFG.
doi:10.1002/oby.21030
PMCID: PMC4414047  PMID: 25919927
MTNR1B; G6PC2; IFG; fasting glucose; childhood obesity
11.  Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors 
Fall, Tove | Hägg, Sara | Ploner, Alexander | Mägi, Reedik | Fischer, Krista | Draisma, Harmen H.M. | Sarin, Antti-Pekka | Benyamin, Beben | Ladenvall, Claes | Åkerlund, Mikael | Kals, Mart | Esko, Tõnu | Nelson, Christopher P. | Kaakinen, Marika | Huikari, Ville | Mangino, Massimo | Meirhaeghe, Aline | Kristiansson, Kati | Nuotio, Marja-Liisa | Kobl, Michael | Grallert, Harald | Dehghan, Abbas | Kuningas, Maris | de Vries, Paul S. | de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G. | Willems, Sara M. | Heikkilä, Kauko | Silventoinen, Karri | Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. | Legry, Vanessa | Giedraitis, Vilmantas | Goumidi, Louisa | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Strauch, Konstantin | Koenig, Wolfgang | Lichtner, Peter | Herder, Christian | Palotie, Aarno | Menni, Cristina | Uitterlinden, André G. | Kuulasmaa, Kari | Havulinna, Aki S. | Moreno, Luis A. | Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela | Evans, Alun | Tregouet, David-Alexandre | Yarnell, John W.G. | Virtamo, Jarmo | Ferrières, Jean | Veronesi, Giovanni | Perola, Markus | Arveiler, Dominique | Brambilla, Paolo | Lind, Lars | Kaprio, Jaakko | Hofman, Albert | Stricker, Bruno H. | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Ikram, M. Arfan | Franco, Oscar H. | Cottel, Dominique | Dallongeville, Jean | Hall, Alistair S. | Jula, Antti | Tobin, Martin D. | Penninx, Brenda W. | Peters, Annette | Gieger, Christian | Samani, Nilesh J. | Montgomery, Grant W. | Whitfield, John B. | Martin, Nicholas G. | Groop, Leif | Spector, Tim D. | Magnusson, Patrik K. | Amouyel, Philippe | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Nilsson, Peter M. | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Metspalu, Andres | Strachan, David P. | Salomaa, Veikko | Ripatti, Samuli | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Prokopenko, Inga | McCarthy, Mark I. | Ingelsson, Erik
Diabetes  2015;64(5):1841-1852.
Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors.
doi:10.2337/db14-0988
PMCID: PMC4407863  PMID: 25712996
12.  Harmonising and linking biomedical and clinical data across disparate data archives to enable integrative cross-biobank research 
A wealth of biospecimen samples are stored in modern globally distributed biobanks. Biomedical researchers worldwide need to be able to combine the available resources to improve the power of large-scale studies. A prerequisite for this effort is to be able to search and access phenotypic, clinical and other information about samples that are currently stored at biobanks in an integrated manner. However, privacy issues together with heterogeneous information systems and the lack of agreed-upon vocabularies have made specimen searching across multiple biobanks extremely challenging. We describe three case studies where we have linked samples and sample descriptions in order to facilitate global searching of available samples for research. The use cases include the ENGAGE (European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology) consortium comprising at least 39 cohorts, the SUMMIT (surrogate markers for micro- and macro-vascular hard endpoints for innovative diabetes tools) consortium and a pilot for data integration between a Swedish clinical health registry and a biobank. We used the Sample avAILability (SAIL) method for data linking: first, created harmonised variables and then annotated and made searchable information on the number of specimens available in individual biobanks for various phenotypic categories. By operating on this categorised availability data we sidestep many obstacles related to privacy that arise when handling real values and show that harmonised and annotated records about data availability across disparate biomedical archives provide a key methodological advance in pre-analysis exchange of information between biobanks, that is, during the project planning phase.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.165
PMCID: PMC4929882  PMID: 26306643
13.  Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes 
Nature Communications  2016;7:11089.
Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26–74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D.
Aging is associated with impaired pancreatic islet function, increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and changes in DNA methylation. Here the authors find blood-based biomarkers that reflect age-associated DNA methylation changes in human pancreatic islets associated with insulin secretion and diabetes.
doi:10.1038/ncomms11089
PMCID: PMC4821875  PMID: 27029739
14.  A Variant of GJD2, Encoding for Connexin 36, Alters the Function of Insulin Producing β-Cells 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(3):e0150880.
Signalling through gap junctions contributes to control insulin secretion and, thus, blood glucose levels. Gap junctions of the insulin-producing β-cells are made of connexin 36 (Cx36), which is encoded by the GJD2 gene. Cx36-null mice feature alterations mimicking those observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D). GJD2 is also expressed in neurons, which share a number of common features with pancreatic β-cells. Given that a synonymous exonic single nucleotide polymorphism of human Cx36 (SNP rs3743123) associates with altered function of central neurons in a subset of epileptic patients, we investigated whether this SNP also caused alterations of β-cell function. Transfection of rs3743123 cDNA in connexin-lacking HeLa cells resulted in altered formation of gap junction plaques and cell coupling, as compared to those induced by wild type (WT) GJD2 cDNA. Transgenic mice expressing the very same cDNAs under an insulin promoter revealed that SNP rs3743123 expression consistently lead to a post-natal reduction of islet Cx36 levels and β-cell survival, resulting in hyperglycemia in selected lines. These changes were not observed in sex- and age-matched controls expressing WT hCx36. The variant GJD2 only marginally associated to heterogeneous populations of diabetic patients. The data document that a silent polymorphism of GJD2 is associated with altered β-cell function, presumably contributing to T2D pathogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150880
PMCID: PMC4784816  PMID: 26959991
15.  The impact of low-frequency and rare variants on lipid levels 
Surakka, Ida | Horikoshi, Momoko | Mägi, Reedik | Sarin, Antti-Pekka | Mahajan, Anubha | Lagou, Vasiliki | Marullo, Letizia | Ferreira, Teresa | Miraglio, Benjamin | Timonen, Sanna | Kettunen, Johannes | Pirinen, Matti | Karjalainen, Juha | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Hägg, Sara | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Isaacs, Aaron | Ladenvall, Claes | Beekman, Marian | Esko, Tõnu | Ried, Janina S | Nelson, Christopher P | Willenborg, Christina | Gustafsson, Stefan | Westra, Harm-Jan | Blades, Matthew | de Craen, Anton JM | de Geus, Eco J | Deelen, Joris | Grallert, Harald | Hamsten, Anders | Havulinna, Aki S. | Hengstenberg, Christian | Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J | Hyppönen, Elina | Karssen, Lennart C | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Magnusson, Patrik KE | Mihailov, Evelin | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Mpindi, John-Patrick | Pedersen, Nancy L | Penninx, Brenda WJH | Perola, Markus | Pers, Tune H | Peters, Annette | Rung, Johan | Smit, Johannes H | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Tobin, Martin D | Tsernikova, Natalia | van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M | Viikari, Jorma S | Willems, Sara M | Willemsen, Gonneke | Schunkert, Heribert | Erdmann, Jeanette | Samani, Nilesh J | Kaprio, Jaakko | Lind, Lars | Gieger, Christian | Metspalu, Andres | Slagboom, P Eline | Groop, Leif | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Eriksson, Johan G | Jula, Antti | Salomaa, Veikko | Boomsma, Dorret I | Power, Christine | Raitakari, Olli T | Ingelsson, Erik | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Stefansson, Kari | Franke, Lude | Ikonen, Elina | Kallioniemi, Olli | Pietiäinen, Vilja | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Palotie, Aarno | McCarthy, Mark I | Morris, Andrew P | Prokopenko, Inga | Ripatti, Samuli
Nature genetics  2015;47(6):589-597.
Using a genome-wide screen of 9.6 million genetic variants achieved through 1000 Genomes imputation in 62,166 samples, we identify association to lipids in 93 loci including 79 previously identified loci with new lead-SNPs, 10 new loci, 15 loci with a low-frequency and 10 loci with missense lead-SNPs, and, 2 loci with an accumulation of rare variants. In six loci, SNPs with established function in lipid genetics (CELSR2, GCKR, LIPC, and APOE), or candidate missense mutations with predicted damaging function (CD300LG and TM6SF2), explained the locus associations. The low-frequency variants increased the proportion of variance explained, particularly for LDL-C and TC. Altogether, our results highlight the impact of low-frequency variants in complex traits and show that imputation offers a cost-effective alternative to re-sequencing.
doi:10.1038/ng.3300
PMCID: PMC4757735  PMID: 25961943
16.  Influence of Familial Renal Glycosuria Due to Mutations in the SLC5A2 Gene on Changes in Glucose Tolerance over Time 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0146114.
Familial renal glycosuria is an inherited disorder resulting in glucose excretion in the urine despite normal blood glucose concentrations. It is most commonly due to mutations in the SLC5A2 gene coding for the glucose transporter SGLT2 in the proximal tubule. Several drugs have been introduced as means to lower glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes targeting SGLT2 resulting in renal glycosuria, but no studies have addressed the potential effects of decreased renal glucose reabsorption and chronic glycosuria on the prevention of glucose intolerance. Here we present data on a large pedigree with renal glycosuria due to two mutations (c.300-303+2del and p.A343V) in the SLC5A2 gene. The mutations, which in vitro affected glucose transport in a cell line model, and the ensuing glycosuria were not associated with better glycemic control during a follow-up period of more than 10 years. One individual, who was compound heterozygous for mutations in the SLC5A2 gene suffered from severe urogenital candida infections and postprandial hypoglycemia. In conclusion, in this family with familial glycosuria we did not find any evidence that chronic loss of glucose in the urine would protect from deterioration of the glucose tolerance over time.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146114
PMCID: PMC4703216  PMID: 26735923
18.  A novel atlas of gene expression in human skeletal muscle reveals molecular changes associated with aging 
Skeletal Muscle  2015;5:35.
Background
Although high-throughput studies of gene expression have generated large amounts of data, most of which is freely available in public archives, the use of this valuable resource is limited by computational complications and non-homogenous annotation. To address these issues, we have performed a complete re-annotation of public microarray data from human skeletal muscle biopsies and constructed a muscle expression compendium consisting of nearly 3000 samples. The created muscle compendium is a publicly available resource including all curated annotation. Using this data set, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of muscle aging and to describe how physical exercise may alleviate negative physiological effects.
Results
We find 957 genes to be significantly associated with aging (p < 0.05, FDR = 5 %, n = 361). Aging was associated with perturbation of many central metabolic pathways like mitochondrial function including reduced expression of genes in the ATP synthase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome C reductase and oxidase complexes, as well as in glucose and pyruvate processing. Among the genes with the strongest association with aging were H3 histone, family 3B (H3F3B, p = 3.4 × 10−13), AHNAK nucleoprotein, desmoyokin (AHNAK, p = 6.9 × 10−12), and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4, p = 4.0 × 10−9). We also discover genes previously not linked to muscle aging and metabolism, such as fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 2 (FEZ2, p = 2.8 × 10−8). Out of the 957 genes associated with aging, 21 (p < 0.001, false discovery rate = 5 %, n = 116) were also associated with maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX). Strikingly, 20 out of those 21 genes are regulated in opposite direction when comparing increasing age with increasing VO2MAX.
Conclusions
These results support that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major age-related factor and also highlight the beneficial effects of maintaining a high physical capacity for prevention of age-related sarcopenia.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13395-015-0059-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13395-015-0059-1
PMCID: PMC4600214  PMID: 26457177
Skeletal muscle; Expression; Microarray; Aging; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Exercise
19.  The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study 
Winkler, Thomas W. | Justice, Anne E. | Graff, Mariaelisa | Barata, Llilda | Feitosa, Mary F. | Chu, Su | Czajkowski, Jacek | Esko, Tõnu | Fall, Tove | Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. | Lu, Yingchang | Mägi, Reedik | Mihailov, Evelin | Pers, Tune H. | Rüeger, Sina | Teumer, Alexander | Ehret, Georg B. | Ferreira, Teresa | Heard-Costa, Nancy L. | Karjalainen, Juha | Lagou, Vasiliki | Mahajan, Anubha | Neinast, Michael D. | Prokopenko, Inga | Simino, Jeannette | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Jansen, Rick | Westra, Harm-Jan | White, Charles C. | Absher, Devin | Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. | Ahmad, Shafqat | Albrecht, Eva | Alves, Alexessander Couto | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | de Craen, Anton J. M. | Bis, Joshua C. | Bonnefond, Amélie | Boucher, Gabrielle | Cadby, Gemma | Cheng, Yu-Ching | Chiang, Charleston W. K. | Delgado, Graciela | Demirkan, Ayse | Dueker, Nicole | Eklund, Niina | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Eriksson, Joel | Feenstra, Bjarke | Fischer, Krista | Frau, Francesca | Galesloot, Tessel E. | Geller, Frank | Goel, Anuj | Gorski, Mathias | Grammer, Tanja B. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Haitjema, Saskia | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Jackson, Anne U. | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Johansson, Åsa | Kaakinen, Marika | Kleber, Marcus E. | Lahti, Jari | Leach, Irene Mateo | Lehne, Benjamin | Liu, Youfang | Lo, Ken Sin | Lorentzon, Mattias | Luan, Jian'an | Madden, Pamela A. F. | Mangino, Massimo | McKnight, Barbara | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Monda, Keri L. | Montasser, May E. | Müller, Gabriele | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope | Pascoe, Laura | Paternoster, Lavinia | Rayner, Nigel W. | Renström, Frida | Rizzi, Federica | Rose, Lynda M. | Ryan, Kathy A. | Salo, Perttu | Sanna, Serena | Scharnagl, Hubert | Shi, Jianxin | Smith, Albert Vernon | Southam, Lorraine | Stančáková, Alena | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Sung, Yun Ju | Tachmazidou, Ioanna | Tanaka, Toshiko | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Trompet, Stella | Pervjakova, Natalia | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | Vandenput, Liesbeth | van der Laan, Sander W | van der Velde, Nathalie | van Setten, Jessica | van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. | Verweij, Niek | Vlachopoulou, Efthymia | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wang, Sophie R. | Wang, Zhaoming | Wild, Sarah H. | Willenborg, Christina | Wilson, James F. | Wong, Andrew | Yang, Jian | Yengo, Loïc | Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. | Yu, Lei | Zhang, Weihua | Zhao, Jing Hua | Andersson, Ehm A. | Bakker, Stephan J. L. | Baldassarre, Damiano | Banasik, Karina | Barcella, Matteo | Barlassina, Cristina | Bellis, Claire | Benaglio, Paola | Blangero, John | Blüher, Matthias | Bonnet, Fabrice | Bonnycastle, Lori L. | Boyd, Heather A. | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Buchman, Aron S | Campbell, Harry | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Chines, Peter S. | Claudi-Boehm, Simone | Cole, John | Collins, Francis S. | de Geus, Eco J. C. | de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M. | Dimitriou, Maria | Duan, Jubao | Enroth, Stefan | Eury, Elodie | Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni | Forouhi, Nita G. | Friedrich, Nele | Gejman, Pablo V. | Gigante, Bruna | Glorioso, Nicola | Go, Alan S. | Gottesman, Omri | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grallert, Harald | Grarup, Niels | Gu, Yu-Mei | Broer, Linda | Ham, Annelies C. | Hansen, Torben | Harris, Tamara B. | Hartman, Catharina A. | Hassinen, Maija | Hastie, Nicholas | Hattersley, Andrew T. | Heath, Andrew C. | Henders, Anjali K. | Hernandez, Dena | Hillege, Hans | Holmen, Oddgeir | Hovingh, Kees G | Hui, Jennie | Husemoen, Lise L. | Hutri-Kähönen, Nina | Hysi, Pirro G. | Illig, Thomas | De Jager, Philip L. | Jalilzadeh, Shapour | Jørgensen, Torben | Jukema, J. Wouter | Juonala, Markus | Kanoni, Stavroula | Karaleftheri, Maria | Khaw, Kay Tee | Kinnunen, Leena | Kittner, Steven J. | Koenig, Wolfgang | Kolcic, Ivana | Kovacs, Peter | Krarup, Nikolaj T. | Kratzer, Wolfgang | Krüger, Janine | Kuh, Diana | Kumari, Meena | Kyriakou, Theodosios | Langenberg, Claudia | Lannfelt, Lars | Lanzani, Chiara | Lotay, Vaneet | Launer, Lenore J. | Leander, Karin | Lindström, Jaana | Linneberg, Allan | Liu, Yan-Ping | Lobbens, Stéphane | Luben, Robert | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | Magnusson, Patrik K. | McArdle, Wendy L. | Menni, Cristina | Merger, Sigrun | Milani, Lili | Montgomery, Grant W. | Morris, Andrew P. | Narisu, Narisu | Nelis, Mari | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Pérusse, Louis | Pichler, Irene | Pilia, Maria G. | Pouta, Anneli | Rheinberger, Myriam | Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus | Richards, Marcus | Rice, Kenneth M. | Rice, Treva K. | Rivolta, Carlo | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanders, Alan R. | Sarzynski, Mark A. | Scholtens, Salome | Scott, Robert A. | Scott, William R. | Sebert, Sylvain | Sengupta, Sebanti | Sennblad, Bengt | Seufferlein, Thomas | Silveira, Angela | Slagboom, P. Eline | Smit, Jan H. | Sparsø, Thomas H. | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stolk, Ronald P. | Stringham, Heather M. | Swertz, Morris A | Swift, Amy J. | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tan, Sian-Tsung | Thorand, Barbara | Tönjes, Anke | Tremblay, Angelo | Tsafantakis, Emmanouil | van der Most, Peter J. | Völker, Uwe | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Vonk, Judith M. | Waldenberger, Melanie | Walker, Ryan W. | Wennauer, Roman | Widén, Elisabeth | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wright, Alan F. | Zillikens, M. Carola | van Dijk, Suzanne C. | van Schoor, Natasja M. | Asselbergs, Folkert W. | de Bakker, Paul I. W. | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Beilby, John | Bennett, David A. | Bergman, Richard N. | Bergmann, Sven | Böger, Carsten A. | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bottinger, Erwin P. | Bouchard, Claude | Chambers, John C. | Chanock, Stephen J. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Cucca, Francesco | Cusi, Daniele | Dedoussis, George | Erdmann, Jeanette | Eriksson, Johan G. | Evans, Denis A. | de Faire, Ulf | Farrall, Martin | Ferrucci, Luigi | Ford, Ian | Franke, Lude | Franks, Paul W. | Froguel, Philippe | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Gieger, Christian | Grönberg, Henrik | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hall, Per | Hamsten, Anders | van der Harst, Pim | Hayward, Caroline | Heliövaara, Markku | Hengstenberg, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A | Hingorani, Aroon | Hofman, Albert | Hu, Frank | Huikuri, Heikki V. | Hveem, Kristian | James, Alan L. | Jordan, Joanne M. | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kajantie, Eero | Kathiresan, Sekar | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M. | Kivimaki, Mika | Knekt, Paul B. | Koistinen, Heikki A. | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koskinen, Seppo | Kuusisto, Johanna | Maerz, Winfried | Martin, Nicholas G | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lettre, Guillaume | Levinson, Douglas F. | Lind, Lars | Lokki, Marja-Liisa | Mäntyselkä, Pekka | Melbye, Mads | Metspalu, Andres | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Moll, Frans L. | Murray, Jeffrey C. | Musk, Arthur W. | Nieminen, Markku S. | Njølstad, Inger | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Oostra, Ben A. | Palmer, Lyle J | Pankow, James S. | Pasterkamp, Gerard | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Pedersen, Oluf | Penninx, Brenda W. | Perola, Markus | Peters, Annette | Polašek, Ozren | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Qi, Lu | Quertermous, Thomas | Raitakari, Olli T. | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rauramaa, Rainer | Ridker, Paul M. | Rioux, John D. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rotter, Jerome I. | Rudan, Igor | den Ruijter, Hester M. | Saltevo, Juha | Sattar, Naveed | Schunkert, Heribert | Schwarz, Peter E. H. | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Sinisalo, Juha | Snieder, Harold | Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. | Spector, Tim D. | Staessen, Jan A. | Stefania, Bandinelli | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stumvoll, Michael | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G. | Uusitupa, Matti | Verbeek, André L. M. | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Viikari, Jorma S. | Vitart, Veronique | Völzke, Henry | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Walker, Mark | Wallaschofski, Henri | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Watkins, Hugh | Zeggini, Eleftheria | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Clegg, Deborah J. | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Gordon-Larsen, Penny | Jaquish, Cashell E. | Rao, D. C. | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Barroso, Inês | Berndt, Sonja I. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Fox, Caroline S. | Groop, Leif C. | Hunter, David J. | Ingelsson, Erik | Kaplan, Robert C. | McCarthy, Mark I. | Mohlke, Karen L. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P. | Stefansson, Kari | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Heid, Iris M. | North, Kari E. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Kutalik, Zoltán | Loos, Ruth J. F.
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(10):e1005378.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
Author Summary
Adult body size and body shape differ substantially between men and women and change over time. More than 100 genetic variants that influence body mass index (measure of body size) or waist-to-hip ratio (measure of body shape) have been identified. While there is evidence that some genetic loci affect body shape differently in men than in women, little is known about whether genetic effects differ in older compared to younger adults, and whether such changes differ between men and women. Therefore, we conducted a systematic genome-wide search, including 114 studies (>320,000 individuals), to specifically identify genetic loci with age- and or sex-dependent effects on body size and shape. We identified 15 loci of which the effect on BMI was different in older compared to younger adults, whereas we found no evidence for loci with different effects in men compared to women. The opposite was seen for body shape as we identified 44 loci of which the effect on waist-to-hip ratio differed between men and women, but no difference between younger and older adults were observed. Our observations may provide new insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexual dimorphism of body shape.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005378
PMCID: PMC4591371  PMID: 26426971
20.  New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution 
Shungin, Dmitry | Winkler, Thomas W | Croteau-Chonka, Damien C | Ferreira, Teresa | Locke, Adam E | Mägi, Reedik | Strawbridge, Rona J | Pers, Tune H | Fischer, Krista | Justice, Anne E | Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie | Wu, Joseph M.W. | Buchkovich, Martin L | Heard-Costa, Nancy L | Roman, Tamara S | Drong, Alexander W | Song, Ci | Gustafsson, Stefan | Day, Felix R | Esko, Tonu | Fall, Tove | Kutalik, Zoltán | Luan, Jian’an | Randall, Joshua C | Scherag, André | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wood, Andrew R | Chen, Jin | Fehrmann, Rudolf | Karjalainen, Juha | Kahali, Bratati | Liu, Ching-Ti | Schmidt, Ellen M | Absher, Devin | Amin, Najaf | Anderson, Denise | Beekman, Marian | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L | Buyske, Steven | Demirkan, Ayse | Ehret, Georg B | Feitosa, Mary F | Goel, Anuj | Jackson, Anne U | Johnson, Toby | Kleber, Marcus E | Kristiansson, Kati | Mangino, Massimo | Leach, Irene Mateo | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Palmer, Cameron D | Pasko, Dorota | Pechlivanis, Sonali | Peters, Marjolein J | Prokopenko, Inga | Stančáková, Alena | Sung, Yun Ju | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teumer, Alexander | Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V | Yengo, Loïc | Zhang, Weihua | Albrecht, Eva | Ärnlöv, Johan | Arscott, Gillian M | Bandinelli, Stefania | Barrett, Amy | Bellis, Claire | Bennett, Amanda J | Berne, Christian | Blüher, Matthias | Böhringer, Stefan | Bonnet, Fabrice | Böttcher, Yvonne | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Carba, Delia B | Caspersen, Ida H | Clarke, Robert | Daw, E Warwick | Deelen, Joris | Deelman, Ewa | Delgado, Graciela | Doney, Alex SF | Eklund, Niina | Erdos, Michael R | Estrada, Karol | Eury, Elodie | Friedrich, Nele | Garcia, Melissa E | Giedraitis, Vilmantas | Gigante, Bruna | Go, Alan S | Golay, Alain | Grallert, Harald | Grammer, Tanja B | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grewal, Jagvir | Groves, Christopher J | Haller, Toomas | Hallmans, Goran | Hartman, Catharina A | Hassinen, Maija | Hayward, Caroline | Heikkilä, Kauko | Herzig, Karl-Heinz | Helmer, Quinta | Hillege, Hans L | Holmen, Oddgeir | Hunt, Steven C | Isaacs, Aaron | Ittermann, Till | James, Alan L | Johansson, Ingegerd | Juliusdottir, Thorhildur | Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota | Kinnunen, Leena | Koenig, Wolfgang | Kooner, Ishminder K | Kratzer, Wolfgang | Lamina, Claudia | Leander, Karin | Lee, Nanette R | Lichtner, Peter | Lind, Lars | Lindström, Jaana | Lobbens, Stéphane | Lorentzon, Mattias | Mach, François | Magnusson, Patrik KE | Mahajan, Anubha | McArdle, Wendy L | Menni, Cristina | Merger, Sigrun | Mihailov, Evelin | Milani, Lili | Mills, Rebecca | Moayyeri, Alireza | Monda, Keri L | Mooijaart, Simon P | Mühleisen, Thomas W | Mulas, Antonella | Müller, Gabriele | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Nalls, Michael A | Narisu, Narisu | Glorioso, Nicola | Nolte, Ilja M | Olden, Matthias | Rayner, Nigel W | Renstrom, Frida | Ried, Janina S | Robertson, Neil R | Rose, Lynda M | Sanna, Serena | Scharnagl, Hubert | Scholtens, Salome | Sennblad, Bengt | Seufferlein, Thomas | Sitlani, Colleen M | Smith, Albert Vernon | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stringham, Heather M | Sundström, Johan | Swertz, Morris A | Swift, Amy J | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tayo, Bamidele O | Thorand, Barbara | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Tomaschitz, Andreas | Troffa, Chiara | van Oort, Floor VA | Verweij, Niek | Vonk, Judith M | Waite, Lindsay L | Wennauer, Roman | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wojczynski, Mary K | Wong, Andrew | Zhang, Qunyuan | Zhao, Jing Hua | Brennan, Eoin P. | Choi, Murim | Eriksson, Per | Folkersen, Lasse | Franco-Cereceda, Anders | Gharavi, Ali G | Hedman, Åsa K | Hivert, Marie-France | Huang, Jinyan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Karpe, Fredrik | Keildson, Sarah | Kiryluk, Krzysztof | Liang, Liming | Lifton, Richard P | Ma, Baoshan | McKnight, Amy J | McPherson, Ruth | Metspalu, Andres | Min, Josine L | Moffatt, Miriam F | Montgomery, Grant W | Murabito, Joanne M | Nicholson, George | Nyholt, Dale R | Olsson, Christian | Perry, John RB | Reinmaa, Eva | Salem, Rany M | Sandholm, Niina | Schadt, Eric E | Scott, Robert A | Stolk, Lisette | Vallejo, Edgar E. | Westra, Harm-Jan | Zondervan, Krina T | Amouyel, Philippe | Arveiler, Dominique | Bakker, Stephan JL | Beilby, John | Bergman, Richard N | Blangero, John | Brown, Morris J | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chines, Peter S | Claudi-Boehm, Simone | Collins, Francis S | Crawford, Dana C | Danesh, John | de Faire, Ulf | de Geus, Eco JC | Dörr, Marcus | Erbel, Raimund | Eriksson, Johan G | Farrall, Martin | Ferrannini, Ele | Ferrières, Jean | Forouhi, Nita G | Forrester, Terrence | Franco, Oscar H | Gansevoort, Ron T | Gieger, Christian | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Haiman, Christopher A | Harris, Tamara B | Hattersley, Andrew T | Heliövaara, Markku | Hicks, Andrew A | Hingorani, Aroon D | Hoffmann, Wolfgang | Hofman, Albert | Homuth, Georg | Humphries, Steve E | Hyppönen, Elina | Illig, Thomas | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Johansen, Berit | Jousilahti, Pekka | Jula, Antti M | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kee, Frank | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M | Kooner, Jaspal S | Kooperberg, Charles | Kovacs, Peter | Kraja, Aldi T | Kumari, Meena | Kuulasmaa, Kari | Kuusisto, Johanna | Lakka, Timo A | Langenberg, Claudia | Le Marchand, Loic | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | Marette, André | Matise, Tara C | McKenzie, Colin A | McKnight, Barbara | Musk, Arthur W | Möhlenkamp, Stefan | Morris, Andrew D | Nelis, Mari | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J | Ong, Ken K | Palmer, Lyle J | Penninx, Brenda W | Peters, Annette | Pramstaller, Peter P | Raitakari, Olli T | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rao, DC | Rice, Treva K | Ridker, Paul M | Ritchie, Marylyn D. | Rudan, Igor | Salomaa, Veikko | Samani, Nilesh J | Saramies, Jouko | Sarzynski, Mark A | Schwarz, Peter EH | Shuldiner, Alan R | Staessen, Jan A | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Stolk, Ronald P | Strauch, Konstantin | Tönjes, Anke | Tremblay, Angelo | Tremoli, Elena | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Völker, Uwe | Vollenweider, Peter | Wilson, James F | Witteman, Jacqueline C | Adair, Linda S | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O | Bornstein, Stefan R | Bouchard, Claude | Cauchi, Stéphane | Caulfield, Mark J | Chambers, John C | Chasman, Daniel I | Cooper, Richard S | Dedoussis, George | Ferrucci, Luigi | Froguel, Philippe | Grabe, Hans-Jörgen | Hamsten, Anders | Hui, Jennie | Hveem, Kristian | Jöckel, Karl-Heinz | Kivimaki, Mika | Kuh, Diana | Laakso, Markku | Liu, Yongmei | März, Winfried | Munroe, Patricia B | Njølstad, Inger | Oostra, Ben A | Palmer, Colin NA | Pedersen, Nancy L | Perola, Markus | Pérusse, Louis | Peters, Ulrike | Power, Chris | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Saaristo, Timo E | Saleheen, Danish | Sinisalo, Juha | Slagboom, P Eline | Snieder, Harold | Spector, Tim D | Stefansson, Kari | Stumvoll, Michael | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G | Uusitupa, Matti | van der Harst, Pim | Veronesi, Giovanni | Walker, Mark | Wareham, Nicholas J | Watkins, Hugh | Wichmann, H-Erich | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Assimes, Themistocles L | Berndt, Sonja I | Boehnke, Michael | Borecki, Ingrid B | Deloukas, Panos | Franke, Lude | Frayling, Timothy M | Groop, Leif C | Hunter, David J. | Kaplan, Robert C | O’Connell, Jeffrey R | Qi, Lu | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Willer, Cristen J | Visscher, Peter M | Yang, Jian | Hirschhorn, Joel N | Zillikens, M Carola | McCarthy, Mark I | Speliotes, Elizabeth K | North, Kari E | Fox, Caroline S | Barroso, Inês | Franks, Paul W | Ingelsson, Erik | Heid, Iris M | Loos, Ruth JF | Cupples, L Adrienne | Morris, Andrew P | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Mohlke, Karen L
Nature  2015;518(7538):187-196.
Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
doi:10.1038/nature14132
PMCID: PMC4338562  PMID: 25673412
21.  Association of BTG2, CYR61, ZFP36, and SCD Gene Polymorphisms with Graves' Disease and Ophthalmopathy 
Thyroid  2014;24(7):1156-1161.
Background: Environmental and genetic factors predispose an individual to the development of Graves' disease (GD). In an expression study of intraorbital tissue, adipocyte-related immediate early genes (IEGs) and immunomodulatory genes were found to be overexpressed in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). We hypothesized that genetic variations in these genes could be associated with GD and/or GO.
Methods: A total of 98 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 genes were genotyped in 594 GD patients with (n=267) or without (n=327) GO and 1147 sex- and ethnicity-matched controls from Malmö, Sweden.
Results: Ten SNPs in four genes (BTG family, member 2 [BTG2], cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer 61 [CYR61], zinc finger protein 36, C3H type, homolog mouse [ZFP36], and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase [SCD]) showed an association with GD and/or GO. SNPs rs12136280 (odds ratio [OR] 1.29, p=0.002), rs6663606 (OR 1.26, p=0.004), and rs17534202 (OR 1.21, p=0.02) in BTG2 and rs3753793 (OR 1.21, p=0.03) in CYR61 were associated with GD. An association with GO was shown for SNPs rs3753793 (OR 1.45, p=0.008), rs6682848 (OR 1.55, p=0.03), rs12756618 (OR 1.77, p=0.049), and rs1378228 (OR 1.29, p=0.049) in CYR61, rs1057745 (OR 1.56, p=0.03) and rs11083522 (OR 1.32, p=0.04) in ZFP36, and rs1393491 (OR 1.38, p=0,048) in SCD. Smoking and CYR61 rs12756618 interacted to increase the risk of GO.
Conclusions: We found associations of SNPs in IEGs and SCD with GD and/or GO; however, confirmation in a different population is required.
doi:10.1089/thy.2013.0654
PMCID: PMC4080864  PMID: 24780075
22.  Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation 
Horikoshi, Momoko | Mӓgi, Reedik | van de Bunt, Martijn | Surakka, Ida | Sarin, Antti-Pekka | Mahajan, Anubha | Marullo, Letizia | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Hӓgg, Sara | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Ladenvall, Claes | Ried, Janina S. | Winkler, Thomas W. | Willems, Sara M. | Pervjakova, Natalia | Esko, Tõnu | Beekman, Marian | Nelson, Christopher P. | Willenborg, Christina | Wiltshire, Steven | Ferreira, Teresa | Fernandez, Juan | Gaulton, Kyle J. | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Hamsten, Anders | Magnusson, Patrik K. E. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Milaneschi, Yuri | Robertson, Neil R. | Groves, Christopher J. | Bennett, Amanda J. | Lehtimӓki, Terho | Viikari, Jorma S. | Rung, Johan | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Perola, Markus | Heid, Iris M. | Herder, Christian | Grallert, Harald | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Roden, Michael | Hypponen, Elina | Isaacs, Aaron | van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M. | Karssen, Lennart C. | Mihailov, Evelin | Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J. | de Craen, Anton J. M. | Deelen, Joris | Havulinna, Aki S. | Blades, Matthew | Hengstenberg, Christian | Erdmann, Jeanette | Schunkert, Heribert | Kaprio, Jaakko | Tobin, Martin D. | Samani, Nilesh J. | Lind, Lars | Salomaa, Veikko | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Slagboom, P. Eline | Metspalu, Andres | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Eriksson, Johan G. | Peters, Annette | Gieger, Christian | Jula, Antti | Groop, Leif | Raitakari, Olli T. | Power, Chris | Penninx, Brenda W. J. H. | de Geus, Eco | Smit, Johannes H. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Ingelsson, Erik | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari | Ripatti, Samuli | Prokopenko, Inga | McCarthy, Mark I. | Morris, Andrew P.
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(7):e1005230.
Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.
Author Summary
Human genetic studies have demonstrated that quantitative human anthropometric and metabolic traits, including body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, are highly heritable, and are established risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although many regions of the genome have been associated with these traits, the specific genes responsible have not yet been identified. By making use of advanced statistical “imputation” techniques applied to more than 87,000 individuals of European ancestry, and publicly available “reference panels” of more than 37 million genetic variants, we have been able to identify novel regions of the genome associated with these glycaemic and obesity-related traits and localise genes within these regions that are most likely to be causal. This improved understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying glycaemic and obesity-related traits is extremely important because it may advance drug development for downstream disease endpoints, ultimately leading to public health benefits.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005230
PMCID: PMC4488845  PMID: 26132169
23.  Age-Related Clonal Hematopoiesis Associated with Adverse Outcomes 
The New England journal of medicine  2014;371(26):2488-2498.
BACKGROUND
The incidence of hematologic cancers increases with age. These cancers are associated with recurrent somatic mutations in specific genes. We hypothesized that such mutations would be detectable in the blood of some persons who are not known to have hematologic disorders.
METHODS
We analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from DNA in the peripheral-blood cells of 17,182 persons who were unselected for hematologic phenotypes. We looked for somatic mutations by identifying previously characterized single-nucleotide variants and small insertions or deletions in 160 genes that are recurrently mutated in hematologic cancers. The presence of mutations was analyzed for an association with hematologic phenotypes, survival, and cardiovascular events.
RESULTS
Detectable somatic mutations were rare in persons younger than 40 years of age but rose appreciably in frequency with age. Among persons 70 to 79 years of age, 80 to 89 years of age, and 90 to 108 years of age, these clonal mutations were observed in 9.5% (219 of 2300 persons), 11.7% (37 of 317), and 18.4% (19 of 103), respectively. The majority of the variants occurred in three genes: DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1. The presence of a somatic mutation was associated with an increase in the risk of hematologic cancer (hazard ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 32.6), an increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8), and increases in the risks of incident coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.8).
CONCLUSIONS
Age-related clonal hematopoiesis is a common condition that is associated with increases in the risk of hematologic cancer and in all-cause mortality, with the latter possibly due to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1408617
PMCID: PMC4306669  PMID: 25426837
24.  The diabetes susceptibility gene Clec16a regulates mitophagy 
Cell  2014;157(7):1577-1590.
SUMMARY
Clec16a has been identified as a disease susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and adrenal dysfunction, but its function is unknown. Here we report that Clec16a is a membrane-associated endosomal protein that interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1. Loss of Clec16a leads to an increase in the Nrdp1 target Parkin, a master regulator of mitophagy. Islets from mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Clec16a have abnormal mitochondria with reduced oxygen consumption and ATP concentration, both of which are required for normal β-cell function. Indeed, pancreatic Clec16a is required for normal glucose-stimulated insulin release. Moreover, patients harboring a diabetogenic SNP in the Clec16a gene have reduced islet Clec16a expression and reduced insulin secretion. Thus, Clec16a controls β-cell function and prevents diabetes by controlling mitophagy. This novel pathway could be targeted for prevention and control of diabetes and may extend to the pathogenesis of other Clec16a and Parkin associated diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.016
PMCID: PMC4184276  PMID: 24949970
25.  Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height 
Wood, Andrew R | Esko, Tonu | Yang, Jian | Vedantam, Sailaja | Pers, Tune H | Gustafsson, Stefan | Chu, Audrey Y | Estrada, Karol | Luan, Jian’an | Kutalik, Zoltán | Amin, Najaf | Buchkovich, Martin L | Croteau-Chonka, Damien C | Day, Felix R | Duan, Yanan | Fall, Tove | Fehrmann, Rudolf | Ferreira, Teresa | Jackson, Anne U | Karjalainen, Juha | Lo, Ken Sin | Locke, Adam E | Mägi, Reedik | Mihailov, Evelin | Porcu, Eleonora | Randall, Joshua C | Scherag, André | Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE | Westra, Harm-Jan | Winkler, Thomas W | Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie | Zhao, Jing Hua | Absher, Devin | Albrecht, Eva | Anderson, Denise | Baron, Jeffrey | Beekman, Marian | Demirkan, Ayse | Ehret, Georg B | Feenstra, Bjarke | Feitosa, Mary F | Fischer, Krista | Fraser, Ross M | Goel, Anuj | Gong, Jian | Justice, Anne E | Kanoni, Stavroula | Kleber, Marcus E | Kristiansson, Kati | Lim, Unhee | Lotay, Vaneet | Lui, Julian C | Mangino, Massimo | Leach, Irene Mateo | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Nalls, Michael A | Nyholt, Dale R | Palmer, Cameron D | Pasko, Dorota | Pechlivanis, Sonali | Prokopenko, Inga | Ried, Janina S | Ripke, Stephan | Shungin, Dmitry | Stancáková, Alena | Strawbridge, Rona J | Sung, Yun Ju | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teumer, Alexander | Trompet, Stella | van der Laan, Sander W | van Setten, Jessica | Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V | Wang, Zhaoming | Yengo, Loïc | Zhang, Weihua | Afzal, Uzma | Ärnlöv, Johan | Arscott, Gillian M | Bandinelli, Stefania | Barrett, Amy | Bellis, Claire | Bennett, Amanda J | Berne, Christian | Blüher, Matthias | Bolton, Jennifer L | Böttcher, Yvonne | Boyd, Heather A | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Buckley, Brendan M | Buyske, Steven | Caspersen, Ida H | Chines, Peter S | Clarke, Robert | Claudi-Boehm, Simone | Cooper, Matthew | Daw, E Warwick | De Jong, Pim A | Deelen, Joris | Delgado, Graciela | Denny, Josh C | Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie | Dimitriou, Maria | Doney, Alex SF | Dörr, Marcus | Eklund, Niina | Eury, Elodie | Folkersen, Lasse | Garcia, Melissa E | Geller, Frank | Giedraitis, Vilmantas | Go, Alan S | Grallert, Harald | Grammer, Tanja B | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grönberg, Henrik | de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. | Groves, Christopher J | Haessler, Jeffrey | Hall, Per | Haller, Toomas | Hallmans, Goran | Hannemann, Anke | Hartman, Catharina A | Hassinen, Maija | Hayward, Caroline | Heard-Costa, Nancy L | Helmer, Quinta | Hemani, Gibran | Henders, Anjali K | Hillege, Hans L | Hlatky, Mark A | Hoffmann, Wolfgang | Hoffmann, Per | Holmen, Oddgeir | Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J | Illig, Thomas | Isaacs, Aaron | James, Alan L | Jeff, Janina | Johansen, Berit | Johansson, Åsa | Jolley, Jennifer | Juliusdottir, Thorhildur | Junttila, Juhani | Kho, Abel N | Kinnunen, Leena | Klopp, Norman | Kocher, Thomas | Kratzer, Wolfgang | Lichtner, Peter | Lind, Lars | Lindström, Jaana | Lobbens, Stéphane | Lorentzon, Mattias | Lu, Yingchang | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Magnusson, Patrik KE | Mahajan, Anubha | Maillard, Marc | McArdle, Wendy L | McKenzie, Colin A | McLachlan, Stela | McLaren, Paul J | Menni, Cristina | Merger, Sigrun | Milani, Lili | Moayyeri, Alireza | Monda, Keri L | Morken, Mario A | Müller, Gabriele | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Musk, Arthur W | Narisu, Narisu | Nauck, Matthias | Nolte, Ilja M | Nöthen, Markus M | Oozageer, Laticia | Pilz, Stefan | Rayner, Nigel W | Renstrom, Frida | Robertson, Neil R | Rose, Lynda M | Roussel, Ronan | Sanna, Serena | Scharnagl, Hubert | Scholtens, Salome | Schumacher, Fredrick R | Schunkert, Heribert | Scott, Robert A | Sehmi, Joban | Seufferlein, Thomas | Shi, Jianxin | Silventoinen, Karri | Smit, Johannes H | Smith, Albert Vernon | Smolonska, Joanna | Stanton, Alice V | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stott, David J | Stringham, Heather M | Sundström, Johan | Swertz, Morris A | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tayo, Bamidele O | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Tyrer, Jonathan P | van Dijk, Suzanne | van Schoor, Natasja M | van der Velde, Nathalie | van Heemst, Diana | van Oort, Floor VA | Vermeulen, Sita H | Verweij, Niek | Vonk, Judith M | Waite, Lindsay L | Waldenberger, Melanie | Wennauer, Roman | Wilkens, Lynne R | Willenborg, Christina | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wojczynski, Mary K | Wong, Andrew | Wright, Alan F | Zhang, Qunyuan | Arveiler, Dominique | Bakker, Stephan JL | Beilby, John | Bergman, Richard N | Bergmann, Sven | Biffar, Reiner | Blangero, John | Boomsma, Dorret I | Bornstein, Stefan R | Bovet, Pascal | Brambilla, Paolo | Brown, Morris J | Campbell, Harry | Caulfield, Mark J | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Collins, Rory | Collins, Francis S | Crawford, Dana C | Cupples, L Adrienne | Danesh, John | de Faire, Ulf | den Ruijter, Hester M | Erbel, Raimund | Erdmann, Jeanette | Eriksson, Johan G | Farrall, Martin | Ferrannini, Ele | Ferrières, Jean | Ford, Ian | Forouhi, Nita G | Forrester, Terrence | Gansevoort, Ron T | Gejman, Pablo V | Gieger, Christian | Golay, Alain | Gottesman, Omri | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Haas, David W | Hall, Alistair S | Harris, Tamara B | Hattersley, Andrew T | Heath, Andrew C | Hengstenberg, Christian | Hicks, Andrew A | Hindorff, Lucia A | Hingorani, Aroon D | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, G Kees | Humphries, Steve E | Hunt, Steven C | Hypponen, Elina | Jacobs, Kevin B | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jousilahti, Pekka | Jula, Antti M | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kastelein, John JP | Kayser, Manfred | Kee, Frank | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | Kooner, Jaspal S | Kooperberg, Charles | Koskinen, Seppo | Kovacs, Peter | Kraja, Aldi T | Kumari, Meena | Kuusisto, Johanna | Lakka, Timo A | Langenberg, Claudia | Le Marchand, Loic | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lupoli, Sara | Madden, Pamela AF | Männistö, Satu | Manunta, Paolo | Marette, André | Matise, Tara C | McKnight, Barbara | Meitinger, Thomas | Moll, Frans L | Montgomery, Grant W | Morris, Andrew D | Morris, Andrew P | Murray, Jeffrey C | Nelis, Mari | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J | Ong, Ken K | Ouwehand, Willem H | Pasterkamp, Gerard | Peters, Annette | Pramstaller, Peter P | Price, Jackie F | Qi, Lu | Raitakari, Olli T | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rao, DC | Rice, Treva K | Ritchie, Marylyn | Rudan, Igor | Salomaa, Veikko | Samani, Nilesh J | Saramies, Jouko | Sarzynski, Mark A | Schwarz, Peter EH | Sebert, Sylvain | Sever, Peter | Shuldiner, Alan R | Sinisalo, Juha | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Stolk, Ronald P | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Tönjes, Anke | Tremblay, Angelo | Tremoli, Elena | Virtamo, Jarmo | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Amouyel, Philippe | Asselbergs, Folkert W | Assimes, Themistocles L | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O | Boerwinkle, Eric | Bottinger, Erwin P | Bouchard, Claude | Cauchi, Stéphane | Chambers, John C | Chanock, Stephen J | Cooper, Richard S | de Bakker, Paul IW | Dedoussis, George | Ferrucci, Luigi | Franks, Paul W | Froguel, Philippe | Groop, Leif C | Haiman, Christopher A | Hamsten, Anders | Hayes, M Geoffrey | Hui, Jennie | Hunter, David J. | Hveem, Kristian | Jukema, J Wouter | Kaplan, Robert C | Kivimaki, Mika | Kuh, Diana | Laakso, Markku | Liu, Yongmei | Martin, Nicholas G | März, Winfried | Melbye, Mads | Moebus, Susanne | Munroe, Patricia B | Njølstad, Inger | Oostra, Ben A | Palmer, Colin NA | Pedersen, Nancy L | Perola, Markus | Pérusse, Louis | Peters, Ulrike | Powell, Joseph E | Power, Chris | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Reinmaa, Eva | Ridker, Paul M | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rotter, Jerome I | Saaristo, Timo E | Saleheen, Danish | Schlessinger, David | Slagboom, P Eline | Snieder, Harold | Spector, Tim D | Strauch, Konstantin | Stumvoll, Michael | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | van der Harst, Pim | Völzke, Henry | Walker, Mark | Wareham, Nicholas J | Watkins, Hugh | Wichmann, H-Erich | Wilson, James F | Zanen, Pieter | Deloukas, Panos | Heid, Iris M | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Mohlke, Karen L | Speliotes, Elizabeth K | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Barroso, Inês | Fox, Caroline S | North, Kari E | Strachan, David P | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Berndt, Sonja I | Boehnke, Michael | Borecki, Ingrid B | McCarthy, Mark I | Metspalu, Andres | Stefansson, Kari | Uitterlinden, André G | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Franke, Lude | Willer, Cristen J | Price, Alkes L. | Lettre, Guillaume | Loos, Ruth JF | Weedon, Michael N | Ingelsson, Erik | O’Connell, Jeffrey R | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Chasman, Daniel I | Goddard, Michael E | Visscher, Peter M | Hirschhorn, Joel N | Frayling, Timothy M
Nature genetics  2014;46(11):1173-1186.
Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
doi:10.1038/ng.3097
PMCID: PMC4250049  PMID: 25282103

Results 1-25 (160)