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1.  A founder AGL mutation causing glycogen storage disease type IIIa in Inuit identified through whole-exome sequencing: a case series 
Background:
Glycogen storage disease type III is caused by mutations in both alleles of the AGL gene, which leads to reduced activity of glycogen-debranching enzyme. The clinical picture encompasses hypoglycemia, with glycogen accumulation leading to hepatomegaly and muscle involvement (skeletal and cardiac). We sought to identify the genetic cause of this disease within the Inuit community of Nunavik, in whom previous DNA sequencing had not identified such mutations.
Methods:
Five Inuit children with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type IIIa were recruited to undergo genetic testing: 2 underwent whole-exome sequencing and all 5 underwent Sanger sequencing to confirm the identified mutation. Selected DNA regions near the AGL gene were also sequenced to identify a potential founder effect in the community. In addition, control samples from 4 adults of European descent and 7 family members of the affected children were analyzed for the specific mutation by Sanger sequencing.
Results:
We identified a homozygous frame-shift deletion, c.4456delT, in exon 33 of the AGL gene in 2 children by whole-exome sequencing. Confirmation by Sanger sequencing showed the same mutation in all 5 patients, and 5 family members were found to be carriers. With the identification of this mutation in 5 probands, the estimated prevalence of genetically confirmed glycogen storage disease type IIIa in this region is among the highest worldwide (1:2500). Despite identical mutations, we saw variations in clinical features of the disease.
Interpretation:
Our detection of a homozygous frameshift mutation in 5 Inuit children determines the cause of glycogen storage disease type IIIa and confirms a founder effect.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.140840
PMCID: PMC4312169  PMID: 25602008
2.  Genome-wide search for exonic variants affecting translational efficiency 
Nature communications  2013;4:2260.
The search for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) has traditionally centered entirely on the process of transcription, whereas variants with effects on mRNA translation have not been systematically studied. Here we present a high throughput approach for measuring translational cis-regulation in the human genome. Using ribosomal association as proxy for translational efficiency of polymorphic mRNAs, we test the ratio of polysomal/nonpolysomal mRNA level as a quantitative trait for association with single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the same mRNA transcript. We identify one important ribosomal-distribution effect, from rs1131017 in the 5’UTR of RPS26 , that is in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the 12q13 locus for susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. The effect on translation is confirmed at the protein level by quantitative Western blots, both ex vivo and after in vitro translation. Our results are a proof-of-principle that allelic effects on translation can be detected at a transcriptome-wide scale.
doi:10.1038/ncomms3260
PMCID: PMC3749366  PMID: 23900168
3.  Follow-Up Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Data Identifies Novel Loci for Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):290-295.
OBJECTIVE—Two recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have revealed novel loci for type 1 diabetes, a common multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. To fully utilize the GWA data that we had obtained by genotyping 563 type 1 diabetes probands and 1,146 control subjects, as well as 483 case subject–parent trios, using the Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChip, we designed a full stage 2 study to capture other possible association signals.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—From our existing datasets, we selected 982 markers with P < 0.05 in both GWA cohorts. Genotyping these in an independent set of 636 nuclear families with 974 affected offspring revealed 75 markers that also had P < 0.05 in this third cohort. Among these, six single nucleotide polymorphisms in five novel loci also had P < 0.05 in the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium dataset and were further tested in 1,303 type 1 diabetes probands from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) plus 1,673 control subjects.
RESULTS—Two markers (rs9976767 and rs3757247) remained significant after adjusting for the number of tests in this last cohort; they reside in UBASH3A (OR 1.16; combined P = 2.33 × 10−8) and BACH2 (1.13; combined P = 1.25 × 10−6).
CONCLUSIONS—Evaluation of a large number of statistical GWA candidates in several independent cohorts has revealed additional loci that are associated with type 1 diabetes. The two genes at these respective loci, UBASH3A and BACH2, are both biologically relevant to autoimmunity.
doi:10.2337/db08-1022
PMCID: PMC2606889  PMID: 18840781

Results 1-3 (3)