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1.  Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Subclinical Brain Disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study 
Background and purpose
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease share common risk factors. Our goal was to determine if levels of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin T measured with a highly sensitive assay (hs-cTnT) are associated with silent brain infarcts (BI) and white matter lesions (WML) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study.
1920 participants had brain MRI at ARIC visit 3 (1993–1995). NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were measured in all individuals at ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). Of 1920 individuals, 1112 had a follow-up MRI in 2004-2006. We analyzed the association of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT with MRI-defined BI and WML on the initial MRI and incident BI and WML progression on the follow-up MRI in participants without heart failure, coronary heart disease, or stroke.
In the adjusted model, individuals in the highest NT-proBNP quartile had significantly more BI (odds ratio [OR] 3.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]2.03-6.20) and WML (β-coefficient 0.09[standard error](SE) 0.03]) on the baseline MRI and more incident BI (OR 2.18, 95% CI [1.38-3.47]) and WML progression (β-coefficient 0.22 (SE 0.10)] on the follow-up MRI. Individuals in the highest hs-cTnT category had more BI (OR 3.03, 95% CI [1.57-5.82) and WML (β-coefficient 0.11 [SE 0.04]) on the initial MRI and more WML progression (β-coefficient 0.43 [0.17]) on the follow-up MRI.
NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT are independently associated with silent MRI-defined BI and WML suggesting that cardiovascular biomarkers may be useful to identify individuals with subclinical cerebral injury.
PMCID: PMC4334904  PMID: 23660848
cardiovascular biomarkers; subclinical brain injury; magnetic resonance imaging; brain infarcts; white matter lesions
2.  Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies Three Novel Mutations in ANTXR1 in Families with GAPO Syndrome 
GAPO syndrome (OMIM#230740) is the acronym for growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and optic atrophy. About 35 cases have been reported, making it among one of the rarest recessive conditions. Distinctive craniofacial features including alopecia, rarefaction of eyebrows and eyelashes, frontal bossing, high forehead, mid-facial hypoplasia, hypertelorism, and thickened eyelids and lips make GAPO syndrome a clinically recognizable phenotype. While this genomic study was in progress mutations in ANTXR1 were reported to cause GAPO syndrome. In our study we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) for five affected individuals from three Turkish kindreds segregating the GAPO trait. Exome sequencing analysis identified three novel homozygous mutations including; one frame-shift (c.1220_1221insT; p.Ala408Cysfs*2), one splice site (c.411A>G; p.Gln137Gln), and one non-synonymous (c.1150G>A; p.Gly384Ser) mutation in the ANTXR1 gene. Our studies expand the allelic spectrum in this rare condition and potentially provide insight into the role of ANTXR1 in the regulation of the extracellular matrix.
PMCID: PMC4332576  PMID: 25045128
GAPO syndrome; ANTXR1; whole exome sequencing
3.  Molecular Findings Among Patients Referred for Clinical Whole-Exome Sequencing 
JAMA  2014;312(18):1870-1879.
Clinical whole-exome sequencing is increasingly used for diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected genetic disorders.
To perform clinical whole-exome sequencing and report (1) the rate of molecular diagnosis among phenotypic groups, (2) the spectrum of genetic alterations contributing to disease, and (3) the prevalence of medically actionable incidental findings such as FBN1 mutations causing Marfan syndrome.
Observational study of 2000 consecutive patients with clinical whole-exome sequencing analyzed between June 2012 and August 2014. Whole-exome sequencing tests were performed at a clinical genetics laboratory in the United States. Results were reported by clinical molecular geneticists certified by the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Tests were ordered by the patient’s physician. The patients were primarily pediatric (1756 [88%]; mean age, 6 years; 888 females [44%], 1101 males [55%], and 11 fetuses [1% gender unknown]), demonstrating diverse clinical manifestations most often including nervous system dysfunction such as developmental delay.
Whole-exome sequencing diagnosis rate overall and by phenotypic category, mode of inheritance, spectrum of genetic events, and reporting of incidental findings.
A molecular diagnosis was reported for 504 patients (25.2%) with 58% of the diagnostic mutations not previously reported. Molecular diagnosis rates for each phenotypic category were 143/526 (27.2%; 95% CI, 23.5%–31.2%) for the neurological group, 282/1147 (24.6%; 95% CI, 22.1%–27.2%) for the neurological plus other organ systems group, 30/83 (36.1%; 95% CI, 26.1%–47.5%) for the specific neurological group, and 49/244 (20.1%; 95% CI, 15.6%–25.8%) for the nonneurological group. The Mendelian disease patterns of the 527 molecular diagnoses included 280 (53.1%) autosomal dominant, 181 (34.3%) autosomal recessive (including 5 with uniparental disomy), 65 (12.3%) X-linked, and 1 (0.2%) mitochondrial. Of 504 patients with a molecular diagnosis, 23 (4.6%) had blended phenotypes resulting from 2 single gene defects. About 30% of the positive cases harbored mutations in disease genes reported since 2011. There were 95 medically actionable incidental findings in genes unrelated to the phenotype but with immediate implications for management in 92 patients (4.6%), including 59 patients (3%) with mutations in genes recommended for reporting by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
Whole-exome sequencing provided a potential molecular diagnosis for 25% of a large cohort of patients referred for evaluation of suspected genetic conditions, including detection of rare genetic events and new mutations contributing to disease. The yield of whole-exome sequencing may offer advantages over traditional molecular diagnostic approaches in certain patients.
PMCID: PMC4326249  PMID: 25326635
4.  Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder 
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC.
PMCID: PMC4306851  PMID: 25546274
autism spectrum disorder; blood lead concentrations; seafood; vegetables; fruits; Jamaica
5.  No Evidence for Genome-Wide Interactions on Plasma Fibrinogen by Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index: Results from Meta-Analyses of 80,607 Subjects 
Baumert, Jens | Huang, Jie | McKnight, Barbara | Sabater-Lleal, Maria | Steri, Maristella | Chu, Audrey Y. | Trompet, Stella | Lopez, Lorna M. | Fornage, Myriam | Teumer, Alexander | Tang, Weihong | Rudnicka, Alicja R. | Mälarstig, Anders | Hottenga, Jouke-Jan | Kavousi, Maryam | Lahti, Jari | Tanaka, Toshiko | Hayward, Caroline | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel | Rose, Lynda M. | Basu, Saonli | Rumley, Ann | Stott, David J. | Buckley, Brendan M. | de Craen, Anton J. M. | Sanna, Serena | Masala, Marco | Biffar, Reiner | Homuth, Georg | Silveira, Angela | Sennblad, Bengt | Goel, Anuj | Watkins, Hugh | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Rückerl, Regina | Taylor, Kent | Chen, Ming-Huei | de Geus, Eco J. C. | Hofman, Albert | Witteman, Jacqueline C. M. | de Maat, Moniek P. M. | Palotie, Aarno | Davies, Gail | Siscovick, David S. | Kolcic, Ivana | Wild, Sarah H. | Song, Jaejoon | McArdle, Wendy L. | Ford, Ian | Sattar, Naveed | Schlessinger, David | Grotevendt, Anne | Franzosi, Maria Grazia | Illig, Thomas | Waldenberger, Melanie | Lumley, Thomas | Tofler, Geoffrey H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Uitterlinden, André G. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Räikkönen, Katri | Chasman, Daniel I. | Folsom, Aaron R. | Lowe, Gordon D. | Westendorp, Rudi G. J. | Slagboom, P. Eline | Cucca, Francesco | Wallaschofski, Henri | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Seedorf, Udo | Koenig, Wolfgang | Bis, Joshua C. | Mukamal, Kenneth J. | van Dongen, Jenny | Widen, Elisabeth | Franco, Oscar H. | Starr, John M. | Liu, Kiang | Ferrucci, Luigi | Polasek, Ozren | Wilson, James F. | Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine | Campbell, Harry | Navarro, Pau | Bandinelli, Stefania | Eriksson, Johan | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Dehghan, Abbas | Clarke, Robert | Hamsten, Anders | Boerwinkle, Eric | Jukema, J. Wouter | Naitza, Silvia | Ridker, Paul M. | Völzke, Henry | Deary, Ian J. | Reiner, Alexander P. | Trégouët, David-Alexandre | O'Donnell, Christopher J. | Strachan, David P. | Peters, Annette | Smith, Nicholas L.
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e111156.
Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2×10−8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.
PMCID: PMC4281156  PMID: 25551457
6.  Prospective Associations of Coronary Heart Disease Loci in African Americans Using the MetaboChip: The PAGE Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e113203.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD, attempted to fine map these loci, and characterize novel variants influencing CHD risk in African Americans.
Methods and Results
Up to 8,201 African Americans (including 546 first CHD events) were genotyped using the MetaboChip array in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We tested associations using Cox proportional hazard models in sex- and study-stratified analyses and combined results using meta-analysis. Among 44 validated CHD loci available in the array, we replicated and fine-mapped the SORT1 locus, and showed same direction of effects as reported in studies of individuals of European ancestry for SNPs in 22 additional published loci. We also identified a SNP achieving array wide significance (MYC: rs2070583, allele frequency 0.02, P = 8.1×10−8), but the association did not replicate in an additional 8,059 African Americans (577 events) from the WHI, HealthABC and GeneSTAR studies, and in a meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies of European ancestry (24,024 individuals including 1,570 cases of MI and 2,406 cases of CHD) from the CHARGE Consortium.
Our findings suggest that some CHD loci previously identified in individuals of European ancestry may be relevant to incident CHD in African Americans.
PMCID: PMC4277270  PMID: 25542012
7.  Troponin T and NT–Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: A Biomarker Approach to Predict Heart Failure Risk—the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study 
Clinical chemistry  2013;59(12):1802-1810.
Among the various cardiovascular diseases, heart failure (HF) is projected to have the largest increases in incidence over the coming decades; therefore, improving HF prediction is of significant value. We evaluated whether cardiac troponin T (cTnT) measured with a high-sensitivity assay and N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), biomarkers strongly associated with incident HF, improve HF risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study.
Using gender-specific models, cTnT and NT-proBNP were added to age and race (“laboratory report” model), and to the ARIC HF model (includes age, race, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive-medication use, current/former smoking, diabetes, body mass index, prevalent coronary heart disease and heart rate) in 9868 subjects without prevalent HF; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), integrated discrimination improvement, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and model fit were described.
Over a mean follow-up of 10.4 years, 970 subjects developed incident HF. Adding cTnT and NT-proBNP to the ARIC HF model significantly improved all statistical parameters (AUCs increased by 0.040 and 0.057; the continuous NRI was 50.7% and 54.7% in women and men, respectively). Interestingly, the simpler laboratory report model was statistically no different than the ARIC HF model.
cTnT and NT-proBNP have significant value in HF risk prediction. A simple gender-specific model that includes age, race, cTnT and NT-proBNP (which can be incorporated in a laboratory report) provides a good model, whereas adding cTnT and NT-proBNP to clinical characteristics results in an excellent HF prediction model.
PMCID: PMC4208068  PMID: 24036936
cardiac troponin T; NT-proBNP; heart failure; ARIC; risk prediction
8.  In silico prediction of splice-altering single nucleotide variants in the human genome 
Nucleic Acids Research  2014;42(22):13534-13544.
In silico tools have been developed to predict variants that may have an impact on pre-mRNA splicing. The major limitation of the application of these tools to basic research and clinical practice is the difficulty in interpreting the output. Most tools only predict potential splice sites given a DNA sequence without measuring splicing signal changes caused by a variant. Another limitation is the lack of large-scale evaluation studies of these tools. We compared eight in silico tools on 2959 single nucleotide variants within splicing consensus regions (scSNVs) using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The Position Weight Matrix model and MaxEntScan outperformed other methods. Two ensemble learning methods, adaptive boosting and random forests, were used to construct models that take advantage of individual methods. Both models further improved prediction, with outputs of directly interpretable prediction scores. We applied our ensemble scores to scSNVs from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database. Analysis showed that predicted splice-altering scSNVs are enriched in recurrent scSNVs and known cancer genes. We pre-computed our ensemble scores for all potential scSNVs across the human genome, providing a whole genome level resource for identifying splice-altering scSNVs discovered from large-scale sequencing studies.
PMCID: PMC4267638  PMID: 25416802
9.  Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins 
Postmus, Iris | Trompet, Stella | Deshmukh, Harshal A. | Barnes, Michael R. | Li, Xiaohui | Warren, Helen R. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Zhou, Kaixin | Arsenault, Benoit J. | Donnelly, Louise A. | Wiggins, Kerri L. | Avery, Christy L. | Griffin, Paula | Feng, QiPing | Taylor, Kent D. | Li, Guo | Evans, Daniel S. | Smith, Albert V. | de Keyser, Catherine E. | Johnson, Andrew D. | de Craen, Anton J. M. | Stott, David J. | Buckley, Brendan M. | Ford, Ian | Westendorp, Rudi G. J. | Eline Slagboom, P. | Sattar, Naveed | Munroe, Patricia B. | Sever, Peter | Poulter, Neil | Stanton, Alice | Shields, Denis C. | O’Brien, Eoin | Shaw-Hawkins, Sue | Ida Chen, Y.-D. | Nickerson, Deborah A. | Smith, Joshua D. | Pierre Dubé, Marie | Matthijs Boekholdt, S. | Kees Hovingh, G. | Kastelein, John J. P. | McKeigue, Paul M. | Betteridge, John | Neil, Andrew | Durrington, Paul N. | Doney, Alex | Carr, Fiona | Morris, Andrew | McCarthy, Mark I. | Groop, Leif | Ahlqvist, Emma | Bis, Joshua C. | Rice, Kenneth | Smith, Nicholas L. | Lumley, Thomas | Whitsel, Eric A. | Stürmer, Til | Boerwinkle, Eric | Ngwa, Julius S. | O’Donnell, Christopher J. | Vasan, Ramachandran S. | Wei, Wei-Qi | Wilke, Russell A. | Liu, Ching-Ti | Sun, Fangui | Guo, Xiuqing | Heckbert, Susan R | Post, Wendy | Sotoodehnia, Nona | Arnold, Alice M. | Stafford, Jeanette M. | Ding, Jingzhong | Herrington, David M. | Kritchevsky, Stephen B. | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Launer, Leonore J. | Harris, Tamara B. | Chu, Audrey Y. | Giulianini, Franco | MacFadyen, Jean G. | Barratt, Bryan J. | Nyberg, Fredrik | Stricker, Bruno H. | Uitterlinden, André G. | Hofman, Albert | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Emilsson, Valur | Franco, Oscar H. | Ridker, Paul M. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Liu, Yongmei | Denny, Joshua C. | Ballantyne, Christie M. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Adrienne Cupples, L. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Palmer, Colin N. A. | Tardif, Jean-Claude | Colhoun, Helen M. | Hitman, Graham | Krauss, Ronald M. | Wouter Jukema, J | Caulfield, Mark J.
Nature Communications  2014;5:5068.
Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
Statins are effectively used to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease, but patient response to these drugs is highly variable. Here, the authors identify two new genes associated with the response of LDL cholesterol to statins and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of drug response.
PMCID: PMC4220464  PMID: 25350695
10.  Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene And Recurrent Coronary Heart Disease or Mortality in Patients with Established Atherosclerosis 
The American journal of cardiology  2013;112(9):1287-1292.
It is not known whether genetic variants in the cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein (CETP) gene are associated with recurrent coronary heart disease events or mortality in secondary prevention patients. Among 3717 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients enrolled in a prospective genetic registry; we evaluated whether CETP gene variants previously shown to be associated with reduced CETP activity and high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol increase (“A” allele for both TaqIB [rs708272] and rs12149545) are associated with a reduction in recurrent myocardial infarction [MI], recurrent revascularization or death. At 4.5 years of follow-up; 439 recurrent MI, 698 recurrent revascularizations and 756 deaths occurred. Using an additive model of inheritance, the “A” allele for rs708272 was not associated with recurrent MI (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.78-1.17 for AG; HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.67-1.19 for AA; compared with GG genotype), recurrent revascularization (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.33 for AG; HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.84-1.32 for AA) or mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.86-1.19 for AG; HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91-1.37 for AA) in the overall cohort. Similar results were seen for the “A” allele for rs12149545. In the CABG subgroup, AG genotype for rs708272 was associated with an increased mortality (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.79) compared to GG genotype. Results remained consistent using dominant model of inheritance. In conclusion, genetic CETP variants were not associated with recurrent MI or recurrent revascularization in overall cohort with a possible mortality increase in CABG patients.
PMCID: PMC3800478  PMID: 23891427
Cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein; TaqIB; recurrent events; mortality
11.  Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies Novel Genes for Fetal Hemoglobin Response to Hydroxyurea in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110740.
Hydroxyurea has proven efficacy in children and adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but with considerable inter-individual variability in the amount of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) produced. Sibling and twin studies indicate that some of that drug response variation is heritable. To test the hypothesis that genetic modifiers influence pharmacological induction of HbF, we investigated phenotype-genotype associations using whole exome sequencing of children with SCA treated prospectively with hydroxyurea to maximum tolerated dose (MTD). We analyzed 171 unrelated patients enrolled in two prospective clinical trials, all treated with dose escalation to MTD. We examined two MTD drug response phenotypes: HbF (final %HbF minus baseline %HbF), and final %HbF. Analyzing individual genetic variants, we identified multiple low frequency and common variants associated with HbF induction by hydroxyurea. A validation cohort of 130 pediatric sickle cell patients treated to MTD with hydroxyurea was genotyped for 13 non-synonymous variants with the strongest association with HbF response to hydroxyurea in the discovery cohort. A coding variant in Spalt-like transcription factor, or SALL2, was associated with higher final HbF in this second independent replication sample and SALL2 represents an outstanding novel candidate gene for further investigation. These findings may help focus future functional studies and provide new insights into the pharmacological HbF upregulation by hydroxyurea in patients with SCA.
PMCID: PMC4215999  PMID: 25360671
12.  The Challenges of Genome-Wide Interaction Studies: Lessons to Learn from the Analysis of HDL Blood Levels 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109290.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) blood levels. This study is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) to identify SNP×SNP interactions associated with HDL levels. We performed a GWIS in the Rotterdam Study (RS) cohort I (RS-I) using the GLIDE tool which leverages the massively parallel computing power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to perform linear regression on all genome-wide pairs of SNPs. By performing a meta-analysis together with Rotterdam Study cohorts II and III (RS-II and RS-III), we were able to filter 181 interaction terms with a p-value<1 · 10−8 that replicated in the two independent cohorts. We were not able to replicate any of these interaction term in the AGES, ARIC, CHS, ERF, FHS and NFBC-66 cohorts (Ntotal = 30,011) when adjusting for multiple testing. Our GWIS resulted in the consistent finding of a possible interaction between rs774801 in ARMC8 (ENSG00000114098) and rs12442098 in SPATA8 (ENSG00000185594) being associated with HDL levels. However, p-values do not reach the preset Bonferroni correction of the p-values. Our study suggest that even for highly genetically determined traits such as HDL the sample sizes needed to detect SNP×SNP interactions are large and the 2-step filtering approaches do not yield a solution. Here we present our analysis plan and our reservations concerning GWIS.
PMCID: PMC4203717  PMID: 25329471
13.  Sequence Analysis of Six Blood Pressure Candidate Regions in 4,178 Individuals: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109155.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified multiple loci for blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. Six genes – ATP2B1, CACNB2, CYP17A1, JAG1, PLEKHA7, and SH2B3 – were evaluated for sequence variation with large effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP).
Methods and Results
Targeted genomic sequence was determined in 4,178 European ancestry participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Common variants (≥50 minor allele copies) were evaluated individually and rare variants (minor allele frequency, MAF≤1%) were aggregated by locus. 464 common variants were identified across the 6 genes. An upstream CYP17A1 variant, rs11191416 (MAF = 0.09), was the most significant association for SBP (P = 0.0005); however the association was attenuated (P = 0.0469) after conditioning on the GWAS index single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A PLEKHA7 intronic variant was the strongest DBP association (rs12806040, MAF = 0.007, P = 0.0006) and was not in LD (r2 = 0.01) with the GWAS SNP. A CACNB2 intronic SNP, rs1571787, was the most significant association with PP (MAF = 0.27, P = 0.0003), but was not independent from the GWAS SNP (r2 = 0.34). Three variants (rs6163 and rs743572 in the CYP17A1 region and rs112467382 in PLEKHA7) were associated with BP traits (P<0.001). Rare variation, aggregately assessed in the 6 regions, was not significantly associated with BP measures.
Six targeted gene regions, previously identified by GWAS, did not harbor novel variation with large effects on BP in this sample.
PMCID: PMC4183565  PMID: 25275628
14.  Sequencing of SCN5A identifies rare and common variants associated with cardiac conduction 
The cardiac sodium channel SCN5A regulates atrioventricular and ventricular conduction. Genetic variants in this gene are associated with PR and QRS intervals. We sought to further characterize the contribution of rare and common coding variation in SCN5A to cardiac conduction.
Methods and Results
In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study (CHARGE), we performed targeted exonic sequencing of SCN5A (n=3699, European-ancestry individuals) and identified 4 common (minor allele frequency >1%) and 157 rare variants. Common and rare SCN5A coding variants were examined for association with PR and QRS intervals through meta-analysis of European ancestry participants from CHARGE, NHLBI’s Exome Sequencing Project (ESP, n=607) and the UK10K (n=1275) and by examining ESP African-ancestry participants (N=972). Rare coding SCN5A variants in aggregate were associated with PR interval in European and African-ancestry participants (P=1.3×10−3). Three common variants were associated with PR and/or QRS interval duration among European-ancestry participants and one among African-ancestry participants. These included two well-known missense variants; rs1805124 (H558R) was associated with PR and QRS shortening in European-ancestry participants (P=6.25×10−4 and P=5.2×10−3 respectively) and rs7626962 (S1102Y) was associated with PR shortening in those of African ancestry (P=2.82×10−3). Among European-ancestry participants, two novel synonymous variants, rs1805126 and rs6599230, were associated with cardiac conduction. Our top signal, rs1805126 was associated with PR and QRS lengthening (P=3.35×10−7 and P=2.69×10−4 respectively), and rs6599230 was associated with PR shortening (P=2.67×10−5).
By sequencing SCN5A, we identified novel common and rare coding variants associated with cardiac conduction.
PMCID: PMC4177904  PMID: 24951663
PR interval; QRS interval; genetics; sequencing; cohort
15.  Evaluation of microarray-based DNA methylation measurement using technical replicates: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) Study 
BMC Bioinformatics  2014;15(1):312.
DNA methylation is a widely studied epigenetic phenomenon; alterations in methylation patterns influence human phenotypes and risk of disease. As part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (HM450) BeadChip was used to measure DNA methylation in peripheral blood obtained from ~3000 African American study participants. Over 480,000 cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotide sites were surveyed on the HM450 BeadChip. To evaluate the impact of technical variation, 265 technical replicates from 130 participants were included in the study.
For each CpG site, we calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to compare variation of methylation levels within- and between-replicate pairs, ranging between 0 and 1. We modeled the distribution of ICC as a mixture of censored or truncated normal and normal distributions using an EM algorithm. The CpG sites were clustered into low- and high-reliability groups, according to the calculated posterior probabilities. We also demonstrated the performance of this clustering when applied to a study of association between methylation levels and smoking status of individuals. For the CpG sites showing genome-wide significant association with smoking status, most (~96%) were seen from sites in the high reliability cluster.
We suggest that CpG sites with low ICC may be excluded from subsequent association analyses, or extra caution needs to be taken for associations at such sites.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-312) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4180315  PMID: 25239148
DNA methylation; Infinium 450 K chip; Technical error; Intraclass correlation; Normal mixture models
16.  A Multi-Ethnic Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Over 100,000 Subjects Identifies 23 Fibrinogen-Associated Loci but no Strong Evidence of a Causal Association between Circulating Fibrinogen and Cardiovascular Disease 
Sabater-Lleal, Maria | Huang, Jie | Chasman, Daniel | Naitza, Silvia | Dehghan, Abbas | Johnson, Andrew D | Teumer, Alexander | Reiner, Alex P | Folkersen, Lasse | Basu, Saonli | Rudnicka, Alicja R | Trompet, Stella | Mälarstig, Anders | Baumert, Jens | Bis, Joshua C. | Guo, Xiuqing | Hottenga, Jouke J | Shin, So-Youn | Lopez, Lorna M | Lahti, Jari | Tanaka, Toshiko | Yanek, Lisa R | Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine | Wilson, James F | Navarro, Pau | Huffman, Jennifer E | Zemunik, Tatijana | Redline, Susan | Mehra, Reena | Pulanic, Drazen | Rudan, Igor | Wright, Alan F | Kolcic, Ivana | Polasek, Ozren | Wild, Sarah H | Campbell, Harry | Curb, J David | Wallace, Robert | Liu, Simin | Eaton, Charles B. | Becker, Diane M. | Becker, Lewis C. | Bandinelli, Stefania | Räikkönen, Katri | Widen, Elisabeth | Palotie, Aarno | Fornage, Myriam | Green, David | Gross, Myron | Davies, Gail | Harris, Sarah E | Liewald, David C | Starr, John M | Williams, Frances M.K. | Grant, P.J. | Spector, Timothy D. | Strawbridge, Rona J | Silveira, Angela | Sennblad, Bengt | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Franco, Oscar H | Hofman, Albert | van Dongen, Jenny | Willemsen, G | Boomsma, Dorret I | Yao, Jie | Jenny, Nancy Swords | Haritunians, Talin | McKnight, Barbara | Lumley, Thomas | Taylor, Kent D | Rotter, Jerome I | Psaty, Bruce M | Peters, Annette | Gieger, Christian | Illig, Thomas | Grotevendt, Anne | Homuth, Georg | Völzke, Henry | Kocher, Thomas | Goel, Anuj | Franzosi, Maria Grazia | Seedorf, Udo | Clarke, Robert | Steri, Maristella | Tarasov, Kirill V | Sanna, Serena | Schlessinger, David | Stott, David J | Sattar, Naveed | Buckley, Brendan M | Rumley, Ann | Lowe, Gordon D | McArdle, Wendy L | Chen, Ming-Huei | Tofler, Geoffrey H | Song, Jaejoon | Boerwinkle, Eric | Folsom, Aaron R. | Rose, Lynda M. | Franco-Cereceda, Anders | Teichert, Martina | Ikram, M Arfan | Mosley, Thomas H | Bevan, Steve | Dichgans, Martin | Rothwell, Peter M. | Sudlow, Cathie L M | Hopewell, Jemma C. | Chambers, John C. | Saleheen, Danish | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Danesh, John | Nelson, Christopher P | Erdmann, Jeanette | Reilly, Muredach P. | Kathiresan, Sekar | Schunkert, Heribert | Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel | Ferrucci, Luigi | Eriksson, Johan G | Jacobs, David | Deary, Ian J | Soranzo, Nicole | Witteman, Jacqueline CM | de Geus, Eco JC | Tracy, Russell P. | Hayward, Caroline | Koenig, Wolfgang | Cucca, Francesco | Jukema, J Wouter | Eriksson, Per | Seshadri, Sudha | Markus, Hugh S. | Watkins, Hugh | Samani, Nilesh J | Wallaschofski, Henri | Smith, Nicholas L. | Tregouet, David | Ridker, Paul M. | Tang, Weihong | Strachan, David P. | Hamsten, Anders | O’Donnell, Christopher J.
Circulation  2013;128(12):10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002251.
Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), range from 34 to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies only explain a small proportion (< 2%) of its variation.
Methods and Results
We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 GWA studies, including more than 90,000 subjects of European ancestry, the first GWA meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in 7 African Americans studies totaling 8,289 samples, and a GWA study in Hispanic-Americans totaling 1,366 samples. Evaluation for association of SNPs with clinical outcomes included a total of 40,695 cases and 85,582 controls for coronary artery disease (CAD), 4,752 cases and 24,030 controls for stroke, and 3,208 cases and 46,167 controls for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, we identified 24 genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) independent signals in 23 loci, including 15 novel associations, together accounting for 3.7% of plasma fibrinogen variation. Gene-set enrichment analysis highlighted key roles in fibrinogen regulation for the three structural fibrinogen genes and pathways related to inflammation, adipocytokines and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone signaling. Whereas lead SNPs in a few loci were significantly associated with CAD, the combined effect of all 24 fibrinogen-associated lead SNPs was not significant for CAD, stroke or VTE.
We identify 23 robustly associated fibrinogen loci, 15 of which are new. Clinical outcome analysis of these loci does not support a causal relationship between circulating levels of fibrinogen and CAD, stroke or VTE.
PMCID: PMC3842025  PMID: 23969696
Fibrinogen; cardiovascular disease; genome-wide association study
17.  The effects of angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular disease outcomes during antihypertensive treatment in the GenHAT study 
Previous studies have reported that risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality substantially increases in hypertensive patients, especially among those with inadequate blood pressure control. Two common antihypertensive drug classes including thiazide diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect different enzymes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In the RAAS, angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin II which increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction. Using a case-only design with 3448 high-risk hypertensive individuals from the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment (GenHAT) study, we examined whether seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) interact with three classes of antihypertensive drugs including chlorthalidone (a thiazide diuretic), lisinopril (an ACE inhibitor), and amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker) to modify the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF) among Caucasian and African American participants, separately. We found no gene by treatment interactions to be statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. However, some suggestive results were found. African American participants with the minor allele of rs11122576 had over two-fold higher risk of CHD when using chlorthalidone compared to using amlodipine, or lisinopril compared to amlodipine (p = 0.006 and p = 0.01, respectively). Other marginal associations are also reported among both race groups. The findings reported here suggest that rs11122576 could contribute to future personalization of antihypertensive treatment among African Americans though more studies are needed.
PMCID: PMC4165277  PMID: 25278896
AGT gene; antihypertensive drugs; hypertension; coronary heart disease; heart failure
18.  Validated context-dependent associations of coronary heart disease risk with genotype variation in the chromosome 9p21 region: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study 
Human genetics  2014;133(9):1105-1116.
Markers of the chromosome 9p21 region are regarded as the strongest and most reliably significant genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals for Coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; this was recently confirmed by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium meta-analysis. However, while these associations are significant at the population level, they may not be clinically relevant predictors of risk for all individuals. We describe here the results of a study designed to address the question: What is the contribution of context defined by traditional risk factors in determining the utility of DNA sequence variations marking the 9p21 region for explaining variation in CHD risk? We analyzed a sample of 7,589 (3,869 females and 3,720 males) European American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We confirmed CHD-SNP genotype associations for two 9p21 region marker SNPs previously identified by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium study, of which ARIC was a part. We then tested each marker SNP genotype effect on prediction of CHD within sub-groups of the ARIC sample defined by traditional CHD risk factors by applying a novel multi-model strategy, PRIM. We observed that the effects of SNP genotypes in the 9p21 region were strongest in a subgroup of hypertensives. We subsequently validated the effect of the region in an independent sample from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Our study suggests that marker SNPs identified as predictors of CHD risk in large population based GWAS may have their greatest utility in explaining risk of disease in particular sub-groups characterized by biological and environmental effects measured by the traditional CHD risk factors.
PMCID: PMC4164053  PMID: 24889828
19.  Exon Sequencing of PAX3 and T (Brachyury) in Cases with Spina Bifida 
Based on studies in animals and humans, PAX3 and T (brachyury) are candidate genes for spina bifida. However, neither gene has been definitively identified as a risk factor for this condition.
Sanger sequencing was used to identify variants in all PAX3 and T exons and promoter regions in 114 spina bifida cases. For known variants, allele frequencies in cases were compared to those from public databases using unadjusted odds ratios. Novel variants were genotyped in parents and assessed for predicted functional impact.
We identified common variants in PAX3 (n=2) and T (n=3) for which the allele frequencies in cases were significantly different from those reported in at least one public database. We also identified novel variants in both PAX3 (n=11) and T (n=1) in spina bifida cases. Several of the novel PAX3 variants are predicted to be highly conserved and/or impact gene function or expression.
These studies provide some evidence that common variants of PAX3 and T are associated with spina bifida. Rare and novel variants in these genes were also identified in affected individuals. However, additional studies will be required to determine whether these variants influence the risk of spina bifida.
PMCID: PMC3877942  PMID: 23913553
spina bifida; myelomeningocele; genetic epidemiology; sequencing; PAX3; T locus
20.  Association of Levels of Fasting Glucose and Insulin with Rare Variants at the Chromosome 11p11.2-MADD Locus: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study 
Common variation at the 11p11.2 locus, encompassing MADD, ACP2, NR1H3, MYBPC3 and SPI1, has been associated in genome-wide association studies with fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI). In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study, we sequenced five gene regions at 11p11.2 to identify rare, potentially functional variants influencing FG or FI levels.
Method & Results
Sequencing (mean depth 38×) across 16.1kb in 3,566 non-diabetic individuals identified 653 variants, 79.9% of which were rare (MAF <1%) and novel. We analyzed rare variants in five gene regions with FI or FG using the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT). At NR1H3, 53 rare variants were jointly associated with FI (p=2.73 × 10−3); of these, seven were predicted to have regulatory function and showed association with FI (p=1.28 × 10−3). Conditioning on two previously associated variants at MADD (rs7944584, rs10838687) did not attenuate this association, suggesting that there are more than two independent signals at 11p11.2. One predicted regulatory variant, chr11:47227430 (hg18; MAF 0.00068), contributed 20.6% to the overall SKAT score at NR1H3, lies in intron 2 of NR1H3 and is a predicted binding site for FOXA1, a transcription factor associated with insulin regulation. In human HepG2 hepatoma cells, the rare chr11:47227430 A allele disrupted FOXA1 binding and reduced FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity.
Sequencing at 11p11.2- NR1H3 identified rare variation associated with FI. One variant, chr11:47227430, appears to be functional, with the rare A allele reducing transcription factor FOXA1 binding and FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity.
PMCID: PMC4066205  PMID: 24951664
fasting glucose; fasting insulin; chr11p11.2; target sequencing; next-generation sequencing
21.  Ceruloplasmin and Heart Failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study 
Circulation. Heart failure  2013;6(5):936-943.
Ceruloplasmin (Cp) decreases nitric oxide bioavailability in blood and has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in clinical studies. We assessed the association between Cp and incident heart failure (HF), death and CVD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
Methods and Results
Cp was measured at ARIC visit 4 (1996–1998). We studied 9,240 individuals without HF or CVD at ARIC visit 4, and followed them for a mean of 10.5 years. Genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic determinants of Cp levels and evaluate their association with incident HF. Cp levels (mean±standard deviation) were higher in women vs men (335±79 vs 258±44 mg/L, p<0.0001), women on vs not on hormone-replacement therapy (398±89 vs 291±60 mg/L, p<0.0001) and African Americans vs Caucasians (299±63 vs 293±74 mg/L, p=0.0005). After adjusting for traditional risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, higher levels of Cp were associated with HF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–1.83) and mortality (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11–1.63). A locus on the ceruloplasmin gene on chromosome 3 was significantly associated with Cp levels (normal 295.56±77.60mg/L, heterozygote 316.72±88.02mg/L; homozygote 331.04±85.40mg/L, p=8.3×10−) but not with incident HF. After adjustment for traditional risk factors Cp levels were also weekly associated with CVD.
Cp was associated with incident, HF mortality and CVD in the ARIC population. A single locus on chromosome 3 was associated with Cp levels but not with HF.
PMCID: PMC3908901  PMID: 23861484
ceruloplasmin; heart failure; cardiovascular disease; single nucleotide polymorphism
22.  Blood manganese concentrations in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorders 
Environmental Health  2014;13:69.
Manganese is an essential element for human health and development. Previous studies have shown neurotoxic effects in children exposed to higher levels of manganese. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs social interaction and communication. Several studies have hypothesized that ASD is caused through environmental exposures during crucial stages in brain development. We investigated the possible association between blood manganese concentrations (BMC) and ASD. We also identified factors associated with BMC in typically developing (TD) Jamaican children.
We used data from 109 ASD cases with their 1:1 age- and sex-matched TD controls to compare mean BMC in Jamaican children (2–8 years of age) with and without ASD. We administered a pre-tested questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information, medical history, and potential exposure to manganese. Finally, we collected 2 mL of whole blood from each child for analysis of manganese levels. Using General Linear Models (GLM), we assessed the association between BMC and ASD status. Furthermore, we used two independent sample t-tests to identify factors associated with BMC in TD children.
In univariable GLM analysis, we found no significant association between BMC and ASD, (10.9 μg/L for cases vs. 10.5 μg/L for controls; P = 0.29). In a multivariable GLM adjusting for paternal age, parental education, place of child’s birth (Kingston parish), consumption of root vegetables, cabbage, saltwater fish, and cakes/buns, there was still no significant association between BMC and ASD status, (11.5 μg/L for cases vs. 11.9 μg/L for controls; P = 0.48). Our findings also indicated TD children who ate fresh water fish had a higher BMC than children who did not (11.0 μg/L vs. 9.9 μg/L; P = 0.03) as younger TD children (i.e., 2 ≤ age ≤4), (12.0 μg/L vs. 10.2 μg/L; P = 0.01).
While these results cannot be used to assess early exposure at potentially more susceptible time period, our findings suggest that there is no significant association between manganese exposures and ASD case status in Jamaica. Our findings also indicate that BMC in Jamaican children resemble those of children in the developed world and are much lower than those in the developing countries.
PMCID: PMC4237806  PMID: 25149876
Manganese; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Neurodevelopment; Seafood; Vegetables; Jamaica
23.  Gene-Specific Function Prediction for Non-Synonymous Mutations in Monogenic Diabetes Genes 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104452.
The rapid progress of genomic technologies has been providing new opportunities to address the need of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) molecular diagnosis. However, whether a new mutation causes MODY can be questionable. A number of in silico methods have been developed to predict functional effects of rare human mutations. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of different bioinformatics methods in the functional prediction of nonsynonymous mutations in each MODY gene, and provides reference matrices to assist the molecular diagnosis of MODY. Our study showed that the prediction scores by different methods of the diabetes mutations were highly correlated, but were more complimentary than replacement to each other. The available in silico methods for the prediction of diabetes mutations had varied performances across different genes. Applying gene-specific thresholds defined by this study may be able to increase the performance of in silico prediction of disease-causing mutations.
PMCID: PMC4138110  PMID: 25136813
24.  Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array 
Ganesh, Santhi K. | Tragante, Vinicius | Guo, Wei | Guo, Yiran | Lanktree, Matthew B. | Smith, Erin N. | Johnson, Toby | Castillo, Berta Almoguera | Barnard, John | Baumert, Jens | Chang, Yen-Pei Christy | Elbers, Clara C. | Farrall, Martin | Fischer, Mary E. | Franceschini, Nora | Gaunt, Tom R. | Gho, Johannes M.I.H. | Gieger, Christian | Gong, Yan | Isaacs, Aaron | Kleber, Marcus E. | Leach, Irene Mateo | McDonough, Caitrin W. | Meijs, Matthijs F.L. | Mellander, Olle | Molony, Cliona M. | Nolte, Ilja M. | Padmanabhan, Sandosh | Price, Tom S. | Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan | Shaffer, Jonathan | Shah, Sonia | Shen, Haiqing | Soranzo, Nicole | van der Most, Peter J. | Van Iperen, Erik P.A. | Van Setten, Jessica | Vonk, Judith M. | Zhang, Li | Beitelshees, Amber L. | Berenson, Gerald S. | Bhatt, Deepak L. | Boer, Jolanda M.A. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Burkley, Ben | Burt, Amber | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chen, Wei | Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M. | Curtis, Sean P. | Dreisbach, Albert | Duggan, David | Ehret, Georg B. | Fabsitz, Richard R. | Fornage, Myriam | Fox, Ervin | Furlong, Clement E. | Gansevoort, Ron T. | Hofker, Marten H. | Hovingh, G. Kees | Kirkland, Susan A. | Kottke-Marchant, Kandice | Kutlar, Abdullah | LaCroix, Andrea Z. | Langaee, Taimour Y. | Li, Yun R. | Lin, Honghuang | Liu, Kiang | Maiwald, Steffi | Malik, Rainer | Murugesan, Gurunathan | Newton-Cheh, Christopher | O'Connell, Jeffery R. | Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte | Ouwehand, Willem H. | Palmas, Walter | Penninx, Brenda W. | Pepine, Carl J. | Pettinger, Mary | Polak, Joseph F. | Ramachandran, Vasan S. | Ranchalis, Jane | Redline, Susan | Ridker, Paul M. | Rose, Lynda M. | Scharnag, Hubert | Schork, Nicholas J. | Shimbo, Daichi | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Srinivasan, Sathanur R. | Stolk, Ronald P. | Taylor, Herman A. | Thorand, Barbara | Trip, Mieke D. | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Verschuren, W. Monique | Wijmenga, Cisca | Winkelmann, Bernhard R. | Wyatt, Sharon | Young, J. Hunter | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Caulfield, Mark J. | Chasman, Daniel I. | Davidson, Karina W. | Doevendans, Pieter A. | FitzGerald, Garret A. | Gums, John G. | Hakonarson, Hakon | Hillege, Hans L. | Illig, Thomas | Jarvik, Gail P. | Johnson, Julie A. | Kastelein, John J.P. | Koenig, Wolfgang | März, Winfried | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Murray, Sarah S. | Oldehinkel, Albertine J. | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Reiner, Alex P. | Schadt, Eric E. | Silverstein, Roy L. | Snieder, Harold | Stanton, Alice V. | Uitterlinden, André G. | van der Harst, Pim | van der Schouw, Yvonne T. | Samani, Nilesh J. | Johnson, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | de Bakker, Paul I.W. | Zhu, Xiaofeng | Levy, Daniel | Keating, Brendan J. | Asselbergs, Folkert W.
Human Molecular Genetics  2013;22(16):3394-3395.
PMCID: PMC3888295
25.  Associations Between Metabolomic Compounds and Incident Heart Failure Among African Americans: The ARIC Study 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;178(4):534-542.
Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987–2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45–64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3736751  PMID: 23788672
heart failure; metabolomics; risk factors

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