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1.  Acute free perforation of gall bladder encountered at initial presentation in a 51 years old man: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:166.
Introduction
Gallbladder perforation is a rare but life threatening event. We describe a case of gallbladder perforation encountered at initial presentation.
Case presentation
A 51 years old male, without any known medical co-morbidity, presented with a 1-day history of sudden-onset abdominal pain and abdominal distension. On examination, his abdomen was distended with generalized tenderness on palpation. Abdominal x-ray showed no signs of intestinal obstruction or pneumoperitoneum. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed appearance suggestive of gallbladder perforation. The patient was taken to the operating room and a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed revealing yellowish green fluid in the peritoneum. Difficulty in visualization of the anatomy led to conversion of the procedure to an open laparotomy. Intra-operative findings included a perforation near the neck of the gall bladder in association with a 2 × 1 cm gall stone. Near-total cholecystectomy was performed and a single large gall stone was retrieved. The peritoneal cavity was washed with normal saline and a drain was placed. The rectus sheath was closed but the wound was kept open for healing by delayed primary closure. The patient's hospital course was uneventful and he was discharged from the hospital on the 3rd post-operative day. He returned to the clinic after one week whereby his drain was removed and his wound closed.
Conclusion
Gallbladder perforation is an unusual initial presentation of gallbladder disease. Early diagnosis of gallbladder perforation and immediate surgical intervention are of prime importance in decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-166
PMCID: PMC2783122  PMID: 19946477
2.  Giant adrenal endothelial cyst associated with acute and chronic morbidity in a young female: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8841.
Adrenal cysts are rare clinical entities that can present as acute abdomen through rupture and internal hemorrhage as well as chronic symptoms such as gastrointestinal disturbances. A 20-year-old girl presented to our hospital with a 4-years history of abdominal pain and diarrhea. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed a cystic area measuring 10 × 10 cm between the spleen and left kidney. Computed tomography scan showed a large cystic, homogeneous mass measuring 12.8 × 9.5 × 9.4 cm in the left hypochondrium with most likely origin from the left adrenal gland. Limited work up for hormone hypersecretion was negative. The patient was then encountered in the emergency room with an acute abdomen secondary to intracystic hemorrhage. A laparotomy with left adrenalectomy was performed. Final pathology showed a benign adrenal endothelial cyst. Post-operatively, the patient's long standing complaints of diarrhea and abdominal pain completely resolved. Surgical resection appears a safe and reasonable management strategy in a patient with intracystic hemorrhage of adrenal cyst.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8841
PMCID: PMC2827146  PMID: 20184698
3.  Concept, Design and Implementation of a Cardiovascular Gene-Centric 50 K SNP Array for Large-Scale Genomic Association Studies 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(10):e3583.
A wealth of genetic associations for cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in humans has been accumulating over the last decade, in particular a large number of loci derived from recent genome wide association studies (GWAS). True complex disease-associated loci often exert modest effects, so their delineation currently requires integration of diverse phenotypic data from large studies to ensure robust meta-analyses. We have designed a gene-centric 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to assess potentially relevant loci across a range of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory syndromes. The array utilizes a “cosmopolitan” tagging approach to capture the genetic diversity across ∼2,000 loci in populations represented in the HapMap and SeattleSNPs projects. The array content is informed by GWAS of vascular and inflammatory disease, expression quantitative trait loci implicated in atherosclerosis, pathway based approaches and comprehensive literature searching. The custom flexibility of the array platform facilitated interrogation of loci at differing stringencies, according to a gene prioritization strategy that allows saturation of high priority loci with a greater density of markers than the existing GWAS tools, particularly in African HapMap samples. We also demonstrate that the IBC array can be used to complement GWAS, increasing coverage in high priority CVD-related loci across all major HapMap populations. DNA from over 200,000 extensively phenotyped individuals will be genotyped with this array with a significant portion of the generated data being released into the academic domain facilitating in silico replication attempts, analyses of rare variants and cross-cohort meta-analyses in diverse populations. These datasets will also facilitate more robust secondary analyses, such as explorations with alternative genetic models, epistasis and gene-environment interactions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003583
PMCID: PMC2571995  PMID: 18974833

Results 1-3 (3)