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1.  Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Epidemiological Shifts in Nepal: A Case of Opposing Trends 
We report on the changing epidemiology of two important flaviviruses in Nepal: Japanese encephalitis (JE) and dengue viruses. Morbidity and mortality in Nepal is in the thousands since JE was introduced in 1978. Nepal launched an extensive laboratory-based JE surveillance in 2004. Nepal experienced a remarkable reduction in disease burden after mass immunizations from 2005 to 2010, when 2,040 JE infections and 205 JE-related deaths were confirmed. With its emergence in 2006, dengue has become a significant challenge in the country, highlighted by a sudden outbreak in 2010 that resulted in 359 confirmed dengue infections. Currently, both viruses cocirculate in Nepal. Here, we document the remarkable expansion of dengue in Nepal, which urgently requires national surveillance to refine the burden and make recommendations regarding control and prevention programs. We believe that the use of existing JE surveillance network for integrated dengue surveillance may represent the most appropriate alternative.
PMCID: PMC3617851  PMID: 23419366
2.  Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal 
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology  2012;2:10.3402/iee.v2i0.14835.
HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission.
The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors.
The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis.
Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI=2.52-11.03).
Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.
PMCID: PMC3426341  PMID: 22957133
co-infection; HCV; HIV; HBV; syphilis; seropositive blood donors
3.  Identification of All Dengue Serotypes in Nepal 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2008;14(10):1669-1670.
PMCID: PMC2609890  PMID: 18826846
dengue; Nepal; Aedes; serotype; PCR; ELISA; letter
4.  Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in Nepalese blood donors: A study from three regional blood transfusion services 
Background and Objective:
The likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurring in recipients of HIV seropositive blood is close to 100%. Transmission during window period is still possible even each unit of blood is tested for anti-HIV 1 and 2 antibodies. The possibility of window period transmission would be minimized if blood is collected from low risk targeted general public. A continuous surveillance data might prove valuable for concerned authorities to assess their service and plan for further improvements in transfusion safety. Our aim was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV in regional blood transfusion services located at three developmental regions of Nepal and compare the results.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 16,557 blood donors were screened for anti-HIV 1 and 2 antibodies in three blood transfusion services viz. 5,351 donors in Morang, 5,211 in Banke, 5,995 in Kaski by using rapid anti HIV 1 and 2 Test. The statistical significance of difference in seroprevalence was tested by Fisher’s Exact Test using the statistical software ‘Winpepi ver 3.8’.
The overall seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in the regional blood transfusion services was 0.054% (9/16557) and 100% seropositivity was among male donors. The individual seroprevalence in Morang was 0.019%, in Banke was 0.095% and in Kaski was 0.05%. The HIV seroprevalence was not significantly different in regional blood transfusion services of Nepal (Fisher Exact Test, P = 0.2096).
The seroprevalence in the regional blood transfusion service of Nepal was quite low and the seroprevalence rate was not significantly different.
PMCID: PMC2798763  PMID: 20041080
Human immunodeficiency virus; Nepal; regional blood transfusion services; seroprevalence

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