Patterns of comorbidity among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not well described. We compared comorbidity among veterans with and without HIV infection. The sample consisted of 33,420 HIV-infected veterans and 66,840 HIV-uninfected veterans. We identified and clustered 11 comorbid conditions using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. We defined multimorbidity as the presence of conditions in all clusters. Models restricted to HIV-infected veterans were adjusted for CD4 cell count and viral load. Comorbidity was common (prevalence, 60%–63%), and prevalence varied by HIV status. Differences remained when the veterans were stratified by age. In multivariable analyses, older HIV-infected veterans were more likely to have substance use disorder and multimorbidity. Renal, vascular, and pulmonary diseases were associated with CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3; hypertension was associated with CD4 cell count >200 cells/mm3. Comorbidity is the rule, and multimorbidity is common among veterans with HIV infection. Patterns of comorbidity differ substantially by HIV status, age, and HIV severity. Primary care guidelines require adaptation for persons with HIV infection.
It is unknown whether smoking confers similar mortality risk in HIV-positive as in HIV-negative patients. We compared overall mortality stratified by HIV and smoking of 1,034 HIV-positive block-matched to 739 HIV-negative veterans, enrolled 2001–2002 in the Veterans Aging Cohort 5 Site Study. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) for mortality were calculated using Poisson regression. Mortality was significantly increased in HIV-positive veterans according to both smoking status and pack-years in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted IRR 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53–3.49 for HIV-positive current smokers and IRR 1.32, 95% CI 0.67–2.61 for HIV-negative current smokers). Comorbid diseases were also significantly increased according to smoking status and pack-years. Current smoking is associated with poor outcomes; even lower levels of exposure appear to be detrimental in HIV-infected veterans. These findings support the need for improvements in smoking cessation and for studies of mechanisms and diseases underlying increased mortality in smokers with HIV.
We sought to determine the impact of naltrexone on hepatic enzymes and HIV biomarkers in HIV-infected patients.
We used data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort, an electronic database of administrative, pharmacy and laboratory data. We restricted our sample to HIV-infected patients who received an initial oral naltrexone prescription, of at least seven days duration. We examined aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HIV biomarker (CD4 and HIV RNA) values for the 365 days prior to, during, and for the 365 days post-naltrexone prescription. We also examined cases of liver enzyme elevation (LEE; defined as greater than 5 times baseline ALT or AST or greater than 3.5 times baseline if baseline ALT or AST was greater than or equal to 40 IU/L).
Of 114 HIV-infected individuals, 97% were male, 65% white, 57% Hepatitis C co-infected, median age was 49 years; 89% of the sample had a history of alcohol dependence and 32% had opioid dependence. Median duration of naltrexone prescription was 49 (interquartile range 30–83) days, representing 9,525 person-days of naltrexone use. Mean ALT and AST levels remained below the upper limit of normal. Two cases of LEE occurred. Mean CD4 count remained stable and mean HIV RNA decreased after naltrexone prescription.
In HIV-infected patients, oral naltrexone is rarely associated with clinically significant ALT or AST changes and does not have a negative impact on biologic parameters. Therefore, HIV-infected patients with alcohol or opioid dependence can be treated with naltrexone.
Electronic medical records systems (EMR) contain many directly analyzable data fields that may reduce the need for extensive chart review, thus allowing for performance measures to be assessed on a larger proportion of patients in care.
This study sought to determine the extent to which selected chart review-based clinical performance measures could be accurately replicated using readily available and directly analyzable EMR data.
A cross-sectional study using full chart review results from the Veterans Health Administration's External Peer Review Program (EPRP) was merged to EMR data.
Over 80% of the data on these selected measures found in chart review was available in a directly analyzable form in the EMR. The extent of missing EMR data varied by site of care (P < 0.01). Among patients on whom both sources of data were available, we found a high degree of correlation between the 2 sources in the measures assessed (correlations of 0.89–0.98) and in the concordance between the measures using performance cut points (kappa: 0.86–0.99). Furthermore, there was little evidence of bias; the differences in values were not clinically meaningful (difference of 0.9 mg/dL for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 1.2 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure, 0.3 mm Hg for diastolic, and no difference for HgbA1c).
Directly analyzable data fields in the EMR can accurately reproduce selected EPRP measures on most patients. We found no evidence of systematic differences in performance values among these with and without directly analyzable data in the EMR.
veterans; quality of care; medical records systems; quality measurement
The impact of alcohol consumption on depressive symptoms over time among patients who do not meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence is not known.
To evaluate the impact of varying levels of alcohol consumption on depressive symptoms over time in patients with and without HIV infection.
We used data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). We used generalized estimating equations models to assess the association of alcohol-related categories, as a fixed effect, on the time-varying outcome of depressive symptoms.
VACS is a prospectively enrolled cohort study of HIV-infected patients and age-, race- and site-matched HIV uninfected patients.
Hazardous, binge drinking, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were defined using standard criteria. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).
Among the 2446 patients, 19% reported past but not current alcohol use, 50% non-hazardous drinking, 8% hazardous drinking, 14% binge drinking, and 10% met criteria for alcohol or dependence. At baseline, depressive symptoms were higher in hazardous and binge drinkers than in past and non-hazardous drinkers (OR=2.65; CI=1.50/4.69; p<.001) and similar to those with abuse or dependence. There was no difference in the association between alcohol-related category and depressive symptoms by HIV status (OR=0.99; CI=.83/1.18; p=.88). Hazardous drinkers were 2.53 (95% CI = 1.34/4.81) times and binge drinkers were 2.14 (95% CI = 1.49/3.07) times more likely to meet criteria for depression when compared to non-hazardous drinkers. The associations between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms persisted over three years and were responsive to changes in alcohol-related categories.
HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected hazardous and binge drinkers have depressive symptoms that are more severe than non-hazardous and non-drinkers and similar to those with alcohol abuse or dependence. Patients who switch to a higher or lower level of drinking experience a similar alteration in their depressive symptoms. Interventions to decrease unhealthy alcohol consumption may improve depressive symptoms.
Alcohol drinking; Alcoholism; Depression; Depressive disorder; HIV; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE
Food insecurity negatively impacts HIV disease outcomes in international settings. No large scale U.S. studies have investigated the association between food insecurity and severity of HIV disease or the mechanism of this possible association. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of food insecurity on HIV disease outcomes in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral medications.
This is a cross-sectional study.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Participants were HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study between 2002–2008 who were receiving antiretroviral medications.
Participants reporting “concern about having enough food for you or your family in the past 30 days” were defined as food insecure. Using multivariable logistic regression, we explored the association between food insecurity and both low CD4 counts (<200 cells/μL) and unsuppressed HIV-1 RNA (>500 copies/mL). We then performed mediation analysis to examine whether antiretroviral adherence or body mass index mediates the observed associations.
Among 2353 HIV-infected participants receiving antiretroviral medications, 24% reported food insecurity. In adjusted analyses, food insecure participants were more likely to have an unsuppressed HIV-1 RNA (AOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.73) compared to food secure participants. Mediation analysis revealed that neither antiretroviral medication adherence nor body mass index contributes to the association between food insecurity and unsuppressed HIV-1 RNA. Food insecurity was not independently associated with low CD4 counts.
Among HIV-infected participants receiving antiretroviral medications, food insecurity is associated with unsuppressed viral load and may render treatment less effective. Longitudinal studies are needed to test the potential causal association between food insecurity, lack of virologic suppression, and additional HIV outcomes.
food insecurity; HIV; patients; antiretrovirals
Few studies have systematically evaluated non medical use of prescription opioids (NMU) among United States’ military Veterans, those who report pain, and those with HIV. An increased understanding of the factors associated with NMU may help providers to balance maintaining patient access to prescription opioids for legitimate medical reasons and reducing the risks of addiction. We analyzed self-report data and electronic medical and pharmacy record data from 4,122 participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Bivariate associations were analyzed using chi-square tests, t-tests, and median tests and multivariable associations were assessed using logistic regression. Median participant age was 52 years; 95% were men; 65% were black, and 53% were HIV infected. NMU was reported by 13% of participants. In multivariable analysis, NMU was associated with being Hispanic (AOR 1.8); aged 40–44 (AOR 1.6); Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score ≥20 (AOR 2.0); drug use disorder (AOR 1.9); opioid use disorder (AOR 2.7); past month cigarette use (AOR 1.3); receiving a past-year VHA opioid prescription (AOR 1.9); hepatitis C (AOR 1.5); and pain interference (AOR 1.1). Being overweight (AOR 0.6) or obese (AOR 0.5) and having a higher 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) Mental Component Summary (AOR 0.98) were associated with less NMU. Patients with and without NMU did not differ on HIV status or SF-12 Physical Component Summary. Veterans in care have a high prevalence of NMU that is associated with substance use, medical status, and pain interference, but not HIV status.
Analgesics; Opioids; Pain; HIV; Veterans
Rationale: In aging HIV-infected populations comorbid diseases are important determinants of morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary diseases have not been systematically assessed in the combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.
Objectives: To determine the incidence of pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected persons compared with HIV-uninfected persons.
Methods: We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort, consisting of 33,420 HIV-infected veterans and 66,840 age, sex, race and ethnicity, and site-matched HIV-uninfected veterans. Using Poisson regression, incidence rates and adjusted incidence rate ratios were calculated to determine the association of HIV with pulmonary disease. The Virtual Cohort was merged with the 1999 Veterans Large Health Survey to adjust for self-reported smoking in a nested sample (14%).
Measurements and Main Results: Incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis, as well as pulmonary infections, were significantly more likely among HIV-infected patients compared with uninfected patients in adjusted analyses, although rates of asthma did not differ by HIV status. Bacterial pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the two most common incident pulmonary diseases, whereas opportunistic pneumonias were less common. Absolute rates of most pulmonary diseases increased with age, although the relative differences between those with and without HIV infection were greatest in younger persons. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, as well as pulmonary infections, were less likely in those with lower HIV RNA levels and use of ART at baseline.
Conclusions: Pulmonary diseases among HIV-infected patients receiving care within the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in the combination ART era reflect a substantial burden of non–AIDS-defining and chronic conditions, many of which are associated with aging.
HIV; respiratory tract diseases; lung diseases, obstructive; pneumonia; pneumonia, bacterial
HIV clinical care now involves prevention and treatment of age-associated comorbidity. Although physical function is an established correlate to comorbidity in older adults without HIV infection, its role in aging of HIV-infected adults is not well understood. To investigate this question we conducted cross-sectional analyses including linear regression models of physical function in 3227 HIV-infected and 3240 uninfected patients enrolled 2002–2006 in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-8-site (VACS-8). Baseline self-reported physical function correlated with the Short Form-12 physical subscale (ρ = 0.74, p < 0.001), and predicted survival. Across the age groups decline in physical function per year was greater in HIV-infected patients (βcoef −0.25, p < 0.001) compared to uninfected patients (βcoef −0.08, p = 0.03). This difference, although statistically significant (p < 0.01), was small. Function in the average 50-year old HIV-infected subject was equivalent to the average 51.5-year-old uninfected subject. History of cardiovascular disease was a significant predictor of poor function, but the effect was similar across groups. Chronic pulmonary disease had a differential effect on function by HIV status (Δβcoef −3.5, p = 0.03). A 50-year-old HIV-infected subject with chronic pulmonary disease had the equivalent level of function as a 68.1-year-old uninfected subject with chronic pulmonary disease. We conclude that age-associated comorbidity affects physical function in HIV-infected patients, and may modify the effect of aging. Longitudinal research with markers of disease severity is needed to investigate loss of physical function with aging, and to develop age-specific HIV care guidelines.
Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) may experience significant stress during military service that can have lingering effects. Little is known about mental health problems or treatment among pregnant OEF/OIF women veterans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental health problems among veterans who received pregnancy-related care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system.
Data from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) deployment roster of military discharges from October 1, 2001, through April 30, 2008, were used to assemble an administrative cohort of female OEF/OIF veterans enrolled in care at the VHA (n = 43,078). Pregnancy and mental health conditions were quantified according to ICD-9-CM codes and specifications. Mental healthcare use and prenatal care were assessed by analyzing VHA stop codes.
During the study period, 2966 (7%) women received at least one episode of pregnancy-related care, and 32% of veterans with a pregnancy and 21% without a pregnancy received one or more mental health diagnoses (p < 0.0001). Veterans with a pregnancy were twice as likely to have a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia as those without a pregnancy.
Women OEF/OIF veterans commonly experience mental health problems after military service. The burden of mental health conditions is higher among women with an identified instance of pregnancy than among those without. Because women do not receive pregnancy care at the VHA, however, little is known about ongoing concomitant prenatal and mental healthcare or about pregnancy outcomes among these women veterans.
This study characterized the extent and patterns self-reported drug use among aging adults with and without HIV, assessed differences in patterns by HIV status, and examined pattern correlates. Data derived from 6351 HIV infected and uninfected adults enrolled in an eight-site matched cohort, the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Using clinical variables from electronic medical records and sociodemographics, drug use consequences, and frequency of drug use from baseline surveys, we performed latent class analyses (LCA) stratified by HIV status and adjusted for clinical and socio-demographic covariates. Participants were, on average, age 50 (range 22–86), primarily male (95%) and African-American (64%). Five distinct patterns emerged: non-users, past primarily marijuana users, past multidrug users, current high consequence multidrug users, and current low consequence primarily marijuana users. HIV status strongly influenced class membership. Non -users were most p revalent among HIV uninfected (36.4%) and current high consequence multidrug users (25.5%) were most prevalent among HIV infected. While problems of obesity marked those not currently u sing drugs, current users experienced higher prevalences of medical or mental health disorders. Multimorbidity was highest among past and current multidrug users. HIV-infected participants were more likely than HIV-uninfected participants to be current low consequence primarily marijuana users. In this sample, active drug use and abuse were common. HIV infected and uninfected Veterans differed on extent and patterns of drug use and on important characteristics within identified classes. Findings have the potential to inform screening and intervention efforts in aging drug users with and without HIV.
aging; Veterans; HIV; substance-related disorders; latent class analysis; illicit drugs; cohort studies
We sought to describe gender differences in medical and mental health conditions and health care utilization among veterans who used Veterans Health Administration (VA) services in the first year after combat in Iraq and Afghanistan.
This is an observational study, using VA administrative and clinical data bases, of 163,812 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans who had enrolled in VA and who had at least one visit within 1 year of last deployment.
Female veterans were slightly younger (mean age, 30 years vs. 32 for men; p <.0001), twice as likely to be African American (30% vs. 15%; p <.0001), and less likely to be married (32% vs. 49%; p < .0001). Women had more visits to primary care (2.6 vs. 2.0; p < .001) and mental health (4.0 vs. 3.6; p < .001) clinics and higher use of community care outside the VA (14% vs. 10%; p < .001). After adjustment for significant demographic differences, women were more likely to have musculoskeletal and skin disorders, mild depression, major depression, and adjustment disorders, whereas men were more likely to have ear disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirteen percent of women sought care for gynecologic examination, 10% for contraceptive counseling, and 7% for menstrual disorders.
Female veterans had similar rates of physical conditions, but higher rates of some mental health disorders and additionally, used the VA for reproductive health needs. They also had slightly greater rates of health care service use. These findings highlight the complexity of female Veteran health care and support the development of enhanced comprehensive women’s health services within the VA.
Depression is one of the most common comorbid conditions affecting persons with HIV. We compared depressive symptoms and depression treatment using data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. We identified subjects with a Patient Health Questionnaire score of 10 or greater. Treatment was defined as prescription of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or mental health counseling. Overall, 16% of 4,480 subjects had depressive symptoms, and HIV-infected patients were more likely to have had depressive symptoms (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.18, 1.62). Geographic site of care and having a mental health provider at the clinic was associated with treatment. In multivariable models restricted to 732 patients with depressive symptoms, receipt of depression treatment did not differ by HIV status (Adjusted OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.54). Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to receive treatment (Adjusted OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.04, 4.24). Primary care and HIV providers were equally unlikely to treat active depressive symptoms. Treatment variation by race, site, and availability of a mental health provider, suggests targets for intervention.
HIV-infection; Depression; Psychiatric status rating scales; Anti-depressive agents
The growing presence of female veterans within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system highlights the need to assess the quality of and access to gender-specific care for menopause. We assessed the use of hormone therapy (HT) among female veterans before and after the release of the Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial results and evaluated whether the structure of women’s health care services within the VA system affects the use of HT.
We identified all female veterans using HT in 2001 by using the VA pharmacy benefits management database and administrative data. Subjects identified as using HT in 2001 were evaluated to determine estrogen use status in 2003 and 2004. We calculated the change in HT use over time and performed multivariate analyses to identify patient and utilization determinants of HT discontinuation.
In 2001, 36,222 female veterans used HT. By 2004, 23,924 (66%) had discontinued HT. Subjects who had used a VA women’s clinic or were younger (40–54 years of age) were significantly less likely to discontinue HT. However, Hispanic ethnicity, African American race, and clinical diagnoses such as heart disease and mastectomy were significantly associated with discontinuation.
Discontinuation rates in the VA system parallel those in the private sector. However, patients with any use of VA women’s clinics were less likely to discontinue HT, indicating a practice setting variation that may indicate either more specific care or differential implementation of the new HT guidelines. Further research is warranted to assess whether a disparity occurs according to practice setting (or provider factors) with rapid shifts in guidelines.
HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. We explored whether or not this increased risk persisted in HIV infected and uninfected men when controlling for traditional fragility fracture risk factors.
Cox regression models were used to assess the association of HIV infection with the risk for incident hip, vertebral, or upper arm fracture in male Veterans enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC). We calculated adjusted hazard ratios comparing HIV status and controlling for demographics and other established risk factors. The sample consisted of 119,318 men, 33% of whom were HIV infected (34% aged 50 years or older at baseline, and 55% black or Hispanic). Median body mass index (BMI) was lower in HIV infected compared with uninfected men (25 vs. 28 kg/m2; p<0.0001). Unadjusted risk for fracture was higher among HIV infected compared with uninfected men [HR: 1.32 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.47)]. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid disease, smoking and alcohol abuse, HIV infection remained associated with an increased fracture risk [HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39)]. However, adjusting for BMI attenuated this association [HR: 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.25)]. The only HIV-specific factor associated with fragility fracture was current protease inhibitor use [HR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.70)].
HIV infection is associated with fragility fracture risk. This risk is attenuated by BMI.
The number of women serving in the United States military increased during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), leading to a subsequent surge in new women Veterans seeking health care services from the Veterans Administration (VA). The objective of this study was to examine gender differences among OEF/OIF Veterans in utilization of VA outpatient health care services.
Our retrospective cohort consisted of 1,620 OEF/OIF Veterans (240 women and 1380 men) who enrolled for outpatient healthcare at a single VA facility. We collected demographic data and information on military service and VA utilization from VA electronic medical records. To assess gender differences we used two models: use versus nonuse of services (logistic regression) and intensity of use among users (negative binomial regression).
In our sample, women were more likely to be younger, single, and non-white than men. Women were more likely to utilize outpatient care services (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.09, 1.98), but once care was initiated, frequency of visits over time (intensity) did not differ by gender (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.27).
Recently discharged OEF/OIF women Veterans were more likely to seek VA health care than men Veterans. But the intensity of use was similar between women and men VA care users. As more women use VA health care, prospective studies exploring gender differences in types of services utilized, health outcomes, and factors associated with satisfaction will be required.
To examine the association between HIV infection status and the receipt of lipid lowering therapy based on National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATP III) guidelines and to assess whether HIV viral load and hepatitis C (HCV) status alters that association.
PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN
A cross-sectional analysis of survey, laboratory, and pharmacy data from 1,577 male participants (59% HIV infected) of the Veterans Aging Cohort Five-Site Study, a prospective observational cohort of U.S. veterans with and without HIV infection.
Receipt of lipid lowering therapy obtained from the VA pharmacy benefits management system was the main outcome.
The prevalence of lipid lowering therapy among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected veterans was 15.4% vs. 37.9%, respectively, < 0.01. Among veterans who met NCEP/ATP III criteria for lipid lowering therapy, HIV-infected veterans had a significantly lower prevalence for the receipt of lipid lowering therapy (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 0.28–0.67) as compared with HIV-uninfected veterans. Among HIV-infected veterans, log HIV viral load (adjusted OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.41–0.81) and HIV-HCV co-infection (adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13–0.75) were negatively associated with receipt of lipid lowering therapy. Exposure to HAART was not associated with receipt of lipid lowering therapy.
Among those who met NCEP/ATP III criteria for lipid lowering therapy, HIV-infected veterans, particularly those with high HIV viral loads and HCV co-infection, were significantly less likely to receive lipid lowering therapy. This may be a modifiable mediator of cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected individuals.
HIV; cholesterol; hepatitis C; men; veterans; cardiovascular diseases
Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.
To determine whether awareness of smoking differs between HIV and non-HIV providers, and to identify factors associated with failure to recognize current smoking.
801 HIV-positive and 602 HIV-negative patients, 72 HIV and 71 non-HIV providers enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort 5 Site Study.
Data sources included patient and provider questionnaires; electronic medical records; and the national administrative VA database. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and measures of agreement between patient- and provider-reported smoking, and examined factors associated with failure to recognize current smoking using logistic regression.
Whereas most providers were correct when they identified a patient as a current smoker (specificity ≥90%), HIV providers missed current smoking more often (sensitivity 65% for HIV vs. 82% for non-HIV). Kappa scores for current smoking were significantly lower for HIV compared to non-HIV providers (0.55 vs. 0.75, p < .001). In models adjusted for age, gender, race, and other differences, patient HIV status and provider specialty in infectious diseases were independent predictors of a provider’s failure to recognize current smoking. Comorbid illnesses, cough/dyspnea, degree of immune competence and HIV viral suppression did not impact recognition of current smoking. Only 39% of HIV providers reported confidence in their ability to influence smoking cessation compared to 62% of non-HIV providers (p = .049).
Interventions to increase HIV provider awareness of current smoking and skills to influence smoking cessation are needed. Efforts should also target patient populations with smoking-related comorbid diseases who would especially benefit from smoking cessation.
tobacco; detection of smoking; HIV; smoking cessation
To examine the association of comorbid psychiatric disorders with admission and discharge characteristics for patients residing at a long-term care facility designated for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained by systematic chart review for all patients (N=180) admitted to the facility from its opening in October 1995 through December 1999. Lifetime history of severe and persistent psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar and psychotic disorders) was determined by current diagnosis on baseline clinical evaluation or a documented past history.
Forty-five patients (25%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. At admission, patients with comorbidity were more likely to be ambulatory (80% vs. 62%,P=.03) and had fewer deficits in activities of daily living (27% vs. 43%,P=.05). After controlling for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease severity, patients with comorbidity had significantly lower discharge rates (relative risk=0.43,95% confidence interval 0.23–0.78,P=.0001) and death rates (relative risk=0.53,95% confidence interval 0.42–0.68,P=.009).
Patients with AIDS and comorbid psychiatric disorders at this facility had more favorable admission characteristics and were less likely to be discharged or to die. They may have been admitted earlier in their disease course for reasons not exclusively due to HIV infection. Once admitted, community-based residential alternatives may be unavailable as a discharge option. These findings are unlikely to be an anomaly and may become more pronounced with prolonged survival due to further therapeutic improvements in HIV care. Health services planners must anticipate rising demands on the costs of care for an increasing number of patients who may require long-term care and expanded discharge options for the comanagement of HIV disease and chronic psychiatric disorders.
AIDS; Comorbidity; Long-Term Care; Psychiatric Disorders
To describe the characteristics and outcomes of the first 3 years of admissions to a dedicated skilled nursing facility for people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Systematic chart review of consecutive admissions to a 30-bed, AIDS-designated long-term care facility in New Haven, Connecticut, from October 1995 through December 1998.
The facility has remained filled to 90% or more of its bed capacity since opening. Of 180 patients (representing 222 admissions), 69% were male; mean age was 41 years; 57% were injection drug users; 71% were admitted directly from a hospital. Leading reasons for admission were (1) the need for 24-hour nursing/medical supervision, (2) completion of acute medical treatment, and (3) terminal care. On admission, the median Karnofsky score was 40, and median CD4+ cell count was 24/mm3; 48% were diagnosed with serious neurologic disease, 44% with psychiatric illness; patients were receiving a median of 11 medications on admission. Of 202 completed admissions, 44% of patients died, 48% were discharged to the community, 8% were discharged to a hospital. Median length of stay was 59 days (range 1 to 1,353). Early (≤6 months) mortality was predicted by lower admission CD4+ count, impairments in activities of daily living, and the absence of a psychiatric history; long-term stay (>6 months) was predicted by total number of admission medications, neurologic disease, and dementia. Comparison of admissions from 1995 to 1996 to those in 1997 to 1998 indicated significantly decreased mortality rates and increased prevalence of psychiatric illness between the two periods (P<.01).
A dedicated skilled nursing facility for people with AIDS can fill an important service need for patients with advanced disease, acute convalescence, long-term care, and terminal care. The need for long-term care may continue to grow for patients who do not respond fully to current antiretroviral therapies and/or have significant neuropsychiatric comorbidities. This level of care may be increasingly important not only in reducing lengths of stay in the hospital, but also as a bridge to community-based residential options in the emerging chronic disease phase of the AIDS epidemic.
AIDS; End-of-Life Care; Health Services; Long-Term Care; Palliative Care; Skilled Nursing Facilities
Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang’aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang’aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang’aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang’aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.
Alcohol; Traditional brew; HIV; Kenya; Cognitive behavioral treatment
Two-thirds of those with HIV worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa. Alcohol use is associated with the HIV epidemic through risky sex and suboptimal ARV adherence. In western Kenya, hazardous drinking was reported by HIV (53%) and general medicine (68%) outpatients. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated strong efficacy to reduce alcohol use. This article reports on a systematic cultural adaptation and pilot feasibility study of group paraprofessional-delivered CBT to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Following adaptation and counselor training, five pilot groups were run (n=27). Overall attendance was 77%. Percent days abstinent from alcohol (PDA) before session 1 was 52%–100% (women) and 21–36% (men), and by session 6 was 96%–100% (women) and 89%–100% (men). PDA effect sizes (Cohen’s d) between first and last CBT session were 2.32 (women) and 2.64 (men). Participants reported treatment satisfaction. Results indicate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy for CBT in Kenya.
alcohol; cognitive behavioral therapy; cultural adaptation; HIV; Kenya
Health care providers may be concerned that prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD) will contribute to risky sexual behavior.
To identify characteristics of men who received EDD prescriptions, determine whether EDD receipt is associated with risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and determine whether these relationships vary for certain sub-groups.
Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven sexually-active, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men recruited from eight Veterans Health Affairs outpatient clinics. Data were obtained from participant surveys, electronic medical records, and administrative pharmacy data.
EDD receipt was defined as two or more prescriptions for an EDD, risky sex as having unprotected sex with a partner of serodiscordant or unknown HIV status, and STDs, according to self-report.
Overall, 28% of men received EDD in the previous year. Eleven percent of men reported unprotected sex with a serodiscordant/unknown partner in the past year (HIV-infected 15%, HIV-uninfected 6%, P < 0.001). Compared to men who did not receive EDD, men who received EDD were equally likely to report risky sexual behavior (11% vs. 10%, p = 0.9) and STDs (7% vs 7%, p = 0.7). In multivariate analyses, EDD receipt was not significantly associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in the entire sample or in subgroups of substance users or men who had sex with men.
EDD receipt was common but not associated with risky sexual behavior or STDs in this sample of HIV-infected and uninfected men. However, risky sexual behaviors persist in a minority of HIV-infected men, indicating ongoing need for prevention interventions.
HIV infection; risky sexual behavior; STDs; men; phosphodiesterase inhibitors