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1.  Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Raltegravir in a Diverse Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients: 48-Week Results from the REALMRK Study 
Abstract
The racial diversity and gender distribution of HIV-infected patients make it essential to confirm the safety and efficacy of raltegravir in these populations. A multicenter, open-label, single-arm observational study was conducted in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected patients (goals: ≥25% women; ≥50% blacks in the United States), enrolling treatment-experienced patients failing or intolerant to current antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment-naive patients (limited to ≤20%). All patients received raltegravir 400 mg b.i.d. in a combination antiretroviral regimen for up to 48 weeks. A total of 206 patients received study treatment at 34 sites in the United States, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and South Africa: 97 (47%) were female and 153 (74%) were black [116 (56%) in the United States]. Of these, 185 patients were treatment experienced: 97 (47%) were failing and 88 (43%) were intolerant to current therapy; 21 patients (10%) were treatment naive. Among treatment-intolerant patients, 55 (63%) had HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/ml at baseline. Overall, 15% of patients discontinued: 13% of men, 18% of women, 14% of blacks, and 17% of nonblacks. At week 48, HIV RNA was <50 copies/ml in 60/94 (64%) patients failing prior therapy, 61/80 (76%) patients intolerant to prior therapy, and 16/21 (76%) treatment-naive patients. Response rates were similar for men vs. women and black vs. nonblack patients. Drug-related clinical adverse events were reported by 8% of men, 18% of women, 14% of blacks, and 9% of nonblacks. After 48 weeks of treatment in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected patients, raltegravir was generally safe and well tolerated with potent efficacy regardless of gender or race.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0292
PMCID: PMC4517411  PMID: 23351187
2.  Differences in the Frequency of Resistance to Antiretroviral Drug Classes among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Clinical Isolates 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(7):3376-3378.
Genotypic resistance to all antiretroviral classes was widespread among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates failing therapy. Resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was found most frequently and resistance to protease inhibitors was found least frequently, most likely due to differences in the number of enzymatic amino acid substitutions leading to resistance to each particular drug class.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.7.3376-3378.2003
PMCID: PMC165347  PMID: 12843097
3.  HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Older Patients Hospitalized in the Early HAART Era 
OBJECTIVE
To determine whether older age continues to influence patterns of care and in-hospital mortality for hospitalized persons with HIV-related Pneumocustis carinii pneumonia (PCP), as determined in our prior study from the 1980s.
DESIGN
Retrospective chart review.
PATIENTS/SETTING
Patients (1,861) with HIV-related PCP at 78 hospitals in 8 cities from 1995 to 1997.
MEASUREMENTS
Medical record notation of possible HIV infection; alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient; CD4 lymphocyte count; presence or absence of wasting; timely use of anti-PCP medications; in-hospital mortality.
MAIN RESULTS
Compared to younger patients, patients ≥50 years of age were less likely to have HIV mentioned in their progress notes (70% vs 82%, P < .001), have mild or moderately severe PCP cases at admission (89% vs 96%, P < .002), receive anti-PCP medications within the first 2 days of hospitalization (86% vs 93%, P <.002), and survive hospitalization (82% vs 90%, P < .003). However, age was not a significant predicator of mortality after adjustment for severity of PCP and timeliness of therapy.
CONCLUSIONS
While inpatient PCP mortality has improved by 50% in the past decade, 2-fold age-related mortality differences persist. As in the 1980s, these differences are associated with lower rates of recognition of HIV, increased severity of illenss at admission, and delays in initiation of PCP-specific treatments among older individuals—factors suggestive of delayed recognition of HIV infection, pneumonia, and PCP, respectively. Continued vigilance for the possibility of HIV and HIV-related PCP among persons ≥50 years of age who present with new pulmonary symptoms should be encouraged.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009583.x
PMCID: PMC1495267  PMID: 11556938
HIV; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; age; quality of care; outcomes

Results 1-3 (3)